Portrait of Santiago Mariño by painter Martín Tovar y Tovar, oil on canvas, 1874
|Born||25 July 1788
Island of Margarita, Venezuela
|Died||4 September 1854
La Victoria, Aragua state, Venezuela
|Rank||Chief of the General Staff|
|Battles/wars||Battle of Bocachica
Battle of Carabobo
|Other work||Ministry of War and Navy (1830s)|
Santiago Mariño (25 July 1788 was born in the Valle Espíritu Santo on the island of Margarita — and died 4 September 1854 in La Victoria, Aragua), was a nineteenth-century Venezuelan revolutionary leader and hero in the Venezuelan War of Independence (1811–1823). He became an important leader of eastern Venezuela and for a short while in 1835 seized power over the new state of Venezuela.
- 1 Family
- 2 Revolutionary Wars
- 2.1 Napoleonic Wars: War of Spanish Independence (1808–1814)
- 2.2 First Republic
- 2.3 Second Republic
- 2.4 Later activities
- 3 Notes
- 4 References
- 5 See also
His father was the captain of the "Santiago Mariño de Acuña" militias and "Lieutenant Greater Justice of the Gulf of Paria". His mother, Atanasia Carige Fitzgerald, of Creole and Irish descent, was from the island of Trinidad, where his parents resided while he was a boy. He had a sister, Concepción Mariño. Due to his parents' wealth he was well educated. After his father's death in 1808, he moved to the island of Margarita (about 250 km west of Trinidad, off the Venezuelan coast), to take possession of his inheritance.
Mariño was also one of the greatest figures in the history of Freemasonry in Venezuela, although he was apparently initiated in Trinidad. He was awarded the title of "Serenismo Gran Maestro del Gran Oriente Nacional" ('The Most Serene Grand Master of the Great National East", a title equivalent to the modern Grand Master).
Napoleonic Wars: War of Spanish Independence (1808–1814)
The rise of the revolutionary movement in Venezuela was strongly influenced by the confusing and rapidly changing situation in Spain. Spain was initially against France in the Napoleonic Wars, but in 1795 France declared war on Spain which concluded an alliance with France and declared war on Great Britain. The British responded by blockading Spain, whose her colonies were, for the first time cut off from their colonial rulers, and began to trade independently with Britain.
British support for the Venezuelan revolutionaries from Trinidad
Thomas Picton, the first British Governor of Trinidad after the capitulation of the Spanish, who held office from 1797–1803, was a great support to the revolutionaries or "Patriots" led by Mariño in Venezuela. Soon after becoming Governor, he issued a Proclamation on 6 June 1797, based on suggestions from Britain, which stated:
- "The object which at present I desire most particularly to bring to your attention, is the means which might best be adopted to liberate the people of the continent near to the Island of Trinidad from the oppressive and tyrannic system which supports with so much vigour the monopoly of commerce.... In order to fulfil this intention with the greater facility, it will be prudent for your Excellency to animate the inhabitants of Trinidad in keeping up the communication which they had with those of Tierra Firma previous to the reduction of that Island, under assurance that they will find there an entrepot or general magazines of every sort of every sort of goods whatsoever. To this end His Britannic Majesty has determined in Council to grant freedom to the ports of Trinidad, with a direct trade to Great Britain...."
Ironically, the 1807 devastating defeat of the British invasions of the River Plate in South America, largely by local militias, encouraged a more independent attitude in Spain's American colonies.
Spanish power weakens, paving the way to Independence
After the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805), Spain changed sides again, only to realign itself with France after Napoleon defeated Prussia in 1807. However, Spain was had been severely weakened by all these wars, opening an opportunity for the revolutionaries in South America.
Following this, the Spanish king, Ferdinand VII, was deposed by Napoleon in 1808. He had been on the throne just 48 days after his father Charles IV abdicated in his favor. He was replaced by Joseph Bonaparte, the elder brother of Napoleon, who ruled as king of Spain from 6 June 1808 to 11 December 1813. A "Supreme Central Junta" was formed to govern in the name of Ferdinand, marking the beginning of Spain's War of Independence from French domination.
Joseph Bonaparte and his brother, Napoleon, led a long and bitter war against the British forces under the Duke of Wellington, culminating in Napoleon being forced to allow the reinstatement of Ferdinand VII on 11 December 1813, who ruled Spain until his death in 1833.
On 19 April 1810 the city council or cabildo of Caracas reformed itself as a Junta, soon to be followed by the provincial centres such as Barcelona, Cumaná, Mérida, and Trujillo. They saw themselves as allied with the Junta of Seville which ruled in the name of the king. Simón Bolívar saw the setting up of the Junta as a step toward outright independence.
Ports were opened to international trade, particularly with Britain which received preferential treatment, paying 25% less tax than other nations. The young Bolívar went to London to seek support if Venezuela was attacked and to pressure the Spanish grants special privileged. This was difficult to do as Britain and Spain were allies, but he was given promises of future trade concessions. Spain viewed these developments with alarm and, in 1810, declared the popular party rebels, the province was treated as enemy territory and its ports were blockaded.
The Royalists held Guyana and the Orinoco Delta, while the rebel Patriots held the coasts from Maturín to Cape la Peña.
In late 1812 Mariño joined Colonel Manuel Villapol who marched to Guayana. Excelling in combat, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. Some months later he was appointed Commander of Guiria, bravely defending that centre of the Royalists' assault, and was promoted to the rank of Colonel.
The Venezuelan War of Independence occurred while the Spanish were preoccupied with that of New Granada in Spain. On 17 December 1819 the Congress of Angostura established Gran Colombia's independence from Spain. After several more years of war, which killed half of Venezuela's white population, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of its most famous son, Simón Bolívar. Venezuela, along with the modern countries of Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador, forming part of the Republic of Gran Colombia until 1830, when Venezuela separated, and became a sovereign country.
After the Battle of San Mateo, the Republic collapsed, and Francisco de Miranda capitulated to Monteverde, signing an armistice on 25 July 1812. Mariño's Venezuelan Patriots who survived either fled or were imprisoned. Mariño himself retired to a property owned by his sister, in Trinidad.
Mariño's invasion of Venezuela
Mariño was informed of the ill-treatment that befell Miranda and the other patriotic men, by the Royalist leader General Monteverde, who violated the terms of the armistice by imprisoning many Venezuelans. Indignant at such abuse, Mariño assembled an expeditionary force of 45 Patriots on the small island of Chacachacare off the coast of Trinidad. Among this small group which were the future Generals José Francisco Bermúdez, Ascue and Manuel Piar. With that handful of revolutionaries with a few muskets, they crossed the Gulf of Paria in canoes, and landed on the coast of Venezuela on the 11 January 1813.
Just prior to Mariño's force leaving, the Governor of Trinidad, General Munro, intent on proving Trinidad's neutrality, sent a detachment of the 1st West India Regiment to tiny island to investigate claims that a military force was gathering there and to disperse it peacefully, if possible. They returned to report they had discovered nothing, but Munro issued a Proclamation stating that the Government of Trinidad was strictly neutral, and officially banished Mariño from Trinidad (after he had left) and seized the property of all those involved with the affair.
The tiny invasion force captured Guiria, a small town on the gulf coast of Venezuela. Fortunately for them, the main body of 500 Royalist troops had recently moved inland, leaving only the local militia which was quickly overcome.
News of the victory spread quickly and Mariño was soon leading a force of 5,000 men armed and equipped with supplies captured at Guiria. They then marched against Maturín on the Rio Guarapiche. Apparently, Bolívar was pleased that the Royalists would now have to fight on two fronts but he wanted to liberate Caracas before Mariño was able to do so.
Tussles with Bolívar and other independence leaders
In 1813 Simón Bolívar joined the army of United Provinces of New Granada. After winning a series of battles, Bolívar received the approval of the "New Granadan Congress" to lead a liberating force into Venezuela in what became known as the Admirable Campaign. At the same time, Santiago Mariño invaded from the east in an independently organized campaign. Both forces quickly defeated the royalist troops in various battles, such as Alto de los Godos. Bolívar entered Caracas on 6 August 1813, proclaiming the restoration of the Venezuelan republic, which was not fully recognized by Mariño based in Cumaná, although the two leaders did cooperate militarily. There was a struggle between the two men for the leadership. Mariño named himself "Chief of the Independent Army" conquered eastern Venezuela and set up a separate political entity in the east. But Bolívar insisted that it was essential to have one central government uniting Venezuela and New Granada to ensure its viability - his first proposal of a greater Colombia.
In February and March 1814, Mariño and his forces fought alongside Bolívar. They regrouped at Valencia and Bolívar handed over command to Mariño, "as a sure sign of his high opinion of his person and services, and also in this way to ensure the adhesion of the eastern officers to the common cause of Venezuela." However, they both had to retreat from central Venezuela to the port of Carúpano, where they were arrested by their own officers, Ripas, Piar and Bermúdez, but managed to escape with difficulty. Mariño and Bermúdez later accused Bolívar of being a traitor and published a proclamation in Guiria on 23 August 1816 deposing Bolívar and naming Mariño as supreme chief with Bermúdez as second in command. Bolívar had to flee to Haiti.
Bolívar returned from Haiti to Barcelona calling on all to join together, but first Bermúdez and Valdéz rebelled against Mariño, and then Mariño against Bolívar. In 1816 Bolívar used the island of Margarita as his base of operations and, in 1817, the Spanish General Pablo Morillo was driven off the island.
Rapprochement with Bolívar and other leaders finally leads to Independence
Gradually more and more of the caudillos (warlords or political bosses) began to join Bolívar, but then Piar rebelled against him and was finally put to death. Conflict between Bolívar and Mariño escalated and in 1818 distracted the military campaign enough to allow the Royalists to dominate Cumaná. Finally Bolívar managed to win Mariño over by appointing him General-in-Chief of the Army of the East with control over the plains of Barcelona, while Bermúdez and Cedeño were given the rest of the eastern districts and Páez was yet to be pacified.
In May, 1831, a council of 150 residents of the city of Barcelona, General Santiago Mariño and José Tadeo Monagas were invested as the principal authorities of the "State of the East", until the installation of the first Congress to be convened later. After that, President José Antonio Páez stopped this separatist attempt, negotiating with the Monagas brothers, convincing them to submit to central authority.
On the 8th of July, 1835, there was a violent and bloody military coup, known as the "Revolución de las Reformas", headed by Mariño, which had the objectives of establishing military control, the religion of the State, to vindicate the name of Simón Bolivar as Liberator, and to reconstruct Great Colombia. On 9 July 1835 President Vargas and Vice-president Andrés Narvarte were expelled to the Island of Saint Thomas, and Mariño briefly took the power of the country. However, José Antonio Páez and his forces entered Caracas on 28 July to find it abandoned by the Reformists, and reinstated Vargas, putting an early end to Mariño's military rule. Mariño was forced into exile in 1836, fleeing to Curaçao, Jamaica, Haiti, and finally Colombia.
Mariño unsuccessfully bid for the presidency of Venezuela several times in the 1830s and 40s. In 1848 he led the forces supporting President Monagas which overthrew Páez at the 'Batalla de Los Araguatos' on the 10 March 1848. Páez was imprisoned, and eventually exiled.
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- Carmichael. (1961), p. 45.
- Gazeta de Madrid de 14 de junio page 568
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- SANTIAGO MARIÑO accessed on 18 May, 2009
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- Simón Bolívar's Quest for Glory, p. 75. Richard W. Slatta and Jane Lucas De Grummond. Texas A&M University Press. (2003). ISBN 978-1-58544-239-3.
- Simón Bolívar: A Life, pp. 76, 78. John Lynch. (2006). Yale University Press.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. VI, (1977), p. 613.
- Latin America Between Colony and Nation: Selected Essays (The Hollow Kingdom Trilogy), pp. 172-173. John Lynch. (2001) Palgrave Macmillan; Reprint edition. ISBN 978-0-333-78678-9.
- Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Empire: 1402-1975, p. 383. Sam L. Slick, et al. (1991). Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-26413-9.
- The Politics of Exile in Latin America, p. 282 and n. 17. Mario Sznajder and Luis Roniger. (2009) Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51735-5.
- Carmichael, Gertrude (1961). The History of the West Indian Islands of Trinidad and Tobago, 1498-1900. Alvin Redman, London.