The Sanum, also referred to as Sanema, Sanima Tsanuma, Guaika, Samatari, Samatali, Xamatari and Chirichano in the literature, are a South American tropical rain forest tribe related to the Yanomami. They number about 1500 and live on both sides of the border of Brazil and Venezuela. In Venezuela they are found in the Caura River and Ventuari River basins where they live alongside the Ye'kuana. The Sanumá language is a Yanomam language.
On 24 October 2006, their reserve in Venezuela was invaded by miners who destroyed some of their villages. In retaliation the Venezuelan army massacred 10 miners. This incident led to mass protests by non-Indians in Southern Venezuela.