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|Nickname(s): America's Pearl (La Perla de America)|
Municipality (dark gray)
|Foundation||July 29, 1525|
|Founded by||Rodrigo de Bastidas|
|• Mayor||Carlos Eduardo Caicedo Omar (Liberal)|
|• City||2,393.65 km2 (924.07 sq mi)|
|• Urban||55.10 km2 (21.27 sq mi)|
|Elevation||6 m (20 ft)|
|Highest elevationAt Pico Cristóbal Colón||5,775 m (18,947 ft)|
|• Density||190/km2 (490/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||6,989.5/km2 (18,106.3/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Colombia Standard Time (UTC-05)|
|Area code(s)||57 + 5|
|• Miami Beach||United States|
|Website||Official website (Spanish)|
Santa Marta, is a Colombian city, the capital of the department of Magdalena and third major urban center of the Caribbean Region after Barranquilla and Cartagena. Founded on July 29 of 1525 by the Spanish conquistador Rodrigo de Bastidas, it is the oldest existing city in Colombia as it was the first Spanish settlement in Colombia, and second oldest of South America.
This city, located in the bay of the same name, is one of the leading tourist destinations in the Colombian Caribbean. Its location between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, with the highest peaks in the country, and the Caribbean Sea, make it a very attractive destination to explore the variety of wildlife that exists in the area. It also provides many cultural and historical sites to visit. As an important fact, Simon Bolivar died on a farm named Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino which at the time was outside the city on December 17, 1830. Because of this, the Constitution of 1991 conferred upon the city of Santa Marta, the character of District.
Its most popular and busiest business area is located in the historic downtown near the Market Square. The area between the first Carrera, 22nd Street and Railroad Avenue frame the historical and commercial center of the city.
The current symbols of the city of Santa Marta are the bi-colored flag White and Blue sky], and the two coats of Arms. The first one, being used since May 1929 that has a turret and a ship with four rows. And the second one which the municipal government started using in 1951 that includes the Virgin Mary.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Infrastructure
- 4 Economy
- 5 Sports
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Prior to the arrival of European conquerors, the American continent was populated by indigenous people whose origin, for the particular case of Santa Marta for its location is very difficult to determine. By being at the northern part of South America, to the northern part of Colombia, it was one of the busiest migration routes in all directions.
The indigenous people who populated the territory formed separated groups due to the complex topographic formations. The cultures and traditions varied between these groups. Amongst them, the Tairona group stands out. They had great influence in the Caribbean Region of Colombia and were located more towards the hillsides of the Sierra Nevada. They formed communities with many inhabitants and their economy was mainly agriculturally based. By growing corn and pineapple, and extracting salt and gold, they were able to exchange them with other tribes in the region.
In 1524 Rodrigo de Bastidas capitulated the ruling of Santa Marta that corresponded to the territories going from Cabo de la Vela to the outlet of the Magdalene River. The responsibility upon these lands relied only over the person who exercised the capitulation and in no way upon Spanish royalty. Hence, it was responsibility of the conqueror to establish the villages, attract settlers, bring in seeds, livestock and slaves. Bastidas became governor in 1525 and appointed Santa Marta as the Capital District and Harbor. His intentions with this land were different from other conquerors. Bastida wanted to spend his last days in this territory. Due to this determination, his ideas about slavery and extraction of resources were contrary to those of his competitors. This brought upon him many attacks until he died. As his replacement, Rodrigo Álvarez Palomino was appointed governor.
Many expeditions departed from Santa Marta. The most important one being from Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada because it culminated in 1538 with the discovery of the extensions of Bogotá and the founding of the city of Santa Fé.
The colonization of these lands started with the arrival of the governor Lope de Orozco in 1596. After this, many improvements were made. The agriculture and livestock breeding was organized, and they started to establish rapport with the aboriginal groups. Santa Marta, just as Cartagena, was a target for pirates and filibusters during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It was ransacked several times.
When the Vice-royalty of Nueva Granada was created in 1724, the region preserved its designation as a province. That same year the Vice-royalty was suspended and then reestablished again in 1746. The governing structure from there remained until the Independence.
The struggle for independence continued. The men under command of the colonels Carreño, Padilla and Maza defeat the royalists in the battle of Ciénaga Grande. After that, Carreño and his liberating troops entered Santa Marta on November 11, 1820. A bloody battle left 700 casualties, 400 wounded and more than 600 prisoners that mostly were aboriginals recruited by the Spanish army.
During 1834 and earthquake shook Santa Marta leaving it in ruins for several decades. A year after this event, Santa Marta was depicted as a "city of miserable appearance". There were no hotels, and only seven foreigners lived in the city. The only buildings that held measurable value were the cathedral, the government palace and the residences of the businessmen Joaquín de Mier and Juan Fairbank. In 1835, Santa Marta was a little town with no more than 6,000 inhabitants. Population that diminished during the following decades according to the census taken in 1843 and 1851.
In the decade of 1840, many facts happened that helped the progress of Santa Marta. The Savings Union of Santa Marta initiated activities in 1846. In 1848 street lighting was established and the “Sociedad Filarmónica de Santa Marta” (Philharmonic Society of Santa Marta) was established in 1849. Another meaningful act was the institution of the first Economic and Commercial newspaper in the country "La Gaceta Mercantil" edited by Manuel Murillo Toro between the years 1847 and 1860.
During various decades in the nineteenth century, Santa Marta was the main harbor of the New Granada. Most of the country's external trade was mobilized through here. The customs collection in that port exceeded greatly the ones in Cartagena, Sabanilla and Barranquilla. During the period 1840–1872, Santa Marta was definitely the main port for imports, and for some years, for exports too. During the fiscal year 1871–1872, the collection in Santa Marta and Sabanilla were really similar but by the same time next year Sabanilla surpassed Santa Marta by a great margin. The paradox, is that the commercial dynamic of Santa Marta during the nineteenth century was accompanied by a reduction in its population (relatively and absolutely).
The peaking in the banana industry, generated a migration wave towards Ciénaga, the banana zone and Santa Marta from different districts in Colombia and from the exterior as well. This is how many families originally from Bogotá, Bolívar, Antioquia and other subregions of the Magdalena district such as Valledupar and the province of Padilla (south of La Guajira), arrived here searching for better opportunities. From all these families arriving to the area, the ones that had their family history transcend was that from the family Márquez Iguarán: grandparents (on the mother side) of the Nobel Prize in Literature Gabriel García Márquez. He made the name Macondo universal. An imaginary town that could be any of the ones located in the Colombian Caribbean.
By half of the twentieth century, when the banana based commerce started to show its limitations, the tourism industry made an appearance. Infrastructure with this purpose was built such as the Hotel Tamacá, Hotel Tairona and the highway named "El Rodadero". Two decades later, Santa Marta became one of the principal tourist attractions in Colombia. It offered a series of attractions to all types of tourists: "El Rodadero", Taganga, the various inlets in park Tayrona, archeological sites (Pueblito, Ciudad Perdida) and the petroglyphs of Donama, el Morro and the Sierra Nevada amongst others.
Santa Marta today debates to map out its development as either a tourist destination or the specialization of their ports for the carbon industry. Between 1994 and 2005, the port area of Santa Marta-Ciénaga went from exporting 2.3 millions to almost 28 million tons in carbon. Increasing Colombian exports to the coal market from 15% to 51%.
Geography and climate
Temperatures in the city of Santa Marta range from 27 to 35 °C (81 to 95 °F) at sea level, but the Municipality of Santa Marta stretches up to the highest snowy peaks of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and each 100 metres (330 feet) of altitude gained means temperatures fall by 0.6 °C (1.1 °F). Rainfall in this region varies from nothing to around 975 millimetres (38 in) per month, but overall the climate is semi-arid and hot, with agriculture requiring irrigation from streams that drain the snowy peaks.
|Climate data for Santa Marta|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.0
|Average high °C (°F)||33.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.2
|Average low °C (°F)||21.7
|Record low °C (°F)||17.4
|Rainfall mm (inches)||6.9
|Avg. rainy days||1||1||1||2||7||8||9||12||13||13||7||2||76|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||281.0||251.0||251.6||226.8||221.8||230.3||226.2||219.8||202.4||204.7||226.4||279.3||2,821.3|
|Source: Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales|
Santa Marta is a major port for the country, thanks to its geographical location because it has a natural draft benefits and approaches during the boats, as well as being the deepest port in the Americas and one of the safest in the world. Therefore, many are commercial vessels arriving in the city, contributing to the economy of the region. The Port Authority of Santa Marta is the organization responsible for the ports.
Since 2007, we have been making important works of adaptation and reconstruction of the historic center of the city, as well as major infrastructure projects in the port in order to meet the United States–Colombia Free Trade Agreement.
To reach the main city road is the road Trunk Caribbean that communicates northwest Riohacha, 165 km (103 mi), and to the southwest by Barranquilla 93 km (58 mi), Cartagena 209 km (130 mi), also communicates via the Core Magdalena with the capitals of the departments and numerous cities throughout the country, including the Capital Bogotá.
Within the city we highlight the road network providing Libertador avenue, the Avenida del Rio and Avenida Santa Rita (Calle 22) which basically going from east to west; races 1st, 2nd, 5th, the 19th, the Avenue Hernandez Pardo that goes towards the Rodadero and Railroad Avenue, in North-South direction.
There are several companies in charge of public transport, however the price charged by the bus and busetas (minibuses) common is $1200 (about $.62 USD) COP for executive service buses and $1300 COP for air-conditioned buses, covering all distances between many sites.
Public taxis can be identified by their yellow color and charge a minimum fee of about $3,500 COP ($1.82 USD), and increase in price if your travel extends beyond the city limits. As of 2008 taxis are required to have a price list for all destinations within and outside the city limits. If the taxi does not have this list in a prominent place, the authorities recommend that you not use it.
Currently apply to the District of Santa Marta certain restrictions on movement. For private vehicles and transit restricts circulation in the Historic Center between 07:00 am and 07:00 pm according to the latest issue of the plate. For vehicles type motorcycle s, restricts their movement and transit throughout the District in the hours between 06:00 am and 8:00 pm according to the last number plate. Restricting the movement of such vehicles motorcycles, tricycles, ATVs mototriciclos and around the district in the 10th and 25th of each month. In addition to the drivers of vehicles, motorcycles and public service transport, certain restrictions on the movement in the historic center.
16 km (10 mi) from the city center is the Simon Bolivar International Airport (IATA: SMR ) SKSM Declared International from December 2007, which receives flights from Bogotá, Medellín, Bucaramanga and Cali these routes are operated by airlines Avianca, Copa Airlines, LAN Colombia, EasyFly and Viva Colombia. Likewise Charters receives International flights. The airport was granted a concession in 2011, and expects to receive an investment of $26 million, including the modernization is expanding 2.200m 1700th track, and to increase the width of the track to 40m.2 30m . Failing expected relocation of the same in the neighboring town of Bog, Santa Marta Metropolitan Area
The Port Authority of Santa Marta, has a modern pier equipped with excellent facilities in the bay of Santa Marta that allow intense port activity, working in the provision of port services, serving its users for 24 hours a day every day of the year, is the only port on the Atlantic Coast service railroad, offering the possibility of charging and discharging directly into the docks.
Trains were important for the trade and therefore the economic development of the area between 1892 and 1988. A decade later decide to reactivate the use of this means of transport, which resulted in the provision of freight forwarding services to different users. Rail transport has established in northern Colombia as one of the most secure and efficient. Its importance to the country's competitiveness in the field of globalization is such that for this reason the national government decides the capacity expansion of the line between the sections of Chiriguaná and Puerto de Santa Marta.
Santa Marta's economy is based on tourism, trade, port activities, fishing and agriculture, in that order. The District maintains agricultural production of 16,053 tons, cultivated on an area of 44,051 hectares. The main agricultural products are: Banana, coffee, cacao, fruit and cassava.
Since the foundation of the economy is tourism, several companies are dedicated to providing tours throughout the city. The characteristics of Santa Marta called it The Pearl America, named for the father Julián Antonio in the eighteenth century. The beaches are white sand and calm water are many.
In Santa Marta, the tourist apart from the Bay and its historic center, has countless beaches and historic sites in addition to the natural environment of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The Tourism Promotion Fund of Santa Marta in line, using the slogan The magic of it all.
'The Rodadero': is a beach located in the bay of Gaira and is the most visited city. Only 5 mi (8 km) from downtown this beach is a symbol of the city as it is nationally known as a high quality spa.
'Tayrona Park': A 34 km (21 mi) from the city of Santa Marta is one of the most important natural parks of Colombia. It is home to a large number of species distributed in regions with different climatic zones ranging from sea level to heights of 900 m (2,953 ft).
The foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the highest coastal mountain in the world, will sink into the sea like the fingers of a giant hand that form between bays and inlets of singular beauty: Chengue, Gayraca, Cinto, Neguanje, Concha, Guachaquita, with its white sand beaches bounded by rocky atolls, mangroves, thickets or forests, and all bathed by the crystal blue waters of the Caribbean Sea, are among the many attractions offered by the Park Tayrona National.
For those looking for rest and contemplation, the Tayrona offers superb beaches and the relaxing panorama of deep blue seas. Those who are attracted to more exciting and varied activities can enjoy hiking, horseback riding, swimming, snorkeling and scuba diving. The Tayrona park also has archaeological remains of an ancient city of Tayrona people.
'Quebrada Valencia': West of Tayrona Park, at kilometer 56 via a Riohacha, Valencia Creek is a small river that runs down to meet the Tues This waterfall is a series of waterfalls of great height and plenty of water in winter time, just as they are in every drop wells (natural pools) where you can enjoy a refreshing swim in the jungle where they stand huge trees over 25 metres (82 feet) high.
Quebrada Valencia is considered a nature reserve, where in addition to the attractions we see water, a variety of wildlife.
'Lost City: It rises between 900–1,200 metres (2,953–3,937 feet) above the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta on the right bank Buritaca. It is called by the natives Teyuna area and hence its compound name: Ciudad Perdida Archaeological Park-Teyuna, although within the nomenclature of archaeological sites for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta also known as Buritaca- 200. 'Lost City: It rises between 900–1,200 metres (2,953–3,937 feet) above the foothills of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta on the right bank Buritaca. It is called by the natives Teyuna area and hence its compound name: Ciudad Perdida Archaeological Park-Teyuna, although within the nomenclature of archaeological sites for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta also known as Buritaca- 200.
'Taganga' is a township District Located in the cove of the same name, is surrounded by mountains with cactus vegetation and small trees, as trupillo, and shrubs. Taganga is renowned for its scenery and as a port of departure for tourists who want to get to the Tayrona National Park from the sea in small boats leaving from the bay of Taganga an exceptional tour and travels through a large number of inlets, small points, headlands and islands along the entire stretch of the continental coast of Santa Marta.
'Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino': is an estate founded February 2, 1608 by Don Francisco De Godoy and courtesy, was the place where the Libertador Simon Bolivar spent his last days, and where he died on December 17, 1830. The Fifth is located in the neighborhood Mamatoco. The Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino is considered a sanctuary in the country. It also places the seventeenth century a farm dedicated to the production of rum, honey and brown sugar.
'Cathedral': The Cathedral of Santa Marta was one of the earliest basilicas built in Latin America and its construction dates back to 1765, when then-Governor Don Andrés Pérez in order to build a cathedral to endure and resist the uncertainties tasked with Engineer Don Juan Cayetano plans to start this church of the Catholic faith in the Renaissance style. At the start of its construction the city had a population greatly diminished due to the multiple attacks Pirates English, French and Dutch which from 1543 to 1712 managed to burn and loot the city more than 20 times. This cathedral is one of the monuments that make us feel proud to Samaria, is full of memories and legends, and somewhere in its construction is hidden a small urn containing the heart and guts of the Liberator Simon Bolivar, who on December 20, 1930 was a solemn funeral procession from the Custom House to this place. There are also the remains of the founder of Santa Marta, Rodrigo de Bastidas, which were brought from Dominican Republic, Friday September 18, 1953.
'San Juan Nepomuceno Cloister': Its construction started in 1765 and although it was inaugurated on May 30, 1810 the official date of completion of the work was on January 4, 1811, but its construction was not only troubled but also his baptism as the real name of this building is the Real Seminario Conciliar confused by most Samarios to call San Juan Nepomuceno Senate or House of Culture. Located on the corner of Calle Grande (lane 17) with Alley Seminar (race 2), originally, the building was constructed for the settlement of the Real Seminario Conciliar de Santa Marta, however, this building has been home to many functions of political, social and cultural history of Samaria.
'Cloister San Juan de Dios': The building, structure artdeco, hosted the former San Juan de Dios Hospital, declared a national monument on April 16, 1999 and was built in 1760 by the group being the same behalf. Well the twentieth century, this public charity worked under the administration of Julio Mendez Barreneche Central Hospital. Currently the Cloister San Juan de Dios serves as headquarters of the Ethnographic Museum of the University of Magdalena.
'Custom House': This building is considered the first to be architecturally raised not only in the city but in America by the Spanish, located in the historic center of Santa Marta where he was originally founded the city and which has survived fires, earthquakes and looting of Pirates. The Customs House also has gone through multiple names and functions, including the first was the government house, then the Customs Consulate, hence its name, which was a sort of Chamber of Commerce the time. It was the only house in the world, who had the privilege of being alive and then killed the Libertador Simon Bolivar, and rest your body burning chamber in the Hall's second floor. Today the Customs House is home to the Tayrona Gold Museum, which is a regional museum of the Central Bank where you can see a collection of jewelry made by the Tayrona Indians and everything related to the culture of this wonderful breed, ancient inhabitants of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
'Madame Agustine House': Located at the corner of Calle Real and Calle Grande (calle17), with Alley Alley Real or Don Pedro Salas (race 4) in the historic city center, this mansion which is a colonial jewel was built in 1745. He lived an elegant French lady called "Madame Augustine". It claimed the gossips who had an affair with Dr. Alejandro Prospero Reverand, who was the attending physician in the last 17 days of life to our Libertador Simon Bolivar. At present this beautiful mansion houses the Tourist and Promotional Company District of Santa Marta "ETURSA".
Santa Marta is a rare combination of factors that enables tourists to experience different tastes. History in your town, between beaches, National Parks and surrounding anthropological and several rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea making it a perfect natural place to camp near the sea.
Twin Towns and Sister cities
It is also the birthplace of Grammy Award-winning singer, actor and songwriter Carlos Vives.
- Censo General 2005 (PDF) (in Spanish), Bogotá: DANE, 2005, p. 486, ISBN 978-958-624-072-7, retrieved June 1, 2009
- "CARTAS CLIMATOLÓGICAS – MEDIAS MENSUALES – AEROPUERTO SIMÓN BOLIVAR (Santa Marta)" (in Spanish). Instituto de Hidrologia Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Miami Beach Sister Cities Program
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Santa Marta.|
- (Spanish) Santa Marta at analitica.com
- (Spanish) UNIMAGDALENA
- (Spanish) Bank of the Republic, economic history of Santa Marta
- Santa Marta Travel Guide
- (Spanish) Santa Marta official website
- (Spanish) The Samarian Agenda Project
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Santa_Marta.|