Campidanese dialect

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Campidanese Sardinian
Sardu Campidanesu, Campidanesu
Native to Italy
Region Sardinia
Native speakers
500,000  (2007)[1]
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sro
Linguasphere 51-AAA-sa
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Languages and dialects of Sardinia
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Campidanese Sardinian (Sardinian: Sardu Campidanesu, Italian: Sardo Campidanese) is a standardised variety of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari, Italy. Traditionally the name Campidano refers to the fertile area located around the towns of Guspini and Villacidro. Campidanese and its variants of the dialect can be found across the entire Province of Cagliari and not just the Province of Medio Campidano area. Campidanese also extends into parts of the Province of Nuoro, notably the Ogliastra area and in the southern half of the Province of Oristano, the capital included. However, it is at this point that the language merges into Logudorese.

Campidanese Sardinian is intelligible to those from the central to southern part of Sardinia, where Logudorese Sardinian is spoken, and partly unintelligible to those from the extreme north of the island, where Corsican–Sardinian dialects are spoken. Italian speakers can hardly understand Campidanese: Sardinian is not a dialect of Italian as is often noted because morphological, synctatic, and lexical differences from standard Italian are so much that, for differentiation, it is an autonomous system of dialects, a language of its own.

Subvariants of the dialect[edit]

There are six main, mutually intelligible, subdialects of Campidanese: Arborense, Cagliaritano (Casteddaiu), Meridionale, Ogliastrino, Guspinese and Villacidrese Cagliaritano is the dialect of Campidanese spoken in the capital Cagliari; however, it extends to most of the neighbouring towns and villages within a 15 km radius of Cagliari.

Vocabulary[edit]

Campidanese has some borrowed words from Aragonese, Catalan and Spanish. Since the early twentieth century there was an increase in Italian borrowed words. This is particularly evident with technological words for which there is no Campidanese equivalent. However, many of the loan words from Italian have been changed phonetically so that they sound Sardinian. Italian loan words that end in an o, are often substituted with the letter u. The strong Campidanese accent also changes the sound of the word.

Writing system[edit]

Campidanese is written using the Latin alphabet. Like Italian, Campidanese does not use w and y. Campidanese also uses the digraphs gh, representing /g/, ch representing /k/ before e and i vowels, tz representing /ts/ and x, representing /ʒ/. In phonetic syntax, final or intervocalic t is pronounced as a /d/ (es: issu andat, he goes, is pronounced issu anda(da))and s is pronounced as a /z̪/, (es.sa mesa, the table, is pronounced sa mez̪a). When final s, t or nt is usually added as a helping vowel (es. sa domu, is domus(u), the house, the houses). If preceded by a consonant, an "i" is inserted before the normally-initial s (es: sa scala, is (i)scalas, the staircase, the staircases). The spelling rules were established by the Province of Cagliari with a deliberation in March 17, 2010.[2]

Medieval administrative text[edit]

(May 30 A.D. 1225)

Ego Benedicta de Lacon cum filiu miu donnigellu Guglelmu, per boluntadi de donnu Deu potestando parti de Calaris, fazzulli custa carta ad Sanctu Georgi de Sepollu de Gurgu et ad Sanctu Gorgoni et ad Sanctu Vittu pro beni ki llis fazzu pro Deu innanti et pro s'anima mia et de parentis mius. Dau potestadi et assoltura de paschiri et a aquari sa causa de Sanctu Georgi de Sebollu daa Serramanna fini ad s'oliastru de Semassi, k'esti paris cun s'ortu de sutta billa, berbeis et cabras, et porcus et baccas, et eguas et cavallus. Et no ndi levit pegus perunu pro terra maina et ni atera causa peruna ni ad sa dommu de Sanctu Georgi et ni ad sus serbus, nin pro Iuigi, nin pro donnigellu et nin pro curadori et nin pro armentariu et ni ad peruna personi de su mundu.

Poetry example[edit]

Femu cassadori (Efisiu Pintor Sirigu, Cagliari 1765 - 1814)

Femu cassadori, e tenemmu scupetta E mai una betta — emmu potziu cassai.

Ah! ita fortuna custorta appu tentu! Sendir'arziendi ind'una muntagnedda, Andendur'a cassa po divertimentu, Incontru passendiri una bettixedda Tanti bellixedda - sartiendi in s'arrocca, Beni fatte cocca - de corpus gratziosa; Fiat grandu cosa - su ddi ponni avatu; M'aturu unu tratu - po dda cuntemplai.

Po dda cuntemplai - m'aturu unu pagu Po dda biri sola sartiend'e gioghendi; M'arrimu a su truncu de unu bell'imbragu, Po mi benni a tiru femmu castiendi, Ma cunsiderendi - cementi pasciat, Mali mi pariat - su dda tenni morta: Resolvu de un' 'orta - de no dda bociri, Ddolemu sighiri - senz' 'e dda sparai.

Ddolemu sighiri - fìnzas aund'andàt Senz' 'e mi dda perdi de vista un'istanti, A dognia parti issa si castiàt, Po chi cassadori non fessit ananti, Ma deu costanti - in cudd' idea mia Sighemmu in sa bia - ch'issa caminàt Si si furriàt - deu m'acuammu, I attesu nd'andammu - po non m' osservai.

Po no m'osservai — de cussas alturas, E de un'altu boscu plenu de spinas, Deu dd'aspettammu in mesu a is planuras, Po dda ferri beni asutta de sa schina: Ma issa mischina - sa morti timendi, Andàt scartendi - cuddu logu claru, Po tenni reparu - de no essi bista, Caminendi crispa - po no dda ciappai.

Caminendi crispa - in cussu montixeddu, E scurta scurta senz' 'e si fidai; Ita fazzu deu, senza de cerbeddu Su passu de pressi mi pongu avanzai; A si furriai - benit a mi biri; Scappat a fuiri - coment' 'e unu lampu, Fuit de su campu - a mesu su padenti, Senz' 'e sciri comenti - dda podi incontrai.

No sciemu cementi - prus dda podi biri Cun disisperu de s'anima mia; Si de una parti dd' 'olemu sighiri, Mirendu s'arrastu, a bortas ddu perdiat; De tali genia - passu peda ratu; Sentendu su fattu - de m' essi inclarau; Non perdu coidau - camminu de pressi, Penzendi ch'iad essi - in logh' 'e riposai.

Penzendi, ch'iad essi - comenti giai fiat, Asutt' 'e una matta dda biu discanzendu, Dda miru, e m'acattu chi prus no podiat Scampai de mei, mischina, currendu; Dda biu dormendu - cun grandu dulciura; Biu s’ermosura – mi ndi parit mali, Chi corpu fatali - ddi trunchit sa vida: Senza de ferida - dd' 'olemu gosai.

Chi si est dormida - dda scidu in cust'ora... Mi ndi cumpassivu, e ndi tengu piedadi, Custa betta mia dd'arriservu ancora, Biendu chi portat tanti giustedadi, Canzau giai m'at - ma est gratziosa, No est mellus cosa - de dda biri gioghendu. Est lesta sartiendu - est med'attrattiva; Chi a prusu m'attriva - no mi fait plexeri; Giai ndi seu meri - no dd' 'ollu sparai.

Femu cassadori.

Prose work example[edit]

Po cantu Biddanoa - 1987

(Benvenuto Lobina 1914 - 1993)

Su trenu ’e Casteddu arribàda a mesudì. Ma de candu intràda in is furriàdas de Tacchenurri e ancora no si bìat, s’intendìat su ciuff ciuff e su fragu ’e su fumu, màssima candu tiràt bentu estu. Sa primu a si biri fut sa macchina, candu s’incraràda in sa trincera ’e terra arrùbia e fut po lompi a su scàmbiu. Tandu su ciuff ciuff si fìat prus forti, a cuncórdiu cun is istantuffus chi movìant is arrodas, e su trenu, sulendu fumu biancu finza a celu, saludàda alligru is acacias chi fùant abettendiddu, strantàxas pe parti che sordaus. Mancai fèssit cinc’oras currendu i èssit passau Campidanu, Partiolla, Trexenta e Sarcidanu, non parìat fadiau. Passau su scàmbiu arrallentàda e si ponìat a passu ’i ómini po intrai in istazioni: cun imponénzia, cun importànzia, cun totu is ògus de sa genti puntaus asuba, cumpràxiu. Ma candu si firmàda, asutta ’e is matas de ùlimu prus artas de sa stazioni, e sa genti cumenzàda a s’accostiai, s’ùrtimu ciuff parìat unu suspiru: fut própiu fadiau. Ma fut prexau su própiu, su trenu ’e Casteddu: a ananti ’e sa macchina is quattru numerus de lattoni – 1908 – brillìanta che unu sprigu, e su capustazioni, cun su berrettu arrùbiu in conca, fut benendu a dd’arricìri cun grandu arrespettu. Comente dónnia dì.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]