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Саран ош (Erzya)
|- City -|
View of Saransk
Location of the Republic of Mordovia in Russia
|City Day||June 12|
|Administrative status (as of September 2011)|
|Federal subject||Republic of Mordovia|
|Administratively subordinated to||city of republic significance of Saransk|
|Capital of||Republic of Mordovia|
|Administrative center of||city of republic significance of Saransk|
|Municipal status (as of March 2010)|
|Urban okrug||Saransk Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Saransk Urban Okrug|
|Head of Administration||Vladimir Sushkov|
|Representative body||Council of Deputies|
|Population (2010 Census)||297,415 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||64th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|City status since||1780|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 8342|
Saransk (Russian: Саранск, IPA: [sɐˈransk]; Moksha: Саранош; Erzya: Саран ош) is a city in central European Russia and the capital of the Republic of Mordovia, as well as its financial and economic center. It is located in the Volga basin at the confluence of the Saranka and Insar Rivers, about 630 kilometers (390 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 297,415 (2010 Census); 304,866 (2002 Census); 312,128 (1989 Census).
Saransk was founded in 1641 as the Russian fortress Atemar, taking its name from a nearby Mordvin village; the fortress was, at the time, located on the southeastern frontier of Russia. The current name "Saransk" refers to the city's situation on the Saranka river. Soon after its founding, the city became an important trade center for nearby Erzya villagers. After 1708, Saransk was assigned to Azov Province, and later to Kazan Governorate. In 1780, the settlement was granted town status and was again transferred, this time to Penza Governorate. In 1928, Saransk become the administrative center of the newly established Mordvin National Okrug which was transformed into Mordovian Autonomous Oblast in 1930. Soviet planners reconstructed the old city center in the 1960s and 1970s, adding wide streets and planning the construction of massive residential areas.
Administrative and municipal status
Saransk is the capital of the republic. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with three work settlements and thirteen rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Saransk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Saransk is incorporated as Saransk Urban Okrug.
Industrial activity in Saransk includes the production of electrical cables, chemical production, textile manufacturing, food processing, machine building, and metallurgy. The city has two thermal power stations. The city has the confectionary plant Lamzur.
The most notable industrial enterprises include the Lisma Electrical Factory which employs nearly 12,000 people; the Biokhimik pharmaceutical facility; Rezinotekhnika, a rubber products manufacturer; cable manufacturer Saranskkabel; and Elektrovypryamitel, which manufactures electronic components and, on a small scale, television sets.
Saransk is by far the largest city in Mordovia and accounts for 34.3% of the total population of the republic (as of the 2002 Census). Ethnic Russians form the majority of the population (about 85%), and Russian, rather than any of two co-official Mordvinic languages, is the common language of communication in the city. As with many provincial capitals in Russia, the population of Saransk has decreased since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, primarily as a result of economic migration to larger cities, made especially attractive by the downsizing, or outright collapse, of many smaller, regional, industrial enterprises.
Culture and religion
Saransk has several theaters, including the Dramatic Theater (founded in 1961), the State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Mordovia, and a Comedy theater. The Saransk Regional Museum is dedicated primarily to the history of the city, while the Mordovian Museum of Visual Arts has an excellent collection of works by Russian masters Stepan Erzia and Fedot Sychkov.
The city is also home to Mordovian State University (founded in 1957) as well as several technical colleges.
Saransk has three Orthodox Churches and also a small Lutheran Church provided by the Finnish Lutheran Church and opened in 2005. One There are also three Mosques. The main cathedral in Saransk is Cathedral of St. Theodore Ushakov, which was completed in 2006.
New Opera and Ballet Theater buildings of Yaushev was open on September 9, 2011 in Saransk.
Cityscape and architecture
The city has a large number of buildings remaining from the 17th and 18th centuries; however, many parts of the town are dominated by Soviet era apartment blocks, dating mainly from the 1960s, similar to other provincial towns which expanded rapidly due to fast industrialization. These buildings are nearing the end of their service life and are in need of serious repair and, in many cases, replacement. Industrial enterprises are mainly located to the north of the town center. The eastern part of Saransk, located east of the Insar River, is Posop. An interesting detail is the Soviet era military base, belonging to the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, which is located along the railway lines and serves of a time when Saransk was, effectively, a closed city. Another city landmark is the Saransk TV Tower — a 180-meter-tall guyed tubular steel mast built in 1961.
The municipal transit system of Saransk consists primarily of a network of bus and trolleybus lines.
Saransk is a station on the Kuybyshev Railway, and has additional stations serving regional railways to Ruzayevka and Krasny Uzel. Formerly, Saransk was also served by two daily Penza–Nizhny Novgorod passenger trains, carrying passengers from nearby villages mainly to either Ruzayevka junction station and Penza or to Arzamas and Nizhny Novgorod.
The city is served by the small Saransk Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Саранск) (IATA: SKX, ICAO: UWPS) southeast of downtown. It is served primarily by small regional carriers; the most common aircraft is the An-24. There are scheduled flights to and from Moscow's Domodedovo airport on weekdays. Saransk is also home to the Lyambir airforce base.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Law #7-Z
- Law #114-Z
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Gérard Depardieu registered as Russian resident amid tax row with France
- Государственное Собрание Республики Мордовия. Закон №7-З от 23 марта 1998 г. «О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства Республики Мордовия», в ред. Закона №38-З от 25 мая 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в приложение к Закону Республики Мордовия "О порядке решения вопросов административно-территориального устройства Республики Мордовия"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Известия Мордовии", №54, 25 марта 1998 г. (State Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia. Law #7-Z of March 23, 1998 On the Procedures of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Mordovia, as amended by the Law #38-Z of May 25, 2012 On Amending the Appendix to the Law of the Republic of Mordovia "On the Procedures of the Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Republic of Mordovia". Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Государственное Собрание Республики Мордовия. Закон №114-З от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границы городского округа Саранск и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №27-З от 12 марта 2010 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Мордовия, устанавливающие границы муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г., за исключением статьи 2, вступившей в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Известия Мордовии", №198-22, 30 декабря 2004 г. (State Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia. Law #114-Z of December 28, 2004 On Establishing the Border of Saransk Urban Okrug and on Granting Urban Okrug Status to It, as amended by the Law #27-Z of March 12, 2010 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Mordovia, Which Establish the Borders of the Municipal Formations. Effective as of January 1, 2006, with the exception of Article 2, which takes effect 10 days after the official publication date.).