|Town or city||River Cole, Birmingham|
Sarehole Mill (grid reference SP099818) is a Grade II listed water mill (in an area once called Sarehole) on the River Cole in Hall Green, Birmingham, England. It is now run as a museum by the Birmingham City Council. It is one of only two working water mills in Birmingham, with the other being New Hall Mill in Walmley, Sutton Coldfield.
Built in 1542 on the site of a previous pool. It was once known as Bedell's or Biddle's Mill after the name of an early owner. In 1727 it was described as High Wheel Mill.
As early as 1755, the mill was leased by Matthew Boulton, one of the pioneers of the Industrial Revolution and leading figure of the Lunar Society, for scientific experimentation. It is believed he converted the machinery for use in metal working. As well as milling grain it has been used for grinding bones for fertiliser, metal rolling (Matthew Boulton) and wire drawing.
The current building dates from 1771 and was in use until 1919. Thereafter it fell into a state of disrepair and dereliction. A local community campaign to save the mill was launched when demolition was mooted, and was finally successful with the mill being restored in 1969.
As of April 2012 the mill pond has been drained in order to repair the sluice gates, and for the winter of 2012-13 it is planned to dredge the heavily silted mill pond.
Sarehole Mill is currently (2012) undergoing a £375,000 overhall of the roof, chimney and millpond and the water wheel is being restored to produce flour again. It is intended to sell bread baked in an oven unused for more than a century. Fifteen volunteers are about to be trained as millers to operate and demonstrate the mill.
In 1852 the water wheels at Sarehole Mill were supplemented by a single cylinder steam engine. Although water would have been the primary energy source powering the mill, the addition of a steam engine would have ensured uninterrupted operation of the mill. Unfortunately the original steam engine was at some point removed, the current engine is of similar size and capacity, being a single cylinder table engine of 16 hp (12 kW), albeit currently in a non-functioning state and of unknown manufacturer.
The current engine was installed as part of the restoration of the mill in 1975. It was formerly used by a sweet manufacturer, Smith Kendon Ltd, at their factories in England and Messina, Italy, where it was used up until 1948. It was donated to the Birmingham Museum of Science and Industry in 1952 before being moved to Sarehole.
J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien lived within 300 yards of the mill at around the turn of century, between the ages four and eight, and would have seen it from his house. The locale at that time was rural Worcestershire farmland and countryside. He has also said that he used the mill as a location in The Lord of the Rings, for the Mill at Hobbiton.
- It was a kind of lost paradise ... There was an old mill that really did grind corn with two millers, a great big pond with swans on it, a sandpit, a wonderful dell with flowers, a few old-fashioned village houses and, further away, a stream with another mill. I always knew it would go — and it did. - said Tolkien in an interview with Guardian journalist, John Ezard in 1966, before the mill's restoration.
The grassland and grounds nearby host the annual Tolkien Weekend event that celebrates the life and works of Tolkien. The mill is part of the Shire Country Park.
- Birmingham, page 13, Douglas Hickman, 1970, Studio Vista Ltd.
- Hall Green and Hereabout, John Morris JONES, ed. Michael Byrne 1989
- Here and Then - The past of Our District, John Morris JONES,
- A Guide to the Buildings of Birmingham, Peter Leather, ISBN 0-7524-2475-0
- "English Heritage Pastscape website page for Sarehole Mill". Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Sarehole Mill on-site information panel
- "The 1905 View Of Sarehole Mill hat Inspired J. R. R. Tolkien". Birmingham Mail online. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
- Ezard, John (28 December 1991). "The Guardian 1991 article on Sarehole titled Tolkien's shire". London. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- Birmingham Museums' pages on Sarehole Mill
- Shire Country Park
- Birmingham Grid for Learning - very detailed text by John Morris Jones
- The Guardian 1991 article on Sarehole titled Tolkien's shire
- Made in Birmingham
- Sarehole Mill - Service for schools - Educational teaching sessions and resources at Sarehole Mill
- Sarehole Mill for Kids - fun and games for children based on Sarehole Mill