|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Italian Wikipedia. (January 2012)|
||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: The article has become quite messy. (March 2013)|
|Sardu, Limba / Lingua Sarda|
|Native speakers||ca. 1,350,000 (2010)|
|Official language in||Sardinia|
|Recognised minority language in||Italy|
|Regulated by||Limba Sarda Comuna code|
|ISO 639-3||srd – inclusive code
sro – Campidanese
src – Logudorese
51-AAA-s +(Corso-Sardinian)51-AAA-pd & -pe
Languages and dialects of Sardinia
Sardinian (Sardinian: sardu, sadru, limba/lingua sarda, Italian: sardo, lingua sarda) or Sard is a Romance language spoken and written on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy). It is considered the most conservative of the Romance languages in terms of phonology and is noted for its Paleosardinian substratum.
Since 1997 Sardinian has been an official language on the island, together with other languages spoken there. It is a co-official language, jointly with Italian.
Number of speakers and cultural status 
The Sardinian language is one of the principal elements of Sardinian cultural heritage, and there is activity dedicated to studying the language and acknowledging its importance; the recognition of the Sardinian language as a prominent element of the cultural identity is diffusely supported by the population.
The Sardinian language has recently been recognised, together with other local languages, as an official regional language by the Sardinian Region; it can therefore be used for official purposes on the island.
In the last decade, the Sardinian language has been legally recognized (with Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin, and Occitan) by the Law 482-1999, yet its actual acknowledgement in the present-day life is hard. For example, in many Italian libraries and universities, the books about Sardinian language are still grouped under the labels Linguistica italiana (Italian linguistics), Dialetti italiani (Italian dialects) or Dialettologia italiana (Italian dialectology), despite its legal recognition as a different language.
Despite the cultural and political campaigns launched in order to put Sardinian on an equal footing with Italian, and any emotive value linked to Sardinian identity, the sociolinguistic situation in Sardinia due to several reasons, mainly political and socioeconomic (the gradual depopulation of the island's interior and rural exodus towards more urbanized and industrialized areas, the forced use of Italian presented as a prerequisite to get jobs and as one of the keys to social advancement, the barriers to communication between the dialectal varieties etc.) has resulted in a constant regression, though it is not homogeneous throughout the island; many Sardinians (especially those born in the towns, far more populated than the villages) are raised in families in which bilingual parents spoke to them predominantly Italian, rendering the children monolingual and with little proficiency in Sardinian. Nowadays, Sardinian is a language living in an unstable status of diglossia and code-switching, being put under heavy pressure by Italian; UNESCO classifies the language as endangered as "many children learn the language, but some of them cease to use it throughout the school years"; there is a serious decline of language ability from one generation to the next as younger generations tend to favor Italian over Sardinian.
A bill of Monti's government would further lower the level of protection of the language, already quite low, implementing a distinction between the languages protected by international agreements (German, Slovenian, French and Ladin) and those related to communities that do not have a foreign state behind their shoulders. This project has caused some reaction from some parts of the intellectual and political world of the island.
||This article needs attention from an expert in languages. (November 2011)|
The Sardinian language can be divided into the following main subregional language groups clearly identified by isogloss bundles:
- Sardinian proper, which is divided into two macro-dialect groups, characterised by a plural in -s and definite articles derived from the Latin IPSUM; for example su/sa male and female singular article, and northern sos/sas versus southern common-gender is plural article.
- Northern (Logudorese-Nuorese Sardinian), is considered the most conservative dialect (with Nuorese (Nugoresu) being the most extremely conservative of all), having kept classic Latin pronunciation of the stop velars;
- kena versus cena (supper);
- cane versus cani ( dog)
- gattos versus gattus (cats);
but also it had marked innovation as trill labials for Latin nexuses QU and GU
- limba versus lingua – 'language';
- abba versus acua – 'water',
or the prostesis i before preconsonantic s such as
- iscala versus southern scala (stairway)
- iscola versus scola (school).
- Central (Sardu de mesania), a little horizontal strip of little villages, considered to be transitional dialects between Northern and Southern Sardinian:
- is limbas – 'the languages';
- is abbas – 'the waters'.
- Southern (Campidanese Sardinian), is the language of Cagliari, the metropolis of the Roman province, and accepted coming innovation from Rome, Cartago, Costantinopolis, and probably reflect late Latin urban dialects of the 5th-century core cities of the empire.
- is fruminis – 'the rivers';
- is domus – 'the houses'.
Sardinian is so different from any other romance language that, despite the lack of literature and low social status, it must be considered an autonomous language rather than a dialect. Sardinia is a small island, the most remote of the Mediterranean islands from any mainland. It historically had little population, and it is very broken up into several isolated cantons, so the language too is subdivided into two groups of dialects, northern and southern that differ almost only in phonetics. So two literary and social models developed: logudorese in the north and cagliaritano campidanese in the south. These models have created a small but very interesting body of literature.
- Corso-Sardinian dialects, spoken in the extreme north of Sardinia, are sometimes considered as independent languages or as part of the Corsican language rather than Sardinian. Although largely influenced by Sardinian, they must be considered as Corsican, part of the very large group of Italian type dialects. They are characterized by a plural in -i and definite articles derived from the Latin ILLUM.
The survival of a dialect of Catalan in the town of Alghero is a consequence of the domination of the Crown of Aragon (later subsumed in the Spanish Crown, after the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabel of Castile in the 15th century) over Sardinia since the Middle Ages until the 18th century.
All dialects of Sardinian feature archaic phonetic features when compared to other Romance languages. The degree of archaism varies, with Nuorese (central northeast part of the island) considered the most conservative, though in some cases it has innovated. Evidence from medieval documents indicates that the medieval language spoken over the entirety of Sardinia and Corsica was similar to modern Nuorese; all of the remaining areas are thought to have innovated as the result of heavy external influence from centuries of colonization by Italian and Spanish speakers.
The examples listed below are from the northwestern Logudorese dialect:
- The Latin short vowels [i] and [u] have preserved their original sound (in Italian, Spanish and Portuguese they became [e] and [o], respectively. For example: siccus > sicu 'dry' (Italian secco, Spanish seco).
- Preservation of the plosive sounds [k] and [ɡ] before front vowels [e] and [i] in many (though not all) words. For example: centum > kentu 'hundred'; decem > dèghe 'ten' or gener > gheneru 'son in law' (Italian cento, dièci, genero with [tʃ] and [dʒ]).
- Absence of diphthongizations found in other Romance languages. For example: potest > podet 'he can' (Italian può, Spanish puede); bonus > bónu 'good' (Italian buono, Spanish bueno).
Sardinian also features numerous phonetic innovations, including the following:
- The transformation of Latin -ll- into a retroflex [ɖɖ], which it shares with Sicilian. For example: bellus > beddu 'pretty', villa > bidda 'village, town'.
- The consonant clusters -ld- and -nd- were similarly affected: soldus > [ˈsoɖ.ɖu] 'money'; abundantia > [ab.boɳ.ˈɖan.tsi.a] 'abundance'.
- The evolution of pl-, fl, cl- into pr-, fr, cr- as in Portuguese and Galician; for example: platea > pratza 'plaza' (Portuguese praça, Galician praza, Italian piazza), fluxus > frúsciu 'flabby' (Port. and Gal. frouxo), ecclesia > cresia 'church' (Port. igreja, Gal. igrexa, It. chiesa).
- Transformations like abbratzare > abbaltzare 'to embrace'.
- Vowel prothesis before an initial r in Campidanese like in Basque or Gascon: regem > urrei = re, gurrèi 'king'; rotam > arroda 'wheel' (Gascon arròda); rivum > Sard. and Gasc. arríu 'river'.
- Vowel prothesis in Logudorese before an initial s followed by consonant, like in Western Romance: scriptum > iscrítu (Spanish escrito, French écrit), stellam > isteddu 'star' (Spanish estrella, French étoile).
- Except for the Nuorese dialects, Latin single voiceless plosives [p, t, k] in intervocalic position became voiced approximants, and single voiced plosives [b, d, ɡ] were lost: [t] > [d] (or rather its soft counterpart [ð]): locum > [ˈlo.ɡu] (It. luògo), caritatem > [ka.ri.ˈda.de] (It. carità). Note that these processes also apply across word boundaries: porku (pig) but su borku (the pig); domo (house) but sa omo (the house).
While the latter two features were acquired during the Spanish domination, the others reveal deeper relations between ancient Sardinia and the Iberian world. Note that retroflex d, l and r are found not only in southern Italy and Tuscany but also in Asturias. They were probably involved in the palatalization process of the Latin clusters -ll-, pl-, cl- (-ll- > Cast. and Cat. -ll- [ʎ], Gasc. -th [c]; cl- > Old Port. ch- [tʃ], Ital. chi- [kj]).
Sardinian has the following phonemes (according to Blasco Ferrer):
The five vowels /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ (without length differentiation).
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||nny /ɲ/|
|Plosive||p /p/ b /b/||t /t/ d /d/||dd /ɖ/||k /k/ g /ɡ/|
|Affricate||tz /ts/ z /dz/||ch, c /tʃ/ g /dʒ/|
|Fricative||b /β/||f /f/ v /v/||(th /θ/) d /ð/||s, ss /s/ s /z/||sc /ʃ/ x /ʒ/||g /ɣ/|
The following three series of plosives or corresponding approximants:
- Voiceless stops derive from their Latin homologue in composition after another stop; they are reinforced (double) in initial position but this reinforcement is not written since it does not produce a different phoneme.
- Double voiced stops (after another consonant) derive from their Latin homologue in composition after another stop;
- Weak voiced "stops", sometimes transcribed ⟨β, δ, ğ⟩, which are in fact approximants [β, ð, ɣ] after vowels, as in Spanish. They derive from single Latin stops either voiced or not.
In Cagliari and neighbouring dialects the soft [d] is assimilated to the rhotic flap [ɾ] : digitus > didu = diru 'finger'.
|Articulation point||labio-dental||dentoalveolar||retroflex||palatal||velar||from Latin|
|double voiced||bb||dd||ɖɖ||–||kw > bb, bd > dd, etc.|
|approximants||b [β]||d [ð]||ɡ [ɣ]||single stops|
- Retroflex /ɖɖ/ (written dd) derives from a former retroflex lateral /ɭɭ/.
- A former voiced palatal plosive /ɟ/ (like the Hungarian gy) > /ɡ/
- The labiodental /f/ (sometimes pronounced [ff] or [v] in initial position) and /v/;
- Latin initial 'v' becomes 'b' (vipera > bibera 'viper')
- In central Sardinian the sound /f/ disappears: a behavior that evokes the transformation /f/ > /h/ known in Gascon and Castilian.
- Latin initial 'v' becomes 'b' (vipera > bibera 'viper')
- [θ] written th (like in English thing), the voiceless dental fricative, is a restricted dialectal variant of the phoneme /ts/.
- /ss/ e.g. ipsa > íssa
- /ʃ/ pronounced [ʃ] at the beginning of a word, otherwise [ʃʃ] = [ʃ.ʃ], is written sc(i/e). The voiced equivalent, [ʒ], which is often spelled with the letter x.
- /ts/ (or [tts]) a denti-alveolar affricate written tz, that corresponds to Italian z or ci-, natural evolution of /t/ before /i/.
- /dz/ (or [ddz]), written z, corresponds to Italian gi- (ggi-, respectively).
- /tʃ/ written c(i/e) or ç.
- /dʒ/ written g(e/i), or j.
- /m/, /mm/
- /n/, /nn/
- /ɲɲ/ written nny, the palatal nasal for some speakers/dialects, though for most the pronunciation is actually [nːj]
Some permutations of l and r can be observed, in that in most dialects preconsonant l (e.g. lt, lc, etc.) becomes r : L. "altum" > artu, marralzu = marrarzu 'rock'.
In palatal context, Latin l changed into [dz], [ts], [ldz], [ll] or [dʒ] rather than the [ʎ] of Italian: achizare (It. accigliare), *volia > bòlla = bòlza = bòza 'wish' (It. vòglia), folia > fogia = folla = foza 'leaf' (It. foglia), filia > filla = fitza = fiza 'daughter' (It. figlia).
The main distinctive features of Sardinian are :
- The plural marker is -s (from the Latin accusative plural) as in the Western Romance languages (French, Occitan, Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, and Galician): sardu, sardus; pudda, puddas 'hen'; margiane, margianes 'fox'. In Italo-Dalmatian languages such as Italian or in Eastern Romance languages such as Romanian, the plural ends with -i or -e.
- Sardinian uses a definite article derived from the Latin ipse: su, sa, plural sos, sas (Logudorese) and is (Campidanese). Such articles are common in Balearic Catalan and used to be common in Gascon.
- A periphrastic construction of the form 'to have to' (late Latin habere ad) is used as future: app'a istàre < appo a istàre 'I will stay' (as in Portuguese hei de estar, but here as periphrasis for estarei).
- For prohibitions, a negative form of subjunctive is used: no bengias! 'don't come!' (compare Spanish no vengas and Portuguese não venhas, in this language classified as part of the affirmative imperative mood).
Pre-Latin Sardinian words 
- Phoenician words:
- míntza (mitza, miza) '(water) spring'
- tzichiría (sichiria, tzirichia) 'dill'
- tzingòrra (zingòrra), kind of small eel
- tzípiri (tzípari) 'rosemary'
- Possible Iberian words:
- cóstiche 'variety of maple'
- cúcuru 'top'; e.g. cucuredhu 'pinnacle', 'mound', etc.
- giágaru (Campidanese) 'hunting dog'(cf. Basque txakur?)
- golósti 'holly' (cf. Basque gorosti)
- sechaju 'year-old lamb'(cf. Basque zekail)
- zerru (gallurese) 'pig' (cf. Basque zerri)
- Possible Illyrian relations:
- eni 'yew' (cf. enjë 'yew' in Albanian)
- thurg-alu 'stream' (cf. çurg 'stream' in Albanian)
- drobbalu 'intestine'(cf. drobolì 'intestine' in Albanian also in South Slavic languages drob<ocs.ѫтроба)
- golostriu 'holly' (cf. ill. *gol (A. Mayer) 'top, spike'+ Slavic ostrь 'thorny')
- zerru 'pig' (gallurese) (cf. derr 'pig' in Albanian, according to M. Morvan)
- giágaru (Campidanese) 'hunting dog' (cf. zagar 'hunting dog' in Albanian)
- Latin words prefixed with the pre-Latin article t(i)-:
- tilichèrta, Camp. tzilikitu 'lizard' (ti + L. lacerta)
- tilingiòne "worm" (ti + L. lumbricum 'earthworm')
- trúcu 'neck'; var. ciugu, túgulu, Camp. tsuguru (t + L. jugulum)
- túgnu, tontonníu 'mushroom' (t + L. fungus)
Other pre-Latin Sardinian words are presented here:
- geographical terms:
- bèga 'damp plain' probable cognate with Portuguese veiga, Spanish vega 'fertile plain'.
- bàcu 'canyon'
- garrópu 'canyon'
- giara 'tableland'
- míntza 'spring' / 'manantial' / 'sorgènte'.
- piteràca, boturinu, terighinu 'way'
- plant names:
- tzaurra 'germ'; intzaurru, 'sprout'
- araminzu, oroddasu – Cynodon dactylon 'couch grass'
- arbutu, arbutzu, abrutzu – Asphodelus ramosus 'asphodel' (although in Latin arbustus means 'bush', 'shrub', preserved in Portuguese arbusto, 'little tree')
- atagnda, atzagndda – Papaver rhoeas 'red poppy'
- bidduri – Conium maculatum 'hemlock'
- carcuri – Ampelodesma mauritanica (a Mediterranean grass)
- istiòcoro – Picris echioides
- curma – Ruta chalepensis 'rue'
- tinníga, tinnía, sinníga, tsinníga – 'esparto'
- tiría – Calicotome spinosa 'thorny broom'
- tzichiría – Ridolfia segetum (a kind of fennel)
- animal names:
- gròdde, marxani 'fox'
- irbírru, isbírru, iskírru, ibbírru 'marten'
- tilingiòne, tilingròne, tiringoni 'earthworm'
- tilipírche, tilibílche 'grasshopper'
- tilicúcu, telacúcu, tiligúgu 'gecko', Camp. tsilicitu 'lizard' (pistiloni 'gecko')
- tilichèrta, tilighèrta, tilighèlta; calixerta 'lizard', cognate with Latin lacerta.
History and origins 
The history of the island of Sardinia, relatively isolated from the European continent up into modern times, led to the development of a distinct Romance language, which even now preserves traces of the indigenous pre-Roman language of the island. The language is of Latin origin like all Romance languages yet the following substratal influences are possible:
Adstratal influences include:
The early origins of the Sardinian language (sometimes called Paleo-Sardinian) are still obscure, due mostly to the lack of documents, as Sardinian appeared as a written form only in the Middle Ages. There are substantial differences between the many theories about the development of Sardinian.
Many studies have attempted to discover the origin of some obscure roots that today could legitimately be defined as indigenous, pre-Romance roots. First of all, the root of sard, present in many toponyms and distinctive of the ethnic group, is supposed to have come from the Sherden, one of the so-called Peoples of the Sea.
Massimo Pittau claimed in 1984 to have found in the Etruscan language the etymology of many other Latin words, after comparison with the Nuragic language. If true, one could conclude that, having evidence of a deep influence of Etruscan culture in Sardinia, the island could have directly received from Etruscan many elements that are instead usually considered to be of Latin origin. Pittau then indicates that both the Etruscan and Nuragic languages are descended from the Lydian language, both therefore being Indo-European languages, as a consequence of the alleged provenance of Etruscans/Tyrrhenians from that land (as in Herodotus), where effectively the capital town was Sardis. Pittau also suggests, as a historical point, that the Tirrenii landed in Sardinia, whereas the Etruscans landed in modern-day Tuscany. Massimo Pittau's views however are not representative of most Etruscologists.
It has been said that Paleosardinian should be expected to have notable similarities with Iberic languages and the Siculian language: the suffix -'ara, for example, in proparoxytones (Bertoldi and Terracini proposed it indicated plural forms). The same would happen (according to Terracini) for suffixes in -/àna/, -/ànna/, -/énna/, -/ònna/ + /r/ + paragogic vowel (as in the toponym Bonnànnaro). Rohlfs, Butler and Craddock add the suffix -/ini/ (as in the toponym Barùmini) as a peculiar element of Paleosardinian. At the same time, suffixes in /a, e, o, u/ + -rr- seem to find a correspondence in northern Africa (Terracini), in Iberia (Blasco Ferrer), in southern Italy and in Gascony (Rohlfs), with some closer relation to Basque (Wagner, Hubschmid). However, these early links proposing a link to a precursor of modern Basque have been discredited by most Basque linguists. Suffixes in -/ài/, -/éi/, -/òi/, and -/ùi/ are common to Paleosardinian and northern African languages (Terracini). Pittau underlined that this concerns terms originally ending in an accented vowel, with an attached paragogic vowel; the suffix resisted Latinization in some toponyms, which show a Latin body and a Nuragic desinence. On this point, some toponyms ending in -/ài/ and in -/asài/ were thought to show Anatolic influence (Bertoldi). The suffix -/aiko/, widely used in Iberia, and perhaps of Celtic origins, as well as the ethnical suffix in -/itanos/ and -/etanos/ (as in the Sardinian Sulcitanos) have been noted as other Paleosardinian elements (viz Terracini, Ribezzo, Wagner, Hubschmid, Faust, et al.).
Linguists like Blasco Ferrer (2009, 2010) or Morvan (2009) have recently attempted to revive the theory of a Basque connection by linking modern surface forms such as Sardinian ospile "fresh natural cover for cattle" and Basque ozpil "id.", Sardinian arrotzeri "vagabond" and Basque arrotz "stranger", Sardinian arru "stone, stony" and Basque arri "stone", Gallurese (South Corsican and North Sardinian) zerru "pig" and Basque zerri "id.". Of interest, and in support to this theory, genetic data on the distribution of HLA antigens have suggested a common origin for Basque and Sardinian people.
The Roman domination, beginning in 238 BC, brought Latin to Sardinia, but this language was not able to completely supplant the Pre-Roman Sardinian language. Some obscure roots remained unaltered, and in many cases it was Latin that was made to accept the local roots, such as nur (in nuraghe, as well as Nugoro and many other toponyms). Roman culture, on the other hand, became largely dominant; Barbagia derives its name from the Greek word Ό βάρβαρος-ου, which means "stuttering", due to the fact that its people could not speak Latin well. Cicero, who called Sardinians latrones matrucati ("thieves with rough sheep-wool cloaks") to emphasise Roman superiority, helped to spread this conception.
Sardinian in Italy 
||This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
The national anthem of the Kingdom of Sardinia was the Hymnu Sardu (or Cunservet Deus su Re), the lyrics of which are in the Sardinian language. It was partially substituted by the Savoy's March when Italy was unified. During the Fascist period, especially the Autarchy campaign, regional languages were banned. The restrictions went so far that even personal names and surnames were made to sound more "italian-sounding". During this period, the Sardinian Hymn was the sole chance to speak in a regional language in Italy without risking prison, because, as a fundamental part of the Royal Family's tradition, it could not be forbidden.
citation needed] as did King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy on several official occasions, when the Crown needed to remind Mussolini of its superior position.  Achille Starace, national secretary of the Fascist party, imposed the use of orbace, a poor Sardinian wool, as the national cloth for the uniforms of Blackshirts, while on a cultural level Mussolini himself  still on the border of the limits of the law. The policies for the island also included the reclamation of wide areas of the region (bonifiche) and the implementation of commerce and industry.[
Catholic priests practiced a strict obstructionism against mutos, a form of improvised sung poetry where two or more poets are assigned a surprise theme and have to develop it on the spur of the moment in rhymed quatrains.
In the Italian Army, the mechanized infantry of Brigata Sassari is the sole unit to have a hymn in Sardinian language: Dimonios, written in 1994 by Captain Luciano Sechi. This name comes from the attribute Rote Teufel (German for Red Devils, and Dimonios is Sardinian for Devils) given to them by Austro-Hungarian enemies during World War I because of their white and red flashes and their worth in war.
- Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche, Italian parliament
- "La lingua sarda a rischio estinzione – Disterraus sardus".
- "Sardinian language use survey". Euromosaic. To access the data, click on List by languages, Sardinian, then scroll to Sardinian language use survey
- Salminen, Tapani (1993-1999). "UNESCO Red Book on Endagered Languages: Europe:". Retrieved 2008-06-13.
- "The internet as a Rescue Tool of Endangered Languages: Sardinian – Free University of Berlin".
- MIUR e limba sarda – ULS Alta Baronia
- Il nazionalismo italiano mostra ancora una volta il suo volto feroce contro le minoranze linguistiche – R.Bolognesi
- LINGUA SARDA: CISL, TUTELARE LA SPECIALITA' DELL'ISOLA
- Richiesta di estensione massima dei benefici previsti massimi dalla Carta Europea delle Lingue a sardo e friulano
- Università contro spending review «Viene discriminato il sardo» – Sassari Notizie
- Il consiglio regionale si sveglia sulla tutela della lingua sarda
- «Salviamo sardo e algherese in Parlamento», Alguer.it
- Il sardo è un dialetto? – Rossomori
- et ipso quoque sermo Sardorum adhuc retinetnon pauca verba sermonis graeci atque ipse loquentium sonum graecisanum quendam prae se fert - Roderigo Hunno Baeza, Caralis Panegyricus, about 1516, manuscript preserved in the University Library of Cagliari
- Trask, L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 ISBN 0-415-13116-2
- Arnaiz-Villena A, Rodriguez de Córdoba S, Vela F, Pascual JC, Cerveró J, Bootello A. "HLA antigens in a sample of the Spanish population: common features among Spaniards, Basques, and Sardinians." Hum Genet. 1981;58(3):344-8.
- Massimo Pittau, La lingua Sardiana o dei Protosardi, Cagliari, 1995
- Gerhard Rohlfs, Le Gascon, Tübingen, 1935.
- Johannes Hubschmid, Sardische Studien, Bern, 1953.
- Max Leopold Wagner, Dizionario etimologico sardo, Heidelberg, 1960–1964.
- Giulio Paulis, I nomi di luogo della Sardegna, Sassari, 1987.
- Giulio Paulis, I nomi popolari delle piante in Sardegna, Sassari, 1992.
- Massimo Pittau, I nomi di paesi città regioni monti fiumi della Sardegna, Cagliari, 1997.
- Giuseppe Mercurio, S'allega baroniesa. La parlata sardo-baroniese, fonetica, morfologia, sintassi, Milano, 1997.
- H.J. Wolf, Toponomastica barbaricina, Nuoro, 1998.
- Alberto Areddu, Le origini albanesi della civiltà in Sardegna, Naples, 2007.
- Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Storia della lingua sarda, Cagliari, 2009.
- Eduardo Blasco Ferrer, Paleosardo. Le radici linguistiche della Sardegna neolitica, Berlin, 2010.
|Sardinian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- SardegnaCultura lingua sarda – The section "Lingua Sarda" in the official cultural site from the Regional Sardinia administration.
- University of Berlin – Contains many links and other information about the language.
- Su limbazu Mamujadinu – Mamoiada.net
- A mailing list for Sardinian-speakers
- Accademia campidanese di lingua sarda (in Campidanese)
- Sa limba sarda
- Memorie in lingua sarda Sardegna Digital Library
- Sardinian language's office – University of Cagliari
- Blog of Sardinian language's office – University of Cagliari: news about sardinian language and culture