Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Sarsanghachalak)
Jump to: navigation, search
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Flag of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.png
Official logo of the RSS
Abbreviation RSS
Formation 27 September 1925 (89 years ago) (1925-09-27)
Founder Keshav Baliram Hedgewar
Type Right-wing volunteer,[1] paramilitary[2][3][4][5][6]
Purpose Supporting Hindu nationalism[7]
Headquarters Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Coordinates 21°02′N 79°10′E / 21.04°N 79.16°E / 21.04; 79.16Coordinates: 21°02′N 79°10′E / 21.04°N 79.16°E / 21.04; 79.16
Region served India
Membership 5-6 million[8][9]
50,000 shakhas[8]
Official language Hindi
Chief Mohan Bhagwat
Affiliations Sangh Parivar
Mission "Selfless Service to Motherland"
Website www.rss.org

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) (pronunciation: [rɑːʂˈʈriːj(ə) swəjəmˈseːvək ˈsəŋɡʱ], lit. "National Volunteer Organization"[10] or National Patriotic Organization[11]) is a right-wing charitable, educational, volunteer, Hindu nationalist,[5] non-governmental organization.[4][1] It is the world's largest voluntary non-governmental organization.[12][13] RSS states that its ideology is based on the principle of selfless service to India.

The RSS was founded on Vijayadasami Day, 27 September 1925 as a social organization to provide character training through Hindu discipline, to unite the Hindu community[14] in overcoming caste-based divisions, to counter British colonialism in India, and to suppress Muslim separatism.[15] It proclaims its ideal as upholding Indian culture and civilizational values more than anything else.[16]

The organization initially drew inspiration from European right-wing groups during WWII.[15] RSS volunteers participated in various political and social movements including the Indian independence movement.[1] Gradually the organization grew to become an extremely prominent Hindu nationalist group in India.[15] By the 1990s, allied organizations had also established numerous schools, charities and clubs to spread its ideological beliefs.[15]

It was set up as an alternative to the politics of mass anti-colonial struggle.[17] It has been criticised as an extremist organization and as a paramilitary group.[2][3][6] It has also been criticised when its members participated in anti-Muslim violence [18] and has since formed militant wing Bajrang Dal.[15][19] Along with other extremist organizations the RSS was involved in a wide range of riots, often inciting and organizing violence against Christians[20] and Muslims.[5]

It was banned during the British rule,[15] and then thrice by the post-independence Indian government — first in 1948 when Nathuram Godse, a former RSS member,[21] assassinated Mahatma Gandhi;[15][22][23] then during the emergency (1975–77); and after the demolition of Babri Masjid in 1992. The ban imposed in February 1948 was withdrawn unconditionally in July 1948.[24] The ban during 1975-77 was a part of the illegal suspension of individual and collective human rights during the emergency. After Indira Gandhi lost the elections, the new government withdrew restrictions on human rights. The ban in 1992 was lifted in the absence of material evidence for supporting a ban.[25]

History

Founding

An RSS volunteer taking the oath in full uniform

RSS was founded in 1925 by Keshav Baliram Hedgewar, who was a doctor in the city of Nagpur, British India.[26] Hedgewar as a medical student in Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) had been a part of the revolutionary activities of the Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar striving to free India from British rule.[27] He had been charged with sedition in 1921 by the British Administration and was imprisoned for one year.[28]

Hedgewar was educated by his elder brother. He then decided to study medicine in Calcutta, West Bengal. He was sent there by B. S. Moonje in 1910 to pursue his medical studies. There he lived with Shyam Sundar Chakravarthy[29] and learned the techniques of fighting from secret revolutionary organisations like the Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar in Bengal. He is said to have joined Anushilan Samiti and he had contacts with revolutionaries like Ram Prasad Bismil.[30]

Previously he was involved in such type of revolutionary activities, this fact has been disclosed by so many writers viz. C. P. Bhishikar,[31] M. S. Golwalkar,[32] K. S. Sudarshan[33] and Rakesh Sinha.[34]

After completing his studies and graduating, he returned to Nagpur, inspired by the armed movement. In his memoirs, the third chief of RSS, Balasahab Deoras narrates an incident when Hedgewar saved him and others from following the path of Bhagat Singh and his comrades.[35] Later he left the revolutionary organisations in the year 1925 and formed the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.

A rare group photo of six initial swayamsevaks taken on the occasion of a RSS meeting held in 1939[36]

Since Hedgewar was primarily associated with the Hindustan Republican Association, he adopted the full constitution of erstwhile HRA and implemented it forcibly in his newly established organisation RSS later on. The RSS first met in 1925 just after two months of Kakori train robbery in a small ground of Nagpur with 5-6 persons on Vijaya Dashami. After the formation of the RSS, Hedgewar kept the organisation away from having any direct affiliation to any of the political organisations then fighting British rule.[37] But Hedgewar and his team of volunteers, took part in the Indian National Congress, led movements against the British rule. Hedgewar was arrested in the Jungle Satyagraha agitation in 1931 and served a second term in prison.[28][27][38]

During World War II RSS leaders openly admired Adolf Hitler.[39] Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, who became the supreme leader of the RSS after Hedgewar, drew inspiration from Adolf Hitler's ideology of race purity.[40] RSS leaders were supportive of the Jewish State of Israel, including Savarkar himself, who supported Israel during its formation.[41] While Golwalkar admired Jews for maintaining their "religion, culture and language".[42]

Atal Bihari Vajpayee first swayamsevak to become Prime Minister of India.

Indian independence movement

The RSS portrayed itself as a social movement and refused to consider itself a political party, and did not play any role in many of the efforts in Indian independence movement.[43] When the Congress passed the Purna Swaraj resolution in 1930, Hedgewar asked all the RSS branches to hoist the Indian flag and organize lectures on the need for independence.[44] However, the RSS emphatically rejected Gandhiji's willingness to cooperate with Muslims in the Anti-British struggle.[43] In 1934, Congress passed a resolution prohibiting its members from joining RSS, Hindu Mahasabha or Muslim League.[44]

Golwalkar did not want to give the British any excuse to ban the RSS.[45] When the British Government banned military drills and use of uniforms in non-official organizations, Golwalkar terminated the RSS military department.[45]

Activities during partition

The Partition of India affected millions of Sikhs, Hindus, and Muslims attempting to escape the violence and carnage that followed.[46] Noted Gandhian and recipient of the highest civilian award in India, Bharat Ratna, Bhagwan Das commended the role of the "high-spirited and self-sacrificing boys" of the RSS in protecting the newly formed Republic of India, from a planned coup to topple the Jawaharlal Nehru Administration in Delhi.[47][48]

First ban and the acquittal

Following Mahatma Gandhi's assassination in 1948 by a former member[23] of the RSS, Nathuram Godse, many prominent leaders of the RSS were arrested and RSS as an organisation was banned on 4 February 1948. A Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to murder of Gandhi was set and its report was published by India's Ministry of Home Affairs in the year 1970. Accordingly Justice Kapur Commission[49] noted that the "RSS as such were not responsible for the murder of Mahatma Gandhi, meaning thereby that one could not name the organisation as such as being responsible for that most diabolical crime, the murder of the apostle of peace. It has not been proved that they (the accused) were members of the RSS."[49]:165

RSS Leaders were acquitted of the conspiracy charge by the Supreme Court of India and following an intervention by the Court, the Indian Government agreed to lift the ban with condition that the RSS adopt a formal constitution. The second Sarsanghachalak, Golwalkar drafted the constitution for the RSS which he sent to the government in March 1949. In July of the same year, after many negotiations over the constitution and its acceptance, the ban on RSS was lifted.[26]

Decolonisation of Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Goa

After the independence of India, RSS was one of the socio-political organisations who supported and participated in movements to decolonise Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which was at the time ruled by Portuguese colonists. In early 1954, volunteers Raja Wakankar and Nana Kajrekar of the RSS visited the area round about Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman several times to study the topography and also to get acquainted with locals who wanted to switch from being a Portuguese colony to being an Indian union territory. In April 1954, the RSS formed a coalition with the National Movement Liberation Organization (NMLO), and the Azad Gomantak Dal (AGD) for the liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[50] On the night of 21 July, United front of Goans, a group, working independently of the coalition, captured the Portuguese police station at Dadra and declared Dadra as free. Subsequently on 28 July, volunteer teams of the RSS and AGD captured the territories of Naroli and Phiparia and ultimately the capital of Silvassa. The Portuguese forces which escaped and moved towards Nagar Haveli, were assaulted at Khandvel and were forced to retreat till they surrendered to the Indian border police at Udava on 11 August 1954. A native administration was set up with Appasaheb Karmalkar of NMLO as the Administrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli on 11 August 1954.[50]

The liberation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli gave a boost to the movement against the Portuguese colonialism in the Republic of India.[50] In 1955, RSS leaders demanded the end of Portuguese rule in Goa and its integration into India. When Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru refused to provide an armed intervention, RSS leader Jagannath Rao Joshi led the Satyagraha agitation straight into Goa itself. He was imprisoned with his followers by the Portuguese police. The peaceful protests continued but met with severe repressions. On 15 August 1955, the Portuguese police opened fire on the satyagrahis, killing thirty or so civilians.[51]

War-time activities

The RSS was invited by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to take part in the Republic Day parade of 1963 in recognition of its volunteer work during the Sino-Indian War in 1962.[52] This event helped the RSS improve its popularity and strengthen its nationalist image.[53]

During Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri requested RSS cadres to help control traffic in Delhi, so policemen could be freed for defence duties.[52]

In 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence, RSS volunteers offered their services to maintain law and order of the country and were apparently the first to donate blood.[54]

Movement against the Emergency

In 1975, the Indira Gandhi government proclaimed emergency rule in India, thereby suspending the fundamental rights and curtailing the freedom of the press.[55] This extreme step was taken after the Supreme Court of India, cancelled her election to the Indian Parliament on charges of malpractices in the election.[55] Democratic institutions were suspended and prominent opposition leaders including Gandhian Jayaprakash Narayan, were arrested whilst thousands of people were detained without any proper charges taken up against them.[56] RSS, which was seen close to opposition leaders, and with its large organizational base was seen to have potential of organizing protests against the government, was also banned.[57] Police clamped down on the organization and thousands of its workers were imprisoned.[27]

The RSS defied the ban and thousands participated in Satyagraha against the ban and against the violation of human rights regulations. Later, when there was no letup, the volunteers of the RSS formed underground movements for the restoration of democracy. Literature that was censored in the media was clandestinely published and distributed on a large scale and funds were collected for the movement. Networks were established between leaders of different political parties in the jail and outside for the coordination of the movement.[58] It said that the movement was "dominated by tens of thousands of RSS cadres, though more and more young recruits are coming". Talking about its objectives it said "its platform at the moment has only one plank: to bring democracy back to India".[59] The Emergency was lifted in 1977 and as a consequence the ban on the RSS too was lifted.

Participation in land reforms

It has been noted that the RSS volunteers participated in the Bhoodan movement organised by Gandhian leader Vinobha Bhave, who had met RSS leader Golwalkar in Meerut in November 1951. Golwalkar had been inspired by the movement that encouraged land reforms through voluntary means. He pledged the support of the RSS for this movement.[60] Consequently, many RSS volunteers led by Nanaji Deshmukh participated in the movement.[1] But Golwalkar has also been critical of the Bhoodan movement, on other occasions for being reactionary and for working "merely with a view to counteracting Communism". He believed that the movement should inculcate a right and positive faith in the masses that can make them rise above the base appeal of communism.[61]

Structure

RSS does not have any formal membership. According to the official website, anyone can become member by joining the nearest "shakha", which is the basic unit.[62] Although the RSS claims not to keep membership records, it is estimated to have 2.5-6.0 million members.[63] The number of shakhas stood at 44,982 at the end of 2013.[64]

Sarsanghchalaks

The Sarsanghchalak is the head of the RSS organisation; the position is decided through nomination by predecessor. The individuals who have held the post of sarsanghchalak in this organisation are:

Shakha

Sangh shakha at Nagpur headquarter

"Shakha" is Hindi for "branch". Most of the organisational work of the RSS is done through the coordination of shakhas or branches. These shakhas are run for one hour in public places. In 2004, more than 51,000 shakhas were run throughout India. The number of Shakas had fallen by over 10,000 since the fall of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led government in 2004. However, the number of Shakas has again increased to about 40,000 by mid 2014 after the return of BJP to power in Delhi in the same year.[64][65][66]

The shakhas conduct various activities for its volunteers which include physical fitness activities through yoga, exercises and games. It has other activities which emphasize on qualities like civic sense, social service, community living and patriotism.[67] The volunteers are trained in first aid and in rescue and rehabilitation operations. The volunteers are also encouraged to get involved in the developmental activities of the village or locality.[67][68]

Mission

Golwalkar describes the mission of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as the revitalisation of the Indian value system based on universalism and peace and prosperity to all.[61] Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, the worldview that the whole world is one family, propounded by the ancient thinkers of India, is considered as the ultimate mission of the organisation.[69][clarification needed]

But the immediate focus, the leaders believe, is on the Hindu renaissance, which would build an egalitarian society and a strong India that could propound this philosophy. Hence, the focus is on social reform, economic upliftment of the downtrodden and the protection of cultural diversity of the natives in India.[69] The organisation says, it aspires to unite all Hindus and build a strong India, which could contribute to the welfare of the world. In the words of RSS ideologue and the second head of the RSS, Golwalkar, "in order to be able to contribute our unique knowledge to mankind, in order to be able to live and strive for the unity and welfare of the world, we stand before the world as a self-confident, resurgent and mighty nation".[61]

In Vichardhara (en. Bunch of Thoughts) [Golwalkar affirms the RSS mission of integration as:[61]

RSS has been making determined efforts to inculcate in our people the burning devotion for Bharat and its national ethos; kindle in them the spirit of dedication and sterling qualities and character; rouse social consciousness, mutual good-will, love and cooperation among them all; to make them realise that casts, creeds and languages are secondary and that service to the nation is the supreme end and to mold their behaviour accordingly; instill in them a sense of true humility and discipline and train their bodies to be strong and robust so as to shoulder any social responsibility; and thus to create all-round Anushasana in all walks of life and build together all our people into a unified harmonious national whole, extending from Himalayas to Kanyakumari.

M. S. Golwalkar

Golwalkar also explains that RSS does not intend to compete in electioneering politics or share power. The movement considers Hindus as inclusive of Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, tribals, untouchables, Veerashaivism, Arya Samaj, Ramakrishna Mission, etc. as a community, a view similar to inclusive referencing of the term Hindu in the Indian Constitution.[70][71][72]

When it came to non-Hindu religions, Golwalkar's (who once supported Hitler's creation of a supreme race by suppression of minorities)[73] view on minorities was that of extreme intolerance. In a magazine article in 1998 some RSS, and its political offshoot BJP's members have been said to have distanced itself from M.S Golwalkar's views though not entirely.[74]

The non-Hindu people of Hindustan must either adopt Hindu culture and languages, must learn and respect and hold in reverence the Hindu religion, must entertain no idea but of those of glorification of the Hindu race and culture...in a word they must cease to be foreigners; Or may stay in the country, wholly subordinated to the Hindu nation, claiming nothing, deserving no privileges, far less any preferential treatment— not even citizens' rights

M. S. Golwalkar[75]

Affiliated organizations

Further information: Sangh Parivar

Organisations which are inspired by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh's ideology refer themselves as the members of the Sangh Parivar.[63] In most of the cases, pracharaks (full-time volunteers of the RSS) were deputed to start-up and manage these organisations in their initial years.
The affiliated organisations include:[76]

Besides above organizations, many other Hindu organisations take inspiration from RSS's philosophy.

RSS has never directly contested elections, but supports parties that are ideologically similar. Although RSS generally endorses the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), yet at times had refused to do so due to difference of opinion with the party. Also, RSS is open to support any political party that subscribes to its views.[82][83]

Of late, the volunteers of the RSS have also held prominent political and administrative positions in India including the Prime Minister of India, the Vice President of India, the Home Minister and Ministers in the Central Government, Governors and Chief Ministers of various states and the members of elected bodies at the state and the national level and also the Indian ambassador to the US[84][85][86]

Social service and reform

The RSS has advocated the training of Dalits and other backward classes as temple high priests (a position traditionally reserved for Caste Brahmins and denied to lower castes). They argue that the social divisiveness of the Caste system is responsible for the lack of adherence to Hindu values and traditions and reaching out to the lower castes in this manner will be a remedy to the problem.[87] The RSS has also condemned "upper-caste" Hindus for preventing Dalits from worshipping at temples, saying that "even God will desert the temple in which Dalits cannot enter".[88]

Christophe Jaffrelot finds that "there is insufficient data available to carry out a statistical analysis of social origins of the early RSS leaders" but goes on to conclude, based on some known profiles that most of the RSS founders and its leading organisers, with exceptions were Maharashtrian Brahmins from middle or lower class[89] and argues that the pervasiveness of the Brahminical ethic in the organisation was probably the main reason why it failed to attract support from the low castes. He argues that the "RSS resorted to instrumentalist techniques of ethno-religious mobilisation—in which its Brahminism was diluted—to overcome this handicap".[90] However Anderson and Damle (1987) find that members of all castes have been welcomed into the organisation and are treated as equals.[1]

During M. K. Gandhi's visit to RSS Camp accompanied by Mahadev Desai and Mirabehn at Wardha in 1934, he was surprised by the discipline and the absence of untouchability in RSS and commented "When I visited the RSS Camp, I was very much surprised by your discipline and absence of untouchablity." He personally inquired to Swayamsevaks and found that they were living and eating together in the camp without bothering to know their castes.[91]

Bhimrao Ambedkar while visiting the RSS camp at Pune in 1939 observed that Swayamsevaks were moving in absolute equality and brotherhood without even caring to know the caste of others.[92] In his address to the Swayamsevaks, he said, "This is the first time that I am visiting the camp of Sangh volunteers. I am happy to find absolute equality between Savarniyas (Upper cast) and Harijans (Lower cast) without any one being aware of such difference existing." When he asked Hedgewar whether there were any untouchables in the camp, he replied that there are neither "touchables" nor "untouchables" but only Hindus.[93]

It is noted that RSS provides education to people of rural India and socially backward classes living under the poverty.[94]

In 2009, RSS claimed that western brands like Pepsi and Coca-Cola were corrupting Indian culture, and introduced the cow urine soda Gau jal. The drink contained cow urine with flavors such as aloe vera and some Ayurvedic herbs. The organization believes that the "cow urine is known to treat up to 80 different incurable diseases, including diabetes".[95]

Relief and rehabilitation

The RSS was instrumental in relief efforts after the 1971 Orissa Cyclone, 1977 Andhra Pradesh Cyclone[96] and in the 1984 Bhopal disaster.[97][98] It assisted in relief efforts during the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and helped rebuild villages.[96][99] Approximately 35,000 RSS members in uniform were engaged in the relief efforts,[100] and many of their critics acknowledged their role.[101] An RSS-affiliated NGO, Seva Bharati, conducted relief operations in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Activities included building shelters for the victims, providing food, clothes and medical necessities.[102] The RSS assisted relief efforts during the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the subsequent tsunami.[103] Seva Bharati also adopted 57 children (38 Muslims and 19 Hindus) from militancy affected areas of Jammu and Kashmir to provide them education at least up to Higher Secondary level.[104][105] They have also taken care of victims of the Kargil War of 1999.[106]

In 2006, RSS participated in relief efforts to provide basic necessities such as food, milk, and potable water to the people of Surat, Gujarat who were affected by massive floods in the region.[107][non-primary source needed] The RSS volunteers carried out relief and rehabilitation work after the floods ravaged North Karnataka and some districts of the state of Andhra Pradesh.[108] In 2013, following the Uttarakhand floods, RSS volunteers were involved in flood-relief works through its offices set up at various affected areas.[109][110]

Court Rulings on RSS

The State of Madhya Pradesh Vs Ramshanker Raghuvanshi

Many cases have been reported in post-independence India where RSS volunteers have been discriminated against by the government due to their allegiance to the RSS.[111] In a court case of a teacher who was dismissed from service due to his past links with the RSS, the Supreme Court of India called the government's action as "McCarthyism" and a "violation of fundamental rights".[112][113][114]

A municipal school teacher, Ramshanker Raghuvanshi, was dismissed by the Congress government of Madhya Pradesh in 1974, which stated that he had taken "part in the RSS" activities and thus may have been "not a fit person to be entertained in Government service". The Supreme Court dismissed the arguments of the government and stated that the government had not adhered to the provisions of the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court bench consisting of Justice Syed Murtuza Fazalali and Justice O. Chinnappa Reddy observed that "India is not a police state" and pleaded that the "promise of fundamental rights enshrined in the Indian Constitution not become a forgotten chapter of history". Delivering the landmark judgment, the Court claimed that it believes "seeking a police report on person's political faith", in the first place, "amounted to the violation of fundamental rights". The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the municipal teacher and ordered his reinstatement.[112][113][114]

State of Karnataka v. Ranganathacharya Agnihotri

Similar decisions were made by the High courts of different states of India in different cases of political persecution of RSS volunteers.[111] One case involved Ranganathacharya Agnihotri, who was selected for the post of Munsiff but was not absorbed into service at least partially because he had been a volunteer of the RSS in his past. When Agnihotri approached to the then High Court of Mysore (now Karnataka High Court), he was reinstated. The Court put forth:

Prima facie the RSS is a non-political cultural organization without any hatred or ill will towards non-Hindus and that many eminent and respected persons in the country have not hesitated to preside over the functions or appreciate the work of its volunteers. In a country like ours which has accepted the democratic way of life (as ensured by the Constitution), it would not be within reason to accept the proposition that mere membership of such peaceful or non-violent association and participation in activities thereof, will render a person (in whose character and antecedents there are no other defects) unsuitable to be appointed to the post of a Munsiff.

Darshan Lal Jain Vs C R Irani and Others

On 15 January 2000, The Statesman carried a story about the RSS that depicted the RSS as the killer of Gandhi.[115] Subsequently the Delhi unit of the RSS filed a criminal case of defamation against author of the article A. G. Noorani along with the cartoonist and the Managing Director of the publishing house. When two of the accused did not respond to the Court summons, non-bailable warrants were issued in their name by the Court.[116] On 25 February 2002, Noorani wrote an unconditional apology to the court in which he regretted writing the defamatory article against the RSS. On 3 March 2002, The Statesman also published an apology regretting the publication of the article.[117][118]

Others

The RSS also has been banned in India thrice, during periods in which the government of the time posed that they were a threat to the state: in 1948 after Mahatma Gandhi's assassination, during the Emergency (1975–77), and after the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition. The bans were subsequently lifted, in 1949 after the RSS was absolved of charges in the Gandhi murder case, in 1977 as a result of the Emergency being revoked, and in 1993 when no evidence of any unlawful activities was found against it by the tribunal constituted under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. [119]

Reception

Field Marshal Cariappa in his speech to RSS volunteers said "RSS is my heart's work. My dear young men, don't be disturbed by uncharitable comments of interested persons. Look ahead! Go ahead! The country is standing in need of your services"[120]

Zakir Hussain, former President of India told Milad Mehfil in Monghyar on 20 November 1949, "The allegations against RSS of violence and hatred against Muslims are wholly false. Muslims should learn the lesson of mutual love, cooperation and organization from RSS.[121][122]

Gandhian leader and the leader of Sarvoday movement, Jayaprakash Narayan, who earlier was a vocal opponent of RSS had the following to say about it in 1977 "RSS is a revolutionary organisation. No other organisation in the country comes anywhere near it. It alone has the capacity to transform society, end casteism and wipe the tears from the eyes of the poor." He further added "I have great expectations from this revolutionary organisation which has taken up the challenge of creating a new India."[57]

Criticisms and accusations

Christophe Jaffrelot, Director of the Center for Studies and Research (CERI), observes that although the RSS with its paramilitary style of functioning and its emphasis on discipline has sometimes been seen by some as "an Indian version of fascism",[123] he argues that RSS's ideology treats society as an organism with a secular spirit, which is implanted not so much in the race as in a socio-cultural system and which will be regenerated over the course of time by patient work at the grassroots. He writes that ideology of the RSS did not develop a theory of the state and the race, a crucial elements in European nationalisms; Nazism and Fascism"[123] and that the RSS leaders were interested in cultural as opposed to racial sameness.[124]

The likening of the Sangh Parivar to "fascism" by Western critics has also been countered by Jyotirmaya Sharma who labelled it as an "attempt by them to depress indian patriotism and unity". And that such "simplistic transference" has done great injustice to our knowledge of Hindu nationalist politics.[125]

In response to a high-profile gang rape in Delhi, Mohan Bhagwat, the head of RSS, stated that such incidents only happen in cities, not villages. He further blamed "western values" for the increase in rapes in India. Women's groups have countered that statistics show that rapes in rural India often go unreported.[126] Bhagwat's remarks created a controversy and were criticised by activists and other political parties.[127]

Involvement with riots

The RSS has been censured for its involvement in communal riots.

After giving careful and serious consideration to all the materials that are on record,the Commission is of the view that the RSS with its extensive organisation in jamshedpur and which had close links with the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh had a positive hand in creating a climate which was most propitious for the outbreak of communal disturbances.

In the first instance, the speech of Shri Deoras (delivered just five days before the Ram Navami festival) tended to encourage the Hindu extremists to be unyielding in their demands regarding Road No. 14. Secondly, his speech amounted to communal propaganda. Thirdly, the shakhas and the camps that were held during the divisional conference presented a militant atmosphere to the Hindu public. In the circumstances, the commission cannot but hold the RSS responsible for creating a climate for the disturbances that took place on the 11th of April, 1979

— Jitendra Narayan in a report on Jamshedpur riots of 1979[128][129]

Human Rights Watch, a non-governmental organisation for human rights based in New York, has claimed that the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (World Hindu Council, VHP), the Bajrang Dal, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the BJP have been party to the Gujarat violence that erupted after 56 Hindus were burnt alive in a coach of Sabarmati Express train at Godhra station by a Muslim mob.[130] Local VHP, BJP and BD leaders have been named in many police reports filed by eyewitnesses.[131] RSS and VHP claimed that they made appeals to put an end to the violence and to have asked their supporters and volunteer staff to prevent any activity that might disrupt peace.[132]

Religious violence in Odisha

Christian groups accuse the RSS alongside its close affiliates, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), the Bajrang Dal (BD) and the Hindu Jagaran Sammukhya (HJS) of participation in the 2008 Religious violence in Odisha.[133]

A US-based Christian charity working in Orissa claimed that Hindu extremists persuaded mobs to kill Christians and destroy their homes.[133] RSS disputed the allegations, calling them "absolutely false" and blamed the Indian National Congress for the violence.[133][134] The violence was triggered by the murder of a senior VHP member Swami Lakshamananda Saraswati.[135] The police have arrested Pradesh Kumar Das, an employee of the World Vision, a Christian Charity, from Khadagpur while escaping from the district at Buguda. In another drive, two other persons Vikram Digal and William Digal have been arrested from the house of Lal Digal, a local militant Christian, from Nuasahi at Gunjibadi, Nuagaan. They have admitted to having joined a group of 28 other assailants.[136] RSS/HJS blamed Mr. Radha Kanta Nayak, a member of Congress party of being responsible for the killing and accused a non-governmental organisation supported by him, World Vision, of being involved in religious conversions.[134]

Involvement in Babri Masjid demolition

According to the report of the Liberhan Commission the Sangh Parivar organised the destruction of the Babri Masjid.[18][137] The Commission said- "The blame or the credit for the entire temple construction movement at Ayodhya must necessarily be attributed to the Sangh Parivar".[138] It also noted that the Sangh Parivar is an "extensive and widespread organic body", which encompasses organizations, which address and bring together just about every type of social, professional and other demographic grouping of individuals.

Each time, a new demographic group has emerged, the Sangh Parivar has hived off some of its RSS inner-core leadership to harness that group and bring it within the fold, enhancing the voter base of the Parivar.[139]

The RSS has denied reliability and questioned the objectivity of the report. Former RSS chief K. S. Sudarshan posed allegations that the mosque was demolished by the government men as opposed to the Karsevaks. The RSS alleges that the commission reports are fabricated and motivated primarily by anti-Indian sentiment than any objective desire to seek justice."[140]

On the other hand, a government of India white paper dismissed the idea that the demolition was pre-organised.[141]

Photo gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Andersen & Damle 1987, p. 111.
  2. ^ a b Curran, Jean A. (17 May 1950). "The RSS: Militant Hinduism". Far Eastern Survey 19 (10): 93–98. JSTOR 3023941. 
  3. ^ a b Bhatt, Chetan (2013). "Democracy and Hindu nationalism". In John Anderson. Religion, Democracy and Democratization. Routledge. p. 140. 
  4. ^ a b McLeod, John (2002). The history of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 209–. ISBN 978-0-313-31459-9. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c Horowitz, Donald L. (2001). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0520224476. 
  6. ^ a b Eric S. Margolis (2000). War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir and Tibet. Taylor & Francis Group. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-415-93062-8. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  7. ^ Embree, Ainslee T. (2005). "Who speaks for India? The Role of Civil Society". In Rafiq Dossani; Henry S. Rowen. Prospects for Peace in South Asia (Stanford University Press). pp. 141–184. ISBN 0804750858. 
  8. ^ a b Priti Gandhi (15 May 2014). "Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh: How the world's largest NGO has changed the face of Indian democracy". DNA India. Retrieved 2014-12-01. 
  9. ^ "Glorious 87: Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh turns 87 on today on Vijayadashami". Samvada. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 2014-12-01. 
  10. ^ "Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS)". (Hindi: "National Volunteer Organization") also called Rashtriya Seva Sang 
  11. ^ Lutz, James M.; Lutz, Brenda J. (2008). Global Terrorism. Taylor & Francis. p. 303. ISBN 978-0-415-77246-4. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  12. ^ Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Upsurge. 
  13. ^ A Place at the Multicultural Table: The Development of an American Hinduism. 
  14. ^ Andersen & Damle 1987, p. 2.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of modern worldwide extremists and extremist groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-313-32485-7. Retrieved 26 May 2010. 
  16. ^ Dina Nath Mishra (1980). RSS: Myth and Reality. Vikas Publishing House. p. 24. ISBN 978-0706910209. 
  17. ^ Sarkur, Tanika (2007). Taisha Abraham, ed. Women And The Politics Of Violence. Har Anand. p. 187. ISBN 978-8124108475. 
  18. ^ a b "How the BJP, RSS mobilised kar sevaks". Indianexpress.com. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  19. ^ Breker, Torkel (2012). Chris Seiple, Dennis R. Hoover, Pauletta Otis, ed. The Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security. Routledge. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0415667449. 
  20. ^ Parashar, Swati (2014). Women and Militant Wars: The Politics of Injury. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 978-0415827966. 
  21. ^ Krant M. L. Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Part-3) p.766
  22. ^ "RSS releases 'proof' of its innocence". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 18 August 2004. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  23. ^ a b Gerald James Larson (1995). India's Agony Over Religion. State University of New York Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-7914-2412-X. 
  24. ^ Gurumurthy, S. (16 October 2013). "ifting of ban on RSS was unconditional". The Hindu. 
  25. ^ "Beyond a ban". The Frontline. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  26. ^ a b Curran, Jean A. Jr. "The RSS: Militant Hinduism", Far Eastern Survey, Vol. 19, No. 10. (17 May 1950), pp. 93–98.
  27. ^ a b c Chitkara 1997.
  28. ^ a b Bhatt 2001.
  29. ^ M. L. Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Part-2) p.466
  30. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 33.
  31. ^ Keshav Sangh-Nirmata page 13-14
  32. ^ Shri Guruji Samagra page 47-48
  33. ^ Shri Guruji Samgra page XXII-XXIII
  34. ^ Dr.Keshav Baliram Hedgewar (published in 2003)
  35. ^ Religion, power and violence: expression of politics in contemporary times: Ram Puniyani, pp 27, SAGE, 2005 ISBN 0-7619-3338-7
  36. ^ Krant M. L. Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Vol-3) p.854 (Dr. Hedgewar with 5 other swayamsevaks who established RSS in 1925)
  37. ^ "RSS aims for a Hindu nation". BBC News. 10 March 2003. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  38. ^ L. Joshi, Political Ideas and Leadership in Vidarbha, Nagpur University. Dept. of Political Science & Public Administration. 1980.
  39. ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of modern worldwide extremists and extremist groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 264–265. ISBN 9780313324857. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  40. ^ Gregory, Derek; Pred, Allan Richard (2007). Violent geographies: fear, terror, and political violence. CRC Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 9780415951470. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  41. ^ Hindu-Zion
  42. ^ Golwalkar's We or our nationhood defined: a critique, page 30, Pharos Media & Pub., 2006, written by Shamsul Islam
  43. ^ a b Martha Craven Nussbaum (2008). The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6. 
  44. ^ a b Chitkara 2004, pp. 251-254.
  45. ^ a b Abdul Gafoor Abdul Majeed Noorani (2000). The RSS and the BJP: A Division of Labour. LeftWord Books. p. 60. ISBN 978-81-87496-13-7. 
  46. ^ "India". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  47. ^ Anthony Elenjimittam, Philosophy and action of the R. S. S for the Hind Swaraj, Published by Laxmi Publications, 1951, page 172
  48. ^ Om Prakash Ralhan, Encyclopedia of political parties, Published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2002 ISBN 81-7488-865-9, page 224
  49. ^ a b Jeevan Lal Kapur (1970). Report of Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to murder Mahatma Gandhi, By India (Republic). Commission of Inquiry into Conspiracy to murder Mahatma Gandhi. Ministry of Home affairs. 
  50. ^ a b c Purushottam Shripad Lele, Dadra and Nagar Haveli: past and present, Published by Usha P. Lele, 1987
  51. ^ Jaffrelot 1996.
  52. ^ a b Vijaya, Taruṇa (2008). Saffron Surge: India's Re-emergence on the Global Scene and Hindu Ethos. Har Anand Publications. p. 166. ISBN 8124113386. 
  53. ^ Kanungo, Pralay (1998). RSS's tryst with politics: from Hedgewar to Sudarshan. Manohar Publishers and Distributors. p. 58. ISBN 8173045062. 
  54. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 243.
  55. ^ a b Emma Tarlo, Unsettling Memories: Narratives of India's "emergency", Published by Orient Blackswan, 2003, ISBN 81-7824-066-1, ISBN 978-81-7824-066-4
  56. ^ Martha Craven Nussbaum, The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, Published by Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 0-674-02482-6, ISBN 978-0-674-02482-3
  57. ^ a b Jaffrelot 2007, p. 297.
  58. ^ Post Independence India, Encyclopedia of Political Parties, 2002, published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD, ISBN 81-7488-865-9, ISBN 978-81-7488-865-5
  59. ^ page 238, Encyclopedia of Political parties, Volumes 33–50 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=QCh_yd357iIC&pg=PA238
  60. ^ Suresh Ramabhai, Vinoba and his mission, Published by Akhil Bharat Sarv Seva Sangh, 1954
  61. ^ a b c d M S Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Publishers: Sahitya Sindhu Prakashana
  62. ^ Basic FAQ on RSS
  63. ^ a b Bhatt 2001, p. 113.
  64. ^ a b "Modi effect: 2,000-odd RSS shakas sprout in 3 months". Times of India. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-29. 
  65. ^ Kaushik, Narendra (5 June 2010). "RSS shakhas fight for survival". The Times of India (The Times of India). Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  66. ^ "Shakhas have grown by 13% across the country: RSS". 
  67. ^ a b K. R. Malkani, The RSS story, Published by Impex India, 1980
  68. ^ Chitakara 2004.
  69. ^ a b H. V. Seshadri, Hindu renaissance under way, Published in 1984, Jagarana Prakashana, Distributors, Rashtrotthana Sahitya (Bangalore)
  70. ^ Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, "Fundamentalisms Comprehended, Volume 5 of The Fundamentalism Project", University of Chicago Press, 2004, ISBN 0-226-50888-9, ISBN 978-0-226-50888-7
  71. ^ Koenraad Elst, 2002, Who is a Hindu?: Hindu revivalist views of Animism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and other offshoots of Hinduism
  72. ^ "Constitution of India: Article 25", quote: "Explanation II: In sub-Clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion".
  73. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 55.
  74. ^ "A balancing act", Hindu.com (1993-03-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  75. ^ Guha, Ramachandra (2008). India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy. Pan Macmillan. p. 19. ISBN 9780330396110. 
  76. ^ Bhatt 2001, p. 114.
  77. ^ a b c d e f g Jelen 2002, p. 253.
  78. ^ Chitkara 2004, p. 169.
  79. ^ "Ministers, not group, to scan scams". 
  80. ^ "Parivar’s diversity in unity". 
  81. ^ Chitkara 2004, p. 168.
  82. ^ "RSS unhappy with infighting in Guj BJP ~". Infoahmedabad.com. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  83. ^ "Toe swadeshi line or lose support, RSS warns BJP". Indianexpress.com. 15 December 1998. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  84. ^ "I will always be a swayamsevak: PM". Rediff.com. 10 September 2000. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  85. ^ "Shekhawat a non-partisan candidate, says Vajpayee". Hinduonnet.com. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  86. ^ Haniffa, Aziz, Agnihotri's appointment aimed at boosting US ties, India Abroad, 08-31-2001
  87. ^ "RSS for Dalit head priests in temples", Times of India
  88. ^ "RSS rips into ban on Dalits entering temples", Times of India, 9 January 2007
  89. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 45.
  90. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 50.
  91. ^ K S Bharati, Encyclopedia of Eminent Thinkers, Volume 7, 1998
  92. ^ Om Prakash Ralhan, Encyclopedia of Political Parties,1998
  93. ^ Chitkara 2004.
  94. ^ Rethinking rural education - Indian Express
  95. ^ "Cow Urine Soda", Discovery Blog, August 2009.
  96. ^ a b "Ensuring transparency", The Hindu, 18 February 2001
  97. ^ "Enigma of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh". Mainstream weekly (India). 18 August 2012. 
  98. ^ Arvind Lavakare (13 February 2001). "The saffron flutters high, yet again". Rediff-News. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  99. ^ "Goa rebuilds quake-hit Gujarat village", Times of India, 19 June 2002
  100. ^ Saba Naqvi Bhaumik, Outlook, February 12, 2001
  101. ^ India-Today, 12 Feb, 2001 issue
  102. ^ "Relief missions from Delhi", The Hindu
  103. ^ "Tsunami toll in TN, Pondy touches 7,000", Rediff, 29 December 2004
  104. ^ Pawan Bali and Aswathy Kumar (June 28, 2006). "Jammu kids get home away from guns". IBN live. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  105. ^ "JK: RSS adopts militancy hit Muslim children". News.oneindia.in. 25 June 2006. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  106. ^ "Fund of Controversy", Times of India, 14 December 2002
  107. ^ "RSS joins relief operation in flood-hit Surat", Organiser.org
  108. ^ "RSS volunteers fan out to do relief work". The New Indian Express. 
  109. ^ "RSS help for Uttarakhand flood victims", The Hindu, 26 June 2013.
  110. ^ "RSS swings into action in flood-ravaged Uttarakhand", Niti Central, Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
  111. ^ a b High Courts on RSS, Sahitya Sindhu publishers, 1983, ISBN 81-86595-18-X
  112. ^ a b A. G. Noorani, "Political past of Public Servants", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 18, No. 29 (16 July 1983), p. 1265
  113. ^ a b Labour Law Journal, By India Courts, India Supreme Court, Published by R. Krishnaswami, 1983, page 301
  114. ^ a b R. Venkataramani, Judgements by O. Chinnappa Reddy, a Humanist, 1989, page 8
  115. ^ The Statesman, 15 January 2000
  116. ^ "Warrant against Noorani, cartoonist". Times of India. 19 November 2001. Retrieved 2014-11-12. 
  117. ^ The Statesman, 3 March 2002
  118. ^ "Will Arjun Singh take note of this? An Apology". Organiser. 22 August 2004. Retrieved 2014-11-12. 
  119. ^ Noorani, A.G. (2000). The RSS and the BJP: A Division of Labor. New Delhi. [full citation needed]
  120. ^ Damle, Shridhar D. (1987). The Brotherhood in Saffron. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications. p. 56. ISBN 0-8133-7358-1. 
  121. ^ Post-independence India. Books.google.co.in. 1998. ISBN 978-81-7488-865-5. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  122. ^ "Rediff On The NeT: Varsha Bhosle on the controversy surrounding Netaji and the RSS". Rediff.com. 14 September 1947. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  123. ^ a b Jaffrelot 1996, p. 51.
  124. ^ Jaffrelot 1996, pp. 57-58.
  125. ^ Hindu Nationalist Politics The Hindu – 24 September 2005
  126. ^ "Rapes happen in India, not Bharat: RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat blames western culture for gangrapes". India Today. 2013-01-04. 
  127. ^ Abhinav Bhatt (2013-01-06). "'Women meant to do household chores': another shocker from RSS chief". NDTV. 
  128. ^ Engineer, Asgharali (1991). Communal Riots in Post-Independence India-Sangam Books 1984, 1991, 1997-Asgar ali engineer. ISBN 978-81-7370-102-3. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  129. ^ Gupta, N.L. (2000). Communal riots in India. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House. p. 20. ISBN 81-212-0644-8. 
  130. ^ Corrêa, Sonia; Rosalind Petchesky; Richard Parker (2008). Sexuality, Health and Human Rights (New Edition ed.). Routledge. p. 67. ISBN 978-0415351188. 
  131. ^ "India: Gujarat Officials Took Part in Anti-Muslim Violence". Hrw.org. 30 April 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  132. ^ RSS, VHP appeal for peace in Gujarat http://www.rediff.com/news/2002/mar/02train10.htm
  133. ^ a b c Blakely, Rhys (20 November 2008). "Hindu extremists reward to kill Christians as Britain refuses to bar members". The Times (London). Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  134. ^ a b "RSS wing blames Cong MP for triggering communal tension in Kandhamal". Dailypioneer.com. 27 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  135. ^ "Slain vhp man was conversion king". Indianexpress.com. 26 August 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  136. ^ "Widespread anger in Kandhamal over killings". The Pioneer (Bhubaneshwar). 2011-06-16. 
  137. ^ "Excerpts from the Liberhan Commission report". Hindustan Times. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  138. ^ "Liberhan comes down heavily on Vajpayee, Advani – Rediff.com India News". News.rediff.com. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  139. ^ "Vajpayee, Advani severely indicted by Liberhan Commission – India – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  140. ^ "Sudarshan contests Liberhan's claim". India Today. PTI. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 
  141. ^ "Liberhan Takes Suspicions As Proof". The New Indian Express (Bengalooru Edition). 7 December 2009. 

Bibliography

Sources

  • Anand, Adeesh (2007). Shree Guruji And His R.S.S.. Delhi, India: M.D. Publication Pvt. Ltd. 
  • Andersen, Walter K.; Damle, Shridhar D. (1987). The Brotherhood in Saffron: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism. Delhi: Vistaar Publications. 
  • Bhatt, Chetan (2001). Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideologies and Modern Myths. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859733484. 
  • Chitkara, M. G. (1997). Hindutva. APH Publishing. ISBN 81-7024-798-5. 
  • Chitkara, M. G. (2004). Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Upsurge. APH Publishing. ISBN 8176484652. 
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1850653011. 
  • Jaffrelot, Christophe (2007). Hindu Nationalism - A Reader. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13097-3. 

Books

  • Bhishikar C.P. Keshav Sangh-Nirmata 1976 Hindi Translation by Tapasvi Moreshwar 1991 Suruchi Prakashan New Delhi 110055 India
  • Golwalkar M.S. Shri Guruji Samagra Suruchi Prakashan New Delhi 110055 India
  • Sinha Rakesh Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar 2003 New Delhi Publication Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting Government of India
  • 'Krant' M. L. Verma Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna (4 Volumes) Research work on Ram Prasad Bismil 1/1079-E Mehrauli New Delhi Praveen Prakashan 1997
  • 'Krant' M. L. Verma Swadhinta Sangram Ke Krantikari Sahitya Ka Itihas (Set of 3 Volumes), 4760-61, IInd Floor, 23, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002, Praveen Prakashan, 2006, ISBN 81-7783-122-4 (Set).
  • Dr.Mehrotra N.C. & Dr.Tandon Manisha Swatantrata Andolan Mein Shahjahanpur Ka Yogdan 1995 Shahjahanpur India Shaheed-E-Aazam Pt. Ram Prasad Bismil Trust.
  • Jelen, Ted Gerard (2002). Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: The One, The Few, and The Many. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65031-3. ISBN 052165971X. 
  • Chitkara, M. G. (2004). Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Upsurge. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788176484657. 

Publications

External links