Vasant Panchami

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Vasant Panchami
Vasant panchami udit1.jpg
Official name Vasant Panchami
Also called Shree Panchami
Saraswati Puja
Observed by Hindus and Sikhs
Liturgical Color Yellow
Observances Puja and social functions
Date Magha Shukla Panchami
2014 date 4 February
2015 date 24 January[1]

Vasant Panchami (Sanskrit: वसन्त पञ्चमी) Hindi: वसन्त पञ्चमी), or Basant Panchami, refers to two festivals: the religious festival of Saraswati Puja (Bengali language:সরস০বতী পূজা, Oriya language:ସରସ୍ୱତୀ ପୂଜା), also called Shree Panchami and the seasonal spring festival of Vasant Panchami which in the Punjab region is known as the Basant Festival of Kites. The festival is observed as a Sikh and Hindu festival on the fifth day of Magha.


Vasant Panchami has a specific meaning: Vasant means "spring,"[3][4] and Panchami means "the fifth day."[3] Vasant Panchami falls on the fifth day of spring.

Religious festival[edit]


Vasant Panchami is the first and more minor of two spring-themed festivals in Hindu culture. Vasant Panchami initiates the spring festive cycle and heralds its summation that occurs with Holi.[3] In ancient Indian literature, Vasant Panchami is associated with Shringara Rasam and the festival was celebrated in this tradition.[5] Celebrations today still honor Kamadeva, his wife Rati, and his friend Vasant (the personification of Spring).[4]

In modern times, however, Vasant Panchami day is more commonly associated with Maa Saraswati, the goddess of learning, wisdom, knowledge, fine arts, refinement, science and technology.[4] Goddess Saraswati is worshipped and the day is treated by celebrants as Saraswati's birthday.[3] People worship Goddess Saraswati to attain enlightenment through knowledge and to rid themselves of lethargy, sluggishness and ignorance.

Vasant Panchami is celebrated every year on the fifth day of the bright half of the Indian month of Magh (spring season, January to February).[4][5][6] It is celebrated as Saraswati Puja primarily over eastern parts of India, and as Sri Panchami in other parts of Bengal.[4] In terms of its cultural significance, the festival has been compared to Chinese New Year and the Christian Candlemas, with the subsequent 40-day stretch between Vasant Panchami and Holi compared to the Christian Lenten season.[3]

In Tamil Nadu saraswati puja is done on the ninth day of navratri in the month of ashwin.[citation needed]


During the ancient period when Vasant Panchami was more oriented toward Kamadeva, dancing girls, dhol players, and other celebrants would come to the royal Bakshi's palace to create an informal durbar with the royals. Specially made Vasanti clothes would be worn by the dancing girls and younger royal ladies, consisting of a skirt, blouse, and pink or saffron sari with tiny red square or circular dots. This clothing would be further embellished with gold and silver borders and brocade work. On the celebration day the dancing girls would collect flowers and mango leaves (a reference to one of the love-arrows of Kama Dev) from the garden of the Bakshi's palace. The flowers and mangoes were arranged in brass vessels and the informal durbar would be set up. The occasion was marked by the singing of various ragas usually on the theme of love (especially songs involving Krishna and Radha or the gopies of Brij Bhoomi). At the conclusion of the celebration, the flowers would be sprinkled with red gulal and the dancing girls would apply it to their cheeks. They were then gifted a sum of money by the royal ladies.[5] Today this is not practiced, and the festival is oriented toward Sarasvati, however Kamadeva remains an important figure as feasts are held in his honor during Vasant Panchami,[4] and the theme of love remains an important part of the festival with this being the most popular day of the year for weddings in some areas.[3]

Idol of Saraswati for puja in Kolkata, 2000

The day before Vasant Panchami in Nepal, Sarasvati's temples are filled with food so that she can join the celebrants in the traditional feasting the following morning.[3] In temples and educational institutions, statues of Sarasvati are dressed in yellow and worshiped.[3] Most educational institutions arrange special prayers or pujas in the morning to seek blessing of the Goddess. Poetic and musical gatherings are held and children are initiated to learn the alphabet[4] and are often taught to write their first words.[3] This ritual of initiating education to children is known as Akshar-Abhyasam or Vidya-Arambham/Praasana, one of the famous rituals of Vasant Panchami. Older students clean their pens and inkwells but abstain from reading or writing on this day.[3] In Bengal, idols of Saraswati are taken on procession and immersed in the holy Ganga.[4]

The color yellow plays an important role in Vasant Panchami as it is related to the bloom of mustard flowers during this period.[7] Celebrants usually wear yellow garments,[4] Saraswati is worshiped in a yellow dress,[3] and sweet saffron rice[4] and yellow sweets are consumed within the families.[3]

Other associated rituals include the invitation of Brahmin to join in the lunch feast, and the performance of ancestor worship (Pitr-tarpan). In places such as Balarama temple in Baithain, the singing of Holi songs and the throwing of color begin on Vasant Panchami and continue throughout the Holi season.[6]

The 40-day period between Vasant Panchami and Holi corresponds with the 40 days of Rati's penance after her husband, Kamadeva was reduced to ashes for shooting the eye of Shiva with his love arrows. Between Vasant Panchami and Holi, preparations are made for numerous burnings in effigy of the demoness Holika. Starting on Vasant Panchami, a log with a figure of Holika is placed in a public place and during the next 40 days, the faithful add twigs and other combustible material to the log to form a pyre which is lit on Holi.[3]


For Sikhs, in the Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar, on the day of Vasant Panchmi, musicians start the music by singing Basant Raga. This practice continues up until the first day of Vaisakh when Basant Rag is no longer used.[8] A fair normally held at the famous Sikh shrine of Guru-ka-Lahore in Bilaspur district to mark the occasion of the marriage of Guru Gobind Singh Ji on Vasant Panchami.

Seasonal festival[edit]

The seasonal aspects of the festival are more significant in Northern India due to the sharper contrast between the winter and the spring,.[7]

In the Punjab region, Basant is celebrated as a seasonal festival by all faiths and is known as the Basant Festival of Kites. Kite festivals are held in cities such as Firozpur,[7] where children generally fly kites to mark the auspicious occasion. This has led to the festival being called the Festival of Kites or the Kite Festival.[7] Children buy Dor (Thread) and Guddi or "Patang" (Kites) in huge quantities to fly overhead. This attracts tourism from around the world.

Overseas Celebrations[edit]

The festival is celebrated by the Indian diaspora based at Nottingham, UK, every year under the aegis of the socio-cultural group Jhankar-NICA.[9]


  1. ^ "January 2015 Calendar with Holidays". Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  2. ^ "Updates on current Hindu religious affairs: Vasant Panchami - 14th or 15th Feb". 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013. Panchami Tithi is getting over at 09:05 a.m. on 15th February while it starts at 08:19 a.m. on 14th February 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Roy, Christian. Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Vol.2. Pp.192-193. 2005. ISBN 9781576070895
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Vema, Manish. Fast and Festivals of India. Diamond Pocket Books. Pg.72. 2000. ISBN 9788171820764
  5. ^ a b c Dilipsinh, K. S. "Ch.8 - The Festival of Spring" from Kutch: In Festival And Custom. Har-Anand Publications. Pg.98. 2004. ISBN 9788124109984
  6. ^ a b Sanford, A. Whitney. "Don't Take It Badly, It's Holi" from Ritual Levity and Humor in South Asian Religions (Selva J. Raj, ed.). SUNY Press. Pg.39. 2010. ISBN 9781438429816
  7. ^ a b c d Knapp, Stephen. "The Dharmic Festivals" from The Power of the Dharma: An Introduction to Hinduism and Vedic Culture. iUniverse. Pg.94. 2006. ISBN 9780595837489
  8. ^ [1] Dr Kirpal SIngh
  9. ^
  • "Vasant Panchmi", a book by Anurag Basu.
  • "Kite Festival" by Sanjeev Narula.