Santo Antão, Cape Verde

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Santo Antão (disambiguation).
Santo Antão
Native name: Sontonton, Santanton or Sintanton
Nickname: Ilha das montanhas (island of the mountains)
Bela-vista-net-Santo Antao-map.jpg
Locator map of Santo Antão, Cape Verde.png
Geography
Location Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 17°04′12″N 25°10′16″W / 17.070°N 25.171°W / 17.070; -25.171
Area 779 km2 (301 sq mi)
Length 40 km (25 mi)
Width 20 km (12 mi)
Highest elevation 1,979 m (6,493 ft)
Highest point Topo da Coroa
Country
Cape Verde
Concelhos (Municipalities) Paul, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande
Largest city Porto Novo
Demographics
Population 44,104 [1] (as of 2010)
Density 56.6 /km2 (146.6 /sq mi)

Santo Antão (Portuguese for "Saint Anthony"), or Sontonton in Cape Verdean Creole, is the westernmost and largest of the Barlavento islands of Cape Verde. The nearest main island is São Vicente to the southeast, separated by a channel named Canal de São Vicente. It is the westernmost large island in Cape Verde and the continent of Africa, and the second largest in Cape Verde.

Geography[edit]

Coastline of Santo Antão

The island is entirely made up of volcanic material. The tallest mountain is Topo de Coroa, reaching a height of 1,979 m. The second tallest is Pico da Cruz at 1,585 m. The island is divided into north and south by a mountain range long considered impenetrable but now crossed by a road. The island’s main town is Ponta do Sol on the north coast, home to the closed Agostinho Neto Airport, while its ferry port is Porto Novo on the south coast. A part of the island in the southeast has an arid climate, while the northwest receives relatively normal precipitation. Its valleys are suffering heavy erosion.

Water bodies[edit]

Bathing beaches and fishing areas are found in near Tarrafal de Monte Trigo. During the rainy season, some creek beds across the island are temporarily filled with water.

Streams[edit]

  • Ribeira do Passo, near Passo
  • Ribeira das Bras, near Ribeira das Bras

Mountains and volcanoes[edit]

The island is considered one of the most mountainous of Cape Verde. Its mountains are composed of basalt. Many of its volcanoes are young, especially its calderas. Since 1999, vulcanologists have observed continuous rising of the water temperature of the sea in the area of Ponta do Sol which may indicate the risk of a new eruption in the area.

Peaks[edit]

Climate[edit]

Being basically made of several stratovolcanoes and so extremely mountainous this island has quite diverse climate and many various microclimates due to its deep ravines. Santo Antão island has moderately dry tropical climate (As according to Köppen–Geiger climate classification system) along the coast and semi-arid mild tropical climate Bsh with very balanced temperatures year round higher on the slopes (~ 800 metres ASL) to cool highland subtropical steppe climate BskL above 1,000 metres above ASL. The average annual temperature on the coast is about 23°C, decreasing to some 15-11 °C on the highest grounds. There can be remarkably cool weather in the interior with warmer wet season starting in July and ending in December–January with colder dry season starting in December–January and ending in June. The major climate risk, similarly to other Cape Verdean islands, yet much less pronounced in the higher altitudes due to better ability in gaining moisture from clouds, is drought.

Climate data for Espongeiro, central highland of the island, 1250-1400 metres ASL
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
15.3
(59.5)
15.9
(60.6)
16.3
(61.3)
17.2
(63)
17.9
(64.2)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
20.3
(68.5)
19.8
(67.6)
18.5
(65.3)
16.5
(61.7)
17.68
(63.82)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
12.8
(55)
13.2
(55.8)
13.6
(56.5)
14.5
(58.1)
15.3
(59.5)
16.3
(61.3)
17.3
(63.1)
17.7
(63.9)
17.4
(63.3)
16.0
(60.8)
14.4
(57.9)
15.14
(59.25)
Average low °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
10.4
(50.7)
10.6
(51.1)
10.9
(51.6)
11.9
(53.4)
12.8
(55)
13.7
(56.7)
14.7
(58.5)
15.1
(59.2)
15.0
(59)
13.6
(56.5)
12.3
(54.1)
12.66
(54.78)
Rainfall mm (inches) 24
(0.94)
4
(0.16)
4
(0.16)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
20
(0.79)
82
(3.23)
105
(4.13)
55
(2.17)
31
(1.22)
25
(0.98)
351
(13.82)
Source: Climate-Data.ORG
Climate data for Sinagoga, far northeastern part of the island, 20-40 metres ASL
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.1
(73.6)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
24.9
(76.8)
25.6
(78.1)
26.4
(79.5)
27.4
(81.3)
27.6
(81.7)
27.4
(81.3)
26.4
(79.5)
24.3
(75.7)
25.34
(77.61)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
21.2
(70.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.9
(71.4)
22.7
(72.9)
23.6
(74.5)
24.3
(75.7)
25.4
(77.7)
25.8
(78.4)
25.5
(77.9)
24.4
(75.9)
22.6
(72.7)
23.36
(74.04)
Average low °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
19.3
(66.7)
19.5
(67.1)
19.8
(67.6)
20.6
(69.1)
21.7
(71.1)
22.3
(72.1)
23.5
(74.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
22.5
(72.5)
21.0
(69.8)
21.47
(70.64)
Rainfall mm (inches) 14
(0.55)
5
(0.2)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
11
(0.43)
44
(1.73)
128
(5.04)
44
(1.73)
26
(1.02)
18
(0.71)
291
(11.45)
Source: Climate-Data.ORG
Climate data for Porto Novo, centre-south of the island, 10-60 metres ASL
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
23.4
(74.1)
24.1
(75.4)
24.6
(76.3)
25.3
(77.5)
26.2
(79.2)
27.3
(81.1)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.2
(77.4)
25.84
(78.52)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
21.6
(70.9)
22.0
(71.6)
22.3
(72.1)
23.0
(73.4)
24.1
(75.4)
25.0
(77)
25.9
(78.6)
26.0
(78.8)
25.8
(78.4)
25.0
(77)
23.4
(74.1)
23.84
(74.91)
Average low °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.9
(67.8)
20.1
(68.2)
20.8
(69.4)
22.1
(71.8)
22.7
(72.9)
23.9
(75)
24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
23.0
(73.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.88
(71.39)
Rainfall mm (inches) 7
(0.28)
2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(0.16)
28
(1.1)
86
(3.39)
31
(1.22)
17
(0.67)
15
(0.59)
191
(7.53)
Source: Climate-Data.ORG

History[edit]

The island was discovered in 1462 by Diogo Afonso, but was not given its current name until around the 16th century. First inhabited in 1548, in the 17th century, people from the other islands of Santiago and Fogo along with people from northern Portugal arrived in today's Vila da Ribeira Grande in the northern part of the island. Later, wine and coffee became the most important exports on the island. As of 1832, the estimated population of Santo Antão was 24,000.[2]

Economy[edit]

Fishing and agriculture are the main industries on the island.

Agriculture[edit]

The island's agriculture products include sugar cane, yams, cassava, bananas, mangoes, and grain. The main product on the island is a kind of rum known as grogue.

The exportation of many of the island's agriculture products to other islands has been prohibited for nearly two decades because of the millipede (Spinotarsus caboverdus) blight, but the government has announced it is going to lift the quarantine.[3]

Due to its mountainous nature, most of the island's plantations are done in terraces, obviating the use of machinery and requiring immense manual labor. Recently, some experiences using Drip irrigation have been taking place in order to mitigate the drought conditions.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is becoming one of the most dominant industries on the island. There has been some investment in Rural tourism infrastructures. Hiking, Trekking and Cultural tourism account for most of the touristic offer of this island.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The island is divided in three municipalities, which are subdivided into civil parishes:

The island was a single municipality until 1990 (old ISO 3166-2 code: CV-SA) when it broke up into the three present-day municipalities.

Language[edit]

Other than Portuguese (official language), the majority of the population speaks Cape Verdean Creole.

Persons[edit]

Sporting teams[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

Coordinates: 17°04′12″N 25°10′16″W / 17.070°N 25.171°W / 17.070; -25.171