Santalum freycinetianum

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Santalum freycinetianum
Starr 030222-0079 Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense.jpg
S. freycinetianum var. lanaiense
Conservation status

Vulnerable (NatureServe)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Santalales
Family: Santalaceae
Genus: Santalum
Species: S. freycinetianum
Binomial name
Santalum freycinetianum
Gaudich.[1]
Varieties

S. f. var. freycinetianum
S. f. var. lanaiense
S. f. var. pyrularium

Santalum freycinetianum, ʻIliahi or Freycinet sandalwood, is a species of flowering tree in the European mistletoe family, Santalaceae, that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Its binomial name commemorates Henri Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet, a 19th-century French explorer.[2] ʻIliahi inhabits dry, coastal mesic, mixed mesic, and wet forests on Oʻahu, Kauaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui, and Molokaʻi at elevations of 250–950 m (820–3,120 ft). It grows in areas that receive 500–3,800 mm (20–150 in) of annual rainfall. Like other members of its genus, ʻiliahi is a root hemi-parasite, deriving some of its nutrients from the host plant; common hosts include koa (Acacia koa), koaiʻa (Acacia koaia), and ʻaʻaliʻi (Dodonaea viscosa).[3]

Varieties[edit]

  • Santalum freycinetianum var. freycinetianum (Molokaʻi and Oʻahu)[4]
  • Santalum freycinetianum var. lanaiense Rock – Lānaʻi Sandalwood (Lānaʻi and Maui)
  • Santalum freycinetianum var. pyrularium (A.Gray) Stemmerm. – Kauaʻi Sandalwood (Kauaʻi)[2]

Uses[edit]

Non-medicinal[edit]

The ʻlaʻau ʻala (heartwood) of ʻiliahi contains valuable, aromatic essential oils. Trees were harvested for export to China between 1791–1840, where the hard, yellowish-brown wood was made into carved objects, chests, and incense. The ʻiliahi trade peaked from 1815 to 1826.[5] Native Hawaiians used the wood to make pola, the deck on a waʻa kaulua (double-hulled canoe). Powdered ʻlaʻau ʻala was used as a perfume and added to kapa cloth.[6]

Medicinal[edit]

Native Hawaiians combined leaves and bark of the ʻiliahi with naio (Myoporum sandwicense) ashes to treat kepia o ke poʻo (dandruff) and liha o ka lauoho (head lice). ʻIliahi shavings mixed with ʻawa (Piper methysticum), nioi (Eugenia reinwardtiana), ʻahakea (Bobea spp.), and kauila (Alphitonia ponderosa) was used to treat sexually transmitted diseases.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Taxon: Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-06-12. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  2. ^ a b Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). "ʻIliahi, Freycinet sandalwood" (PDF). Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and Introduced). United States Forest Service. 
  3. ^ Allen, James A. (2003-01-01). "Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich" (PDF). Tropical Tree Seed Manual. Reforestation, Nurseries & Genetics Resources. Retrieved 2009-03-03. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Taxon: Santalum freycinetianum Gaudich. var. freycinetianum". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2006-05-12. Retrieved 2011-03-07. 
  5. ^ a b "iliahi". Hawaiian Ethnobotany Online Database. Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  6. ^ Medeiros, A. C.; C.F. Davenport; C.G. Chimera (1998). "Auwahi: Ethnobotany of a Hawaiian Dryland Forest" (PDF). Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. 

External links[edit]