|S. freycinetianum var. lanaiense|
S. f. var. freycinetianum
Santalum freycinetianum, ʻIliahi or Freycinet sandalwood, is a species of flowering tree in the European mistletoe family, Santalaceae, that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Its binomial name commemorates Henri Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet, a 19th-century French explorer. ʻIliahi inhabits dry, coastal mesic, mixed mesic, and wet forests on Oʻahu, Kauaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui, and Molokaʻi at elevations of 250–950 m (820–3,120 ft). It grows in areas that receive 500–3,800 mm (20–150 in) of annual rainfall. Like other members of its genus, ʻiliahi is a root hemi-parasite, deriving some of its nutrients from the host plant; common hosts include koa (Acacia koa), koaiʻa (Acacia koaia), and ʻaʻaliʻi (Dodonaea viscosa).
- Santalum freycinetianum var. freycinetianum (Molokaʻi and Oʻahu)
- Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense Rock – Lānaʻi Sandalwood (Lānaʻi and Maui)
- Santalum freycinetianum var. pyrularium (A.Gray) Stemmerm. – Kauaʻi Sandalwood (Kauaʻi)
The ʻlaʻau ʻala (heartwood) of ʻiliahi contains valuable, aromatic essential oils. Trees were harvested for export to China between 1791–1840, where the hard, yellowish-brown wood was made into carved objects, chests, and incense. The ʻiliahi trade peaked from 1815 to 1826. Native Hawaiians used the wood to make pola, the deck on a waʻa kaulua (double-hulled canoe). Powdered ʻlaʻau ʻala was used as a perfume and added to kapa cloth.
Native Hawaiians combined leaves and bark of the ʻiliahi with naio (Myoporum sandwicense) ashes to treat kepia o ke poʻo (dandruff) and liha o ka lauoho (head lice). ʻIliahi shavings mixed with ʻawa (Piper methysticum), nioi (Eugenia reinwardtiana), ʻahakea (Bobea spp.), and kauila (Alphitonia ponderosa) was used to treat sexually transmitted diseases.
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- "Taxon: Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-06-12. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "ʻIliahi, Freycinet sandalwood" (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). United States Forest Service.
- Allen, James A. (2003-01-01). "Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. Reforestation, Nurseries & Genetics Resources. Retrieved 2009-03-03.[dead link]
- "Taxon: Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich. var. freycinetianum". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-05-12. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- "iliahi". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- Medeiros, A. C.; C.F. Davenport; C.G. Chimera (1998). Auwahi: Ethnobotany of a Hawaiian Dryland Forest (PDF). Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
- "Sandalwood trade". Hawaiʻi History Library. HawaiiHistory.org.
- Merlin, Mark D.; Lex A.J. Thomson; Craig R. Elevitch (April 2006). Santalum ellipticum, S. freycinetianum, S. haleakalae, and S. paniculatum (Hawaiian sandalwood) (PDF). The Traditional Tree Initiative.
- "ʻIliahi". Native Hawaiian Plants. Kapiʻolani Community College.