Sassafras

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This article is about the various species of the sassafras tree of the Northern Hemisphere; for the North American sassafras, see Sassafras albidum. For other uses, see Sassafras (disambiguation).
Sassafras
Sassafras7.jpg
Sassafras albidum,
Wanaque, New Jersey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Sassafras
J.Presl
Species

S. albidum
S. hesperia
S. randaiense
S. tzumu

Synonyms

Pseudosassafras Lecomte

Sassafras is a genus of three extant and one extinct species of deciduous trees in the family Lauraceae, native to eastern North America and eastern Asia.[1][2][3] The genus is distinguished by its aromatic properties, which have made the tree useful to humans.

Overview[edit]

Male and female Sassafras albidum flowers. The male flower is on the left; the female is on the right. The male flower has nine stamens (one partially obscured), while the female has a central pistil.

Name[edit]

In Chinese, Sassafras tzumu is called 檫树 (cha mu), chai wood, or swan maple. Sassafras randaiense is called cha shu or Taiwanese sassafras (台灣檫樹). Sassafras albidum is known in Chinese as 亦作 (yi zuo) or "ague tree", due to its medicinal use to treat fevers.

The name "sassafras", applied by the botanist Nicolas Monardes in 1569, comes from the French sassafras. Some sources claim it originates from the Latin saxifraga or saxifragus: "stone-breaking;" saxum "rock" + frangere "to break").[4][5] Early European colonists report that the plant was called Winauk by native Americans in Delaware and Virginia and Pauane by the Timuca. Native Americans distinguished between white sassafras and red sassafras, which terms referred to the same plant but to different parts of the plant with distinct colors and uses.[6]Sassafras is known in German as Fenchelholz, or fennel wood, due to its distinctive aroma.[7]

Description[edit]

Sassafras trees grow from 9–35 m (30–115 ft) tall with many slender sympodial branches, and smooth, orange-brown bark or yellow bark.[8] All parts of the plants are very fragrant. The species are unusual in having three distinct leaf patterns on the same plant: unlobed oval, bilobed (mitten-shaped), and trilobed (three-pronged); the leaves are hardly ever five-lobed.[9] Three-lobed leaves are more common in sassafras tzumu and sassafras randaiense than in their North American counterparts, although three-lobed leaves do sometimes occurs sassafras albidum. The young leaves and twigs are quite mucilaginous, and produce a citrus-like scent when crushed. The tiny, yellow flowers are five-petaled; sassafras albidum and sassafras hesperia are dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate trees, while sassafras tzumu and sassafras randaiense have male and female flowers occurring on the same trees. Fruits are blue-black and white.

The largest known sassafras tree in the world is located in Owensboro, Kentucky, and measures over 100 feet high and 21 feet in circumference.[10][11]

Habitat and range[edit]

Many Lauraceae are aromatic, evergreen trees or shrubs adapted to high rainfall and humidity, but the Sassafras genus is deciduous. Deciduous sassafras trees lose all of their leaves for part of the year, depending on variations in rainfall.[citation needed] In deciduous tropical Lauraceae, leaf loss coincides with the dry season in tropical, subtropical and arid regions. In temperate climates, the dry season is due to the inability of the plant to absorb water available to it only in the form of ice.[citation needed]

Sassafras is commonly found in open woods, along fences, or in fields. It grows well in moist, well-drained, or sandy loam soils and tolerates a variety of soil types, attaining a maximum in southern and wetter areas of distribution.[12] In Sassafras, the dispersal of seeds is due to birds that swallow them, so the shape of the berries is attractive to birds.[13]

Sassafras albidum ranges from southern Maine and southern Ontario west to Iowa, and south to central Florida and eastern Texas, in North America. Sassafras tzumu may be found in Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Sichuan, Yunnan, and Zhejiang, China.[14] Sassafras randaiense is native to Taiwan.[15]

Importance to wildlife[edit]

The leaves, bark, twigs, stems, and fruits are eaten by birds and mammals in small quantities. For most animals, Sassafras is not consumed in large enough quantities to be important, although it is an important deer food in some areas. Carey and Gill rate its value to wildlife as fair, their lowest rating. Sassafras leaves and twigs are consumed by white-tailed deer. Other sassafras leaf browsers include groundhogs, marsh rabbits, and American black bears. Rabbits eat sassafras bark in winter. American beavers will cut sassafras stems. Sassafras fruits are eaten by many species of birds, including bobwhite quail, eastern kingbirds, great crested flycatchers, phoebes, wild turkeys, gray catbirds, northern flickers, pileated woodpeckers, downy woodpeckers, thrushes, vireos, and northern mockingbirds. Some small mammals also consume sassafras fruits.[16]

Species[edit]

The genus sassafras includes four species, three extant and one extinct. Sassafras plants are endemic to North America and East Asia, with two species in each region that are distinguished by some important characteristics, including the frequency of three-lobed leaves (more frequent in East Asian species) and aspects of their sexual reproduction (North American species are dioecious).

Taiwanese sassafras', Taiwan, is treated by some botanists in a distinct genus as Yushunia randaiensis (Hayata) Kamikoti, though this is not supported by recent genetic evidence, which shows Sassafras to be monophyletic.[3][17]

Fossil Sassafras hesperia leaf from Early Ypresian, Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington state, USA.

North America[edit]

East Asia[edit]

Human uses of sassafras[edit]

All parts of sassafras plants, including roots, stems, twigs leaves, bark, flowers, and berries, have been used for culinary, medicinal, and aromatic purposes, both in areas where they are endemic and in areas where they were imported, such as Europe. The wood of sassafras trees is also used as a material for building ships and furniture in China, Europe, and the United States, and sassafras played an important role in the history of the European colonization of the American continent in the 16th and 17th centuries. Sassafras twigs have even been used as toothbrushes or fire starters.

Culinary uses of sassafras[edit]

See culinary uses of sassafras albidum for more information on culinary use specific to the extant North American species, and legislation in the United States restricting the use of products derived from sassafras.

Sassafras albidum is an important ingredient in some distinct foods of the United States. It is the main ingredient in traditional root beer and sassafras root tea, and ground leaves of sassafras are an important and distinctive ingredient in Louisiana Creole cuisine (see the article on File powder, a main ingredient in many types of gumbo). Methods of cooking with sassafras combine this ingredient native to American with traditional North American as well as European culinary techniques, to create a unique blend of Creole cuisine, and are thought by some to be heavily influenced by a blend of cultures.[19] Sassafras is no longer used in commercially produced root beer since safrole oil was banned for use in commercially mass-produced foods and drugs by the FDA in 1960 due to health concerns.[20]

Sassafras leaves and flowers have also been used in salads, and to flavor fats or cure meats. [13] [21]

Medicinal uses of sassafras[edit]

Numerous Native American tribes used the leaves of sassafras to treat wounds by rubbing the leaves directly into a wound, and used different parts of the plant for many medicinal purposes such as treating acne, urinary disorders, and sicknesses that increased body temparature, such as high fevers. [22] East Asian types of sassafras such as Sassafras tzumu (chu mu) and Sassafras randaiense (chu shu) are used in Chinese medicine to treat rheumatism and trauma.[23] Some modern researchers conclude that the oil, roots and bark of sassafras have analgesic and antiseptic properties. Different parts of the sassafras plant (including the leaves and stems, the bark, and the roots) have been used to treat

"scurvy, skin sores, kidney problems, toothaches, rheumatism, swelling, menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted diseases, bronchitis, hypertension, and dysentery. It is also used as a fungicide, dentifrice, rubefacient, diaphoretic, perfume, carminative and sudorific."[24]

Before the twentieth century, Sassafras enjoyed a great reputation in the medical literature, but became valued for its power to improve the flavor of other medicines.[25]

Sassafras wood and oil were both used in dentistry. Early toothbrushes were crafted from sassafras twigs or wood because of its aromatic properties. [12] Sassafras was also used as an early dental anesthetic and disinfectant.[26][27]

Uses of sassafras wood[edit]

Sassafras albidum is often grown as an ornamental tree for its unusual leaves and aromatic scent. Outside of its native area, it is occasionally cultivated in Europe and elsewhere.[28]The durable and beautiful wood of sassafras plants has been used in shipbuilding and furniture-making in North America, in Asia, and in Europe (once Europeans were introduced to the plant).[29] Sassafras wood was also used by Native Americans in the southeastern United States as a fire-starter because of the flammability of its natural oils found within the wood and the leaves.[30]

Safrole oil and aromatic uses[edit]

S. albidum is a host plant for the spicebush swallowtail.

Steam distillation of dried root bark produces an essential oil consisting mostly of safrole, which once was extensively used as a fragrance in perfumes and soaps, food and for aromatherapy. Safrole is a precursor for the clandestine manufacture of the drug MDMA, as well as the drug MDA (3-4 methylenedioxyamphetamine) and as such, its transport is monitored internationally.

Chemical structure of safrole, a constituent of sassafras essential oil

Safrole oil has also been used as a natural insect or pest deterrent, and in cordials (such as the opium-based Godfrey's) and homemade liquor to mask strong or unpleasant smells. [13][12] Safrole oil has also been added to soap and other toiletries.[31] Safrole oil is banned in the United States for use in commercially mass-produced foods and drugs by the FDA as a potential carcinogen.[20]

Exploitation and commodification of the sassafras plant[edit]

For a more detailed description of uses by indigenous peoples of North America, and a history of the commodification and exploitation of sassafras albidum by Europeans in the United states in the 16th and 17th centuries, see the article on the extant North American species of sassafras, sassafras albidum.

In modern times, the sassafras plant has been exploited for the extraction of safrole oil, which is used in a variety of commercial products as well as in the manufacture of illegal drugs, and these plants are primarily harvested for commercial purposes in Asia and Brazil.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flora of North America: Sassafras
  2. ^ a b Wolfe, Jack A. & Wehr, Wesley C. 1987. The sassafras is an ornamental tree. "Middle Eocene Dicotyledonous Plants from Republic, Northeastern Washington". United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1597:13
  3. ^ a b Nie, Z.-L., Wen, J. & Sun, H. (2007). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Sassafras (Lauraceae) disjunction between eastern Asia and eastern North America". Plant Systematics and Evolution 267: 191–203. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0550-1. 
  4. ^ Bibliotheca Americana. John Carter Brown Library. 1570. pp. 246, 267, 346. Retrieved 2014-12-09. 
  5. ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 ed.). 1913. p. 1277-1280. Retrieved 2014-12-09. 
  6. ^ Austin, Daviel (November 29, 2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 606. ISBN 978-0849323324. 
  7. ^ Weaver, William (December 19, 2000). Sauer's Herbal Cures: America's First Book of Botanic Healing, 1762-1778. Routledge. p. 274. ISBN 978-0415923606. 
  8. ^ Dirr, Manual of woody landscape plants. Page 938.
  9. ^ Noble Plant Image Gallery Sassafras (includes photo of five-lobed leaf)
  10. ^ [web head http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horticulture/kytreewebsite/pdffiles/SASSAFRAprint.pdf "Sassafras albidum"] (PDF). Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. 
  11. ^ Whit Bronaugh (May–June 1994). "The biggest sassafras". American Forests. 
  12. ^ a b c Small, Ernest (September 23, 2013). North American Cornucopia: Top 100 Indigenous Food Plants. CRC Press. p. 603-606. ISBN 978-1466585928. 
  13. ^ a b c Duke, James (September 27, 2002). CRC Handbook of Medicinal Spices. CRC Press. p. 274. ISBN 978-0849312793. 
  14. ^ Wiersema, John; León, Blanca (February 26, 1999). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. CRC Press. p. 616. ISBN 978-0849321191. 
  15. ^ Nie, Z.-L.; Wen, J.; Sun, H. (2007). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Sassafras (Lauraceae) disjunct between eastern Asia and eastern North America". Plant Systematics and Evolution 267 (1-4): 0378–2697. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0550-1. 
  16. ^ This section incorporates text from a public domain work of the US government: Sullivan, Janet (1993). "Sassafras albidum". Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). 
  17. ^ Kamikoti, S. (1933). Ann. Rep. Taihoku Bot. Gard. 3: 78
  18. ^ U.S. Forest Service Silvics Manual: Sassafras albidum
  19. ^ Nobles, Cynthia Lejeune (2009), "Gumbo", in Tucker, Susan; Starr, S. Frederick, New Orleans Cuisine: Fourteen Signature Dishes and Their Histories, University Press of Mississippi, p. 110, ISBN 978-1-60473-127-9 
  20. ^ a b Dietz, B; Bolton, Jl (Apr 2007). "Botanical dietary supplements gone bad.". Chemical research in toxicology 20 (4): 586–90. doi:10.1021/tx7000527. ISSN 0893-228X. PMC 2504026. PMID 17362034. 
  21. ^ Weatherford, Jack (September 15, 1992). Native Roots: How the Indians Enriched America. Ballantine Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-0449907139. 
  22. ^ Duke, James (December 15, 2000). The Green Pharmacy Herbal Handbook: Your Comprehensive Reference to the Best Herbs for Healing. Rodale Books. p. 195. ISBN 978-1579541842. 
  23. ^ "Traditional Chinese Medicine". WikiBooks. WikiBooks. March 14, 2015. Retrieved April 4, 2015. 
  24. ^ Tiffany Leptuck, "Medical Attributes of 'Sassafras albidum' - Sassafras"], Kenneth M. Klemow, Ph.D., Wilkes-Barre University, 2003
  25. ^ Keeler, H. L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. Charles Scriber's Sons, New York.
  26. ^ Barceloux, Donald (March 7, 2012). Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals. Wiley. ASIN B007KGA15Q. 
  27. ^ Dental Protective Association of the United States (June 7, 2010). Dental Digest 6. Nabu Press. p. 546. ISBN 978-1149862315. 
  28. ^ U.S. Forest Service: Sassafras albidum (pdf file)
  29. ^ De-Yuan, Hong (June 30, 2015). Plants of China: A Companion to the Flora of China. Cambridge University Press. p. 313. ISBN 978-1107070172. 
  30. ^ Bartram, William (December 1, 2002). William Bartram on the Southeastern Indians (Indians of the Southeast). University of Nebraska Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-0803262058. 
  31. ^ Barceloux, Donald (March 7, 2012). Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals. Wiley. ASIN B007KGA15Q. 
  32. ^ Blickman, Tom (February 3, 2009). "Harvesting Trees". Transational Institute. Transnational Institute. Retrieved April 4, 2015. 

External links[edit]