Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (English: The Education for All Movement) (SSA), is a Indian Government programme aimed at the universalisation of elementary education "in a time bound manner", as mandated by the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children of ages 6–14 (estimated to be 205 million in number in 2001) a fundamental right. The programme was pioneered by Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
As an intervention programme, SSA has been operational since 2000-2001. However, its roots go back to 1993-1994, when the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched, with the aim of achieving the objective of universal primary education. DPEP, over several phases, covered 272 districts in 18 states of the country. The expenditure on the programme was shared by the Central Government (85%) and the State Governments. The Central share was funded by a number of external agencies, including the World Bank, DFID and UNICEF.  By 2001, more than US$1500 million had been committed to the programme, and 50 million children covered in its ambit. In an impact assessment of Phase I of DPEP, the authors concluded that its net impact on minority children was impressive, while there was little evidence of any impact on the enrolment of girls. Nevertheless, they concluded that the investment in DPEP was not a waste, because it introduced a new approach to primary school interventions in India.
The Right to Education Act (RtE) came into force on 1 April 2010. Some educationists and policy makers believe that, with the passing of this act, SSA has acquired the necessary legal force for its implementation.
Its goals of 2011 were to:
- Open new schools in areas which do not have them and to expand existing school infrastructures and maintenance.
- Address inadequate teacher numbers, and provide training a development for existing teachers
- Provide quality elementary education including life skills with a special focus on the education of girls and children with special needs as well as computer education.
- "Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan". Department of School Education and Literacy, MHRD, Government of India. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "District Primary Education Programme, DPEP". Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- "District Primary Education Programmes (DPEP)". Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Jalan, Jyotsna and Glinskaya, Elena. "Improving Primary School Education in India: An Impact Assessment of DPEP I". Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Will RTE fulfil the SSA dream?". The Times of India. 5 April 2010.
- Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Official website Portal. Retrieved 9 October 2011
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