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Temporal range: Middle Eocene to Present
Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1847
21, see text.
Sardinella is a genus of fishes in the family Clupeidae, the herrings and sardines. This genus currently contains 21 recognized species. They are abundant in warmer waters of the tropical and subtropical oceans.
Species are distinguished by their ranges and by specific body features, but they are often confused with one another. Fish of the genus have 7 to 14 striped markings along the scales of the top of the head. The paddle-shaped supramaxilla bones are characteristic; they separate Sardinella from other genera and their shapes help distinguish species. There are paired predorsal scales and enlarged fin rays.
Sardinella and Harengula
Sardinella evolved from the small herring genus Harengula. The two genera are nearly indistinguishable, but have slight differences in morphology. The scales of Harengula have complete transverse grooves which became interrupted in Sardinella. The shape of the expanded portion of the second supramaxillary bone also helps to differentiate the taxa. Sardinella also has a more developed anal fin, with enlarged and elongated posterior rays.
Sardinella and Harengula can distinguished from other Clupeidae genera by several shared characters. Both have a terminal mouth, lack a median notch in the upper jaw, lack radiating grooves in their smooth opercula, lack scales on the predorsal ridge, and have no more than 24 rays on the anal fin. Both also have a unique dermal fold on the anterior edge of the cleithrum, a bone attached to the skull.
- Sardinella albella (Valenciennes, 1847) (white sardinella)
- Sardinella atricauda (Günther, 1868) (Bleeker's blacktip sardinella)
- Sardinella aurita Valenciennes, 1847 (round sardinella)
- Sardinella brachysoma Bleeker, 1852 (deepbody sardinella)
- Sardinella fijiense (Fowler & B. A. Bean, 1923) (Fiji sardinella)
- Sardinella fimbriata (Valenciennes, 1847) (fringescale sardinella)
- Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) (goldstripe sardinella)
- Sardinella hualiensis (K. Y. Chu & C. F. Tsai, 1958) (Taiwan sardinella)
- Sardinella janeiro (C. H. Eigenmann, 1894) (Brazilian sardinella)
- Sardinella jussieu (Lacépède, 1803) (Mauritian sardinella)
- Sardinella lemuru Bleeker, 1853 (Bali sardinella)
- Sardinella longiceps Valenciennes, 1847 (Indian oil sardine)
- Sardinella maderensis (R. T. Lowe, 1838) (Madeiran sardinella)
- Sardinella marquesensis Berry & Whitehead, 1968 (Marquesan sardinella)
- Sardinella melanura (Cuvier, 1829) (blacktip sardinella)
- Sardinella neglecta Wongratana, 1983 (East African sardinella)
- Sardinella richardsoni Wongratana, 1983 (Richardson's sardinella)
- Sardinella rouxi (Poll, 1953) (yellowtail sardinella)
- Sardinella sindensis (F. Day, 1878) (Sind sardinella)
- Sardinella tawilis (Herre, 1927) (freshwater sardinella)
- Sardinella zunasi (Bleeker, 1854) (Japanese sardinella)
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- Froese, R. and D. Pauly. (Eds.) Sardinella species list. FishBase. 2011.
- Whitehead, P. J. P. (1985). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolfherrings. Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. Rome: FAO. pp. 90–114. ISBN 92-5-102340-9.
- Chan, W. L. (1965). A systematic revision of the Indo-Pacific clupeid fishes of the genus Sardinella (Family Clupediae). Journal of Japanese Ichthyology 12(3/6) 104.