|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2009)|
The sarrusophone is a family of transposing musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856. It was named after the French bandmaster Pierre-Auguste Sarrus (1813–1876) who is credited with the concept of the instrument, though it is not clear whether Sarrus benefited financially from this association. The instrument was intended to serve as a replacement in wind bands for the oboe and bassoon which, at that time, lacked the carrying power required for outdoor band music.
Sizes and ranges
The sarrusophone was manufactured in the following sizes and had the following theoretical ranges:
- E-flat Sopranino B♭-G (Sounding D♭-B♭)
- B-flat Soprano B♭-G (Sounding A♭-F)
- E-flat Alto B♭-G (Sounding D♭-B♭)
- B-flat Tenor B♭-G (Sounding A♭-F)
- E-flat Baritone A-G (Sounding C-B♭)
- B-flat Bass B♭-G (Sounding A♭-F)
- EE-flat Contrabass B♭-G (Sounding D♭-B♭)
- CC Contrabass B♭-G (Sounding B♭-G)
- BB-flat Contrabass B♭-G (Sounding A♭-F)
The non-transposed range of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone. The traditional conventional range of the saxophone is written B♭-F. Initially, Gautrot advertised the range of the sarrusophone to high F as well, but later fingering charts indicated a range to high G. Sometime after 1868, Gautrot also released a fingering chart indicating fingerings higher still up to a top B-flat, giving a range of three full octaves.
All members of the sarrusophone family are made of metal, with a conical bore, and the larger members of the family resemble the ophicleide in shape. Like the oboe and bassoon, all sizes of sarrusophone were originally designed to be played with a double reed. Later, single reed mouthpieces were developed which resemble alto or soprano saxophone mouthpieces. It is unclear if these were available for all sizes of the sarrusophone family, the most common examples being for the E♭ contrabass.
The fingering of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone. This similarity caused Adolphe Sax to file and lose at least one lawsuit against Gautrot, claiming infringement upon his patent for the saxophone. Sax lost on the grounds that the tone produced by the two families of instruments is markedly different, despite their mechanical similarities. However, because the sarrusophone never gained wide acceptance, makers were not inclined to develop its mechanism to the same extent as that of the saxophone.
Features of the sarrusophone's mechanism generally include:
- Non-automatic octave keys (necessary to produce the "standard" top 4th of its range). From sopranino through bass, 2 octave keys. The contra basses (and perhaps some basses) have 3, the 3rd key being used for the notes D and E♭ directly above the octave break, only
- No articulated G♯, bis B♭, F♯ trill keys or 1/1 and 1/2 B♭ as found on the saxophone. The top and bottom key stacks are not linked. Surprisingly though, a B to C trill key as found on the saxophone did more or less become standard
- The key for low B♭ is activated by the left thumb as opposed to the left little finger as on the saxophone
- A key for rapid alternation across the C-D break. This key can also be used to play high D as well. This may be taken to be an equivalent of the high D palm key of a saxophone, although on the sarrusophone the location of the touchpiece varied.
- No palm keys for playing the top range. Using the non-automatic register keys, 3rd harmonics are easily available, rendering palm keys unnecessary. The relatively narrow bore of the sarrusophone also aids in the rendering of these 3rd harmonics
On earlier instruments, the use of rollers on the low E♭ and C natural keys seems to have been more common than having them on the G♯, low C♯ and B natural keys. Additionally on some (all?) instruments made by Buffet in the early 20th century, the G♯ key is "semi-articulated" so that a G natural to G♯ trill can be made by an additional touchpiece for the right hand. Saxophones of this time period also have this mechanism. Additionally, there is no connection from G♯ to low C♯ or low B natural, which is also identical to how saxophones were constructed at that time.
The sarrusophone is rarely called for in orchestral music. However, around the turn of the 20th century, the contrabass sarrusophones in EE♭ and CC enjoyed a vogue, the latter as a substitute for the contrabassoon (the French model patterned after the German Heckel model, having been introduced later around 1906 by Buffet et al.) so that it is called for in, for example, Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde (1889), Visions (1891) and Suite parnassienne (1912); Maurice Ravel's Shéhérazade overture (1898), Rapsodie espagnole (1907) and L'heure espagnole (1907–09); Ignacy Jan Paderewski's Symphony in B minor "Polonia" (1903–08; 3 sarrusophones are called for); Frederick Delius's Requiem (1913–16) and Songs of Sunset (1906–07); and Arrigo Boito's Nerone (1924). Igor Stravinsky included a part for contrabass sarrusophone in Threni. The composer Paul Dukas used the contrabass sarrusophone to great effect in 1897 in his The Sorcerer's Apprentice, where the instrument begins the bassoon's macabre dance motif (familiar to all who recall Disney's animated film Fantasia). These parts are nowadays all normally played on the contrabassoon, though recordings of at least some of these pieces using sarrusophones are extant. In general when the term "sarrusophone" is used, it usually refers to the EE♭ contrabass which appears to have been made in larger numbers than any other size. It should be pointed out that although the CC contrabass was perhaps envisioned for these and other orchestral works, few instruments were made and those that did exist were most likely the property of the orchestras that they were made for. The CC contrabass has a range that is identical to the contrabassoon, while the EE♭ contrabass, while having the same written range as the CC, due to its key, lacks the lowest 3 notes of the contrabassoon's range (C, B, B♭).
The EE♭ contrabass has also been used as an alternative to the EE♭ contrabass saxophone, which due to its large size is impractical in many musical situations, especially marching.
Until recently, the BB♭ contrabass had the distinguishing feature of being the lowest pitched reed instrument ever placed in production, since it is capable of producing a low A♭, one semitone lower than the lowest note on the standard piano and the extended range contrabassoon's low A. However, the German instrument maker Benedikt Eppelsheim has recently introduced a brand new instrument called the tubax (a saxophone hybrid), one model of which, the BB♭ subcontrabass, also has A♭ as its lowest pitch.
The French firm of G. Leblanc for many years (1950s-1980s?) featured photographs of its EEE♭ octocontra-alto and BBB♭ octocontrabass clarinets, instruments that could play lower still, in its advertising. However, despite their notoriety and frequent citing in books on musical instruments and in on-line discussion forums, these instruments were never placed in production and were, perhaps, more along the lines of engineering achievements and curiosities (despite the fact that the EEE♭ model could be a viable instrument, it is said that only three were made). Even then, it appears that few BB♭ contrabass sarrusophones were ever built, the EE♭ being much more portable and perhaps, practical.
In the concert band literature, Percy Grainger used the EE♭ contrabass in the original scoring of his children's march "Over the Hills and Far Away". In early 20th century Italian band scores, parts for the B♭ tenor, E♭ baritone, and B♭ bass sarrusophones as well as the contrabass are common. It appears that higher members of the sarrusophone family were not as popular as the lower members, with the sopranino in E♭ along with its distant cousin, the high E♭ oboe, being particularly rare. For the most part, the use of the sarrusophone was primarily in France, Italy and Spain. During or after World War I, US Military personnel noted the use of the contrabass sarrusophone in French military bands and thereafter, commissioned the U.S. firm Conn to manufacture the EE♭ contrabass for use in U.S. military bands beginning in approximately 1921, as per Conn's advertising of the time. The initial order was for 148 instruments. The instrument was offered for sale to the general public as well, but production appears to have ceased in the 1930s. Conns as late as 1936 are known to exist. Beginning in 1921, the John Philip Sousa band used the Conn sarrusophone for an unknown period of time. In Germany, the instrument was practically unknown (although, curiously, Heckel stated in its 1930 catalog that sarrusophones could be made on demand), and in England, there may have been limited use of the instrument, but it never caught on there. In 1908 when Sir Thomas Beecham wished to perform the work "Apollo and the Seaman" by the British composer Josef Holbrooke (who had included parts for several sizes of sarrusophones), the sarrusophone parts had to be played by performers brought over from France. Paderewski included three E♭ contrabass sarrusophones in his Symphony in B Minor ("Polonia").
Frank Zappa used the E♭ contrabass sarrusophone in his scores for "Think It Over", "Big Swifty", "Ulterior Motive", "The Adventures of Greggery Peccary", "For Calvin", "Waka/Jawaka", and many others. These pieces can be found on his albums "Waka/Jawaka", "The Grand Wazoo", & "Zappa/Wazoo". The sarrusophone was played by Earl Dumler. In 2010, Franklin Stover composed a Double Concerto for E♭ sarrusophone, bass clarinet and orchestra.
A very unusual example of the sarrusophone in jazz is on the 1924 recording by the Clarence Williams Blue 5 of "Mandy, Make Up Your Mind," with the sarrusophone played by the jazz soprano saxophone and clarinet virtuoso Sidney Bechet. One can conjecture that the sarrusophone played was most likely a contrabass with a single reed mouthpiece, as Bechet was not a trained double reed player. Bechet later denied having ever played the sarrusophone. According to the biography by Chilton, Sidney "pulled a face" when asked about the solo on "Mandy", though he did not deny playing it.
In the 1970s and 1980s the American jazz musician Gerald Oshita (based in Chicago and the San Francisco Bay Area and associated with Roscoe Mitchell) played avant-garde jazz on an EE♭ contrabass manufactured by Conn. More recently (1990–2006), recordings using sarrusophone have been released by saxophonists Scott Robinson, Lenny Pickett, James Carter, and Paul Winter.
Today, the sarrusophone is used in a handful of symphonic wind ensembles and as a novelty instrument on occasions. There appears to be a resurgence of interest in the instrument and there are amateur players (mostly the EE♭ contrabass). Bruce Broughton made extensive use of a contrabass sarrusophone in his score for the film Tombstone.
The tone of the sarrusophone is less clear but much reedier than that of the saxophone. In humorous terms, the sarrusophone can be said to sound rather "industrial" or perhaps "unrefined." New sarrusophones can still be bought by request from the Orsi Instrument Company, in Italy. Historically, Orsi, Rampone (later Rampone & Cazzani), Buffet (under the ownership of Evette & Schaeffer), Conn (E♭ contrabass only), Gautrot and Couesnon (Gautrot's successor) were the best known and possibly, only makers that produced in quantity.
The somewhat harsh tone quality of the sarrusophone and the need for a double reed may have contributed to it not becoming a standard member of the wind band. Additionally, although originally intended to replace the oboe and the bassoon, the practical ranges of the corresponding sarrusophones, the soprano and bass, as per famed band conductor Edwin Franko Goldman and organologist Anthony Baines, did not lend themselves to proper playing of oboe and bassoon parts, especially in orchestra transcriptions for wind band.
The need for a contrabass pitched woodwind has existed since at least the 19th century. During the 19th century and into the 20th there were sporadic attempts by Sax, Buffet, Besson and others to build a successful contrabass clarinet in either E♭ or B♭. In the early 1930s, upon the suggestion of the American Bandmaster's Association, the French firm Selmer succeeded when they introduced their E♭ contrabass model (the popular E♭ and B♭ contrabass models by the French firm LeBlanc not being placed into production until the late 1940s, although invented earlier). It can be conjectured that the compactness and musical qualities of these instruments may have contributed to the non-use of the sarrusophone, as they are now very common in musical circles ranging from junior high school through professional.
The rothphone, also known as the rothophone or saxarrusophone, is a sarrusophone hybrid that is rewrapped to look like a saxophone. It was manufactured by the German born (Adorf im Vogtland) maker Roth of Milan and was introduced around 1900, but found no popular acceptance, even in Italy (some instruments may be labeled Bottali, as Antonio Bottali was Ferdinando Roth's son-in-law and took over the company after Roth's death in 1898). They are, nowadays, even less common than the sarrusophone. They came in sizes from soprano to bass. It had a less conical and wide bore than both the saxophone and the sarrusophone. As per advertising of the time, the well-known American saxophone manufacturer, Buescher imported a number of these instruments into the United States during the late 1920s or early 1930s, perhaps as an answer to C.G. Conn's production of the contrabass sarrusophone. Per advertisements for this instrument and photos that have appeared in books, the lowest note on the Rothphone is a low B natural, not low B flat as with the saxophone and sarrusophone. In the 1930s the band at the University of Illinois under Austin Harding had a full sarrusophone section from soprano to E♭ contrabass that included at least the tenor rothphone. However, this appears to have been an isolated use of the instrument.
- Bruce Broughton, OMPS "Tombstone", liner notes, Intrada (1993).