Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All Movement) is a programme by the Government of India aimed at the universalization of elementary education "in a time bound manner", as mandated by the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free education to children aged 6–14 (estimated to be 205 million in number in 2001) a fundamental right. The programme was pioneered by Atal Bihari Vajpayee. SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations. In FY 2009-10,60% of SSA funds came from GOI. This has now been revised to 65%.
The programme is looking to open new schools in those habitations without schooling facilities and to strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants. SSA is now the primary vehicle for implementing the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE).
Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, and the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level. SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on female education and children with special needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.
Its goals of 2011 were to do the following:
- Open new schools in areas without them and to expand existing school infrastructures and maintenance.
- Address inadequate teacher numbers and provide training a development for existing teachers.
- Provide quality elementary education including life skills with a special focus on the education of girls and of children with special needs, as well as computer education.
Budgetary Allocation and Expenditure 
During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan the Government of India’s budget for SSA (including Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) and National Programme for Education of Girls at the Elementary Level) increased nearly 3-fold from Rs 21,360 crores in FY 2007-08 to Rs 61,734 crores in FY 2011-12. pk Expenditures have failed to keep pace. In FY 2007-08, over 70 percent of allocations were spent. This dropped to 61 percent in FY 2011-12.
While overall spending as a proportion of allocations has decreased, there has been an improvement in the timing of this spending. In FY 2007-08, 70 percent of the total funds were spent in the last two quarters of the year. In FY 2011-12, expenditure was incurred more evenly with 44 percent spent in the first two quarters and 56 percent in the last two quarters. 
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