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The Sarukhanids or Sarukhanid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Saruhanoğulları, Saruhanoğulları Beyliği), also known as the Principality of Saruhan and Beylik of Saruhan (Saruhan Beyliği), was one of the Anatolian beyliks, centered in Manisa.
It was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate. It was founded by the tribal chief Saruhan about 1300 and lasted for a first time until 1390, when Bayezid I overran the region and finally until 1410, when the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I killed Hızır, the last Saruhan ruler, and absorbed the Beylik into the Ottoman Empire as a province.
The founder of the beylik, Saruhan Bey, was the grandson of a Khwarezmian commander who fought in the service of the Seljuk sultans. Saruhan himself began his military career as an emir of the Germiyanids. Sometime at the beginning of the 14th century, he seized territories for himself in the Gediz River (Hermus under its previous Byzantine rulers) valley and founded a dynasty that started to rule the region from its base in Manisa. Its principal towns included Menemen, Gördes, Demirci, Nif, and Kasaba.
The dynasty's period as a regional power is largely limited to the long reign of its founder, Saruhan Bey (d. 1346), under whom the principality became known especially as an ally of its southern neighbor Aydinids and its audacious ruler, Umur Bey. Saruhan and his sons assisted Umur Bey in his raids in the context of his close and intricate relations with the Byzantine Empire and also concluded treaties with the Republic of Genoa and engaged in battle with the Dukes of Naxos.
The most enduring monument of the Saruhan dynasty is the Great Mosque at Manisa. Constructed in 1374 by İshak Bey, the mosque has a prayer hall covered by a dome 14m in diameter. Attached to the prayer hall is an innovative, semi-covered forecourt. The building likely served as inspiration for the Üç Şerefeli Mosque, constructed some sixty years later by the Ottoman sultan Murad II.
The region roughly corresponding to the area of extension of Saruhan dynasty's administration became an Ottoman sub-province (sanjak) under the continued name of Saruhan until the early years of the Republic of Turkey.
- Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-521-29163-7.
- Vryonis, Speros (1971). The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century. Publications of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies 4. Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 138–39. ISBN 0-520-01597-5.