Satélite de Coleta de Dados

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SCD-1 (Satélite de Coleta de Dados)
Mission type Earth orbiter
Operator INPE
COSPAR ID 1993-009B
SATCAT № 22490
Website SCD-1
Mission duration 1 year (planned)
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer INPE
Launch mass 115.0 kilograms (254 lb)
Power 110.0 W
Start of mission
Launch date February 09, 1993, 14:30:00 (1993-02-09UTC14:30Z) UTC
Rocket Pegasus
Launch site Kennedy LC-39
Contractor NASA
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Semi-major axis 7,122 kilometers (4,425 mi)
Eccentricity 0.0043392
Perigee 720.7 kilometers (447.8 mi)
Apogee 782.5 kilometers (486.2 mi)
Inclination 24.9700°
Period 99.7 minutes
RAAN 309.6946 degrees
Argument of perigee 68.0207 degrees
Mean anomaly 64.9799 degrees
Mean motion 14.44252098
Epoch 21 January 2015, 05:43:35 UTC

The first Data-Collecting Satellite (Portuguese Satélite de Coleta de Dados) (aka SCD-1) was launched on February 9, 1993. It is the first satellite developed entirely in Brazil and it remains in operation in orbit to this date. SCD-1 was designed, developed, built, and tested by Brazilian scientists, engineers, and technicians working at INPE (National Institute of Space Research) and in Brazilian industries. It was made to be launched with a Brazilian rocket in 1989. Once it was officially recognized that the rocket could not be completed until many years later, SCD-1, after undergoing minor adaptations, was finally launched with a Pegasus rocket made by Orbital Sciences, a private United States corporation. The rocket was launched from a B-52 airplane while flying over the Atlantic Ocean.

SCD-1[edit]

SCD-1 is an experimental communication satellite with an environmental mission. It receives data collected on the ground or at sea by hundreds of automatic data-collecting platforms (DCPs) and retransmits all the information in a combined real-time signal back to tracking stations on Earth. Applications include hydrology, meteorology, and monitoring of the environment in general. The data are used by agencies such as the Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center (Centro de Previsão do Tempo e Estudos Climáticos—CPTEC), hydroelectric power managers, and both private and governmental institutions with many different interests. An example is meteorological and environmental data collected in the Amazon region, including the levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. These data are transmitted to INPE and are used for monitoring forest fires.

SCD-1 weighs approximately 110 kg and goes around the Earth every 100 minutes on a nearly circular orbit at about 760 km altitude.[1] The inclination of the orbit with respect to the plane of the equator is 25 degrees, providing excellent coverage of equatorial, tropical, and subtropical regions (up to about 35 degrees of latitude) around the world. The spin-stabilized spacecraft has the shape of an octagonal prism, with a diameter of 1 meter and a height near 70 cm without the antennas that are mounted on both base surfaces. It was originally designed for a life of one year with 80% probability, but it has survived 14 years in operation without any crippling functional failure. However, since its chemical (nickel-cadmium) batteries are now completely run down, the satellite can no longer be used while it is in the Earth's shadow.

More than thirty companies were involved in the production of the SCD-1, with INPE itself providing much of the electronics.

SCD-2 (Satélite de Coleta de Dados)
Mission type Earth orbiter
Operator INPE
COSPAR ID 1998-060A
SATCAT № 22490
Website SCD-2
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer INPE
Launch mass 115.0 kilograms (254 lb)
Power 70.0 W
Start of mission
Launch date October 23, 1998, 00:02:00 (1998-10-23UTC00:02Z) UTC
Rocket Pegasus H
Launch site Cape Canaveral
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Semi-major axis 7,124 kilometers (4,427 mi)
Eccentricity 0.0017301
Perigee 740.8 kilometers (460.3 mi)
Apogee 765.4 kilometers (475.6 mi)
Inclination 24.9959°
Period 99.7 minutes
RAAN 150.2763 degrees
Mean motion 85784
Epoch 20 January 2015, 18:31:41 UTC

SCD-2[edit]

The SCD-2 has the function to collect the environmental data to be later picked up by tracer stations and be distributed to organizations and to various users. The SCD-2 was launched on October 23, 1998, by a rocket type Pegasus, he was transported under the wing of a Lockheed L-1011 Tristar, that launched him to 13 km altitude. It is the second satellite fruit MECB - Complete Brazilian Space Mission - program developed by INPE which already incorporated solar panels fitted with technology developed in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in partnership with the project team of the satellite's power subsystem by INPE.

On her 10th birthday, on 23 October 2008, the SCD-2 completed 52,807 orbits around the Earth. Within a decade, covered a distance of 2,365,088,861 kilometers, which corresponds to 3,112 times round trips to the moon and back (distance between Earth and the Moon: approximately 236,000 miles).[2]

CBERS[edit]

INPE has plans to develop other small to medium-size satellites in Brazil with domestic industry. An important on-going program (also started in the 1980s), CBERS, is a partnership of China and Brazil. It has produced two polar-orbit sun-synchronous remote sensing satellites. Both were successfully launched by the Chinese, and CBERS-2 remains in operation.

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.

External links[edit]