Sat (Sanskrit)

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Sat (Sanskrit: सत्) is a Sanskrit word meaning "the true essence (nature)" and that "which is unchangeable" of an entity, species or existence.[1] Sat is a common prefix in ancient Indian literature and variously implies that which is good, true, virtuous, being, happening, real, existing, enduring, lasting, essential.[2] In ancient texts, fusion words based on Sat, refer to "Universal Spirit, Universal Principle, Being, Soul of the World, Brahman".[3][4]

Etymology[edit]

It can simply be said to be the present participle of the root as "to be" (PIE *h₁es-; cognate to English is).

The concept is famously expressed in a mantra found in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (1.3.28),

Asato mā sad gamaya / tamaso mā jyotir gamaya / mṛtyor mā amṛtam gamaya
"lead me from delusion to truth; from darkness to light; from mortality to immortality"

Sat is the root of many Sanskrit words and concepts such as sattva "pure, truthful" and satya "truth". As a prefix, in some context it means true and genuine; for example, sat-sastra means true doctrine, sat-van means one devoted to the true.[5] At a suffix, in some context it implies time; for example, panka-sat which means fifty years.[6][7]

The negation of sat is asat, a combination word of a and sat. Asat refers to the opposite of sat, that is delusion, distorted, untrue, fleeting impression that is incorrect, nonexistent and false.[8][9]

Meaning[edit]

Sat has several meanings or translations:[9][10]

  • "unchangeable"
  • "that which has no distortion"
  • "that which is beyond distinctions of time, space, and person"
  • "that which pervades the universe in all its constancy"
  • "absolute truth"
  • "reality"
  • "Supreme Entity"
  • "Brahman" (not to be confused with Brahmin)

Supreme consciousness[edit]

See also Brahman, Turiya and The One[11]

Sat may also refer to Citsvaru'pa, the Supreme consciousness, or Parama Purusha, the Supreme Being.[citation needed] "Sat" is one of the three characteristics of Brahman, as described in sat-chit-ananda.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120831056, pages 1134-1139
  2. ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120831056, pages 1134-1139
  3. ^ Chaudhuri, H. (1954), The Concept of Brahman in Hindu Philosophy, Philosophy East and West, 4(1), 47-66
  4. ^ a b Aurobindo & Basu (2002), The Sadhana of Plotinus, Neoplatonism and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791452745, pages 153-156
  5. ^ Arthur Anthony Macdonell, A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820005, pages 329-331
  6. ^ Arthur Anthony Macdonell, A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820005, pages 150
  7. ^ Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120831056, pages 1134-1139
  8. ^ Arthur Anthony Macdonell, A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820005, pages 34
  9. ^ a b Sir Monier Monier-Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120831056, pages 1134-1139
  10. ^ K. Ishwaran, Ascetic Culture: Renunciation and Worldly Engagement, Brill, ISBN 978-9004114128, pages 143-144
  11. ^ Similar ideas can be found in Neoplatonism, which originated in ancient Greece, and shares common grounds with Indian religions via the Proto-Indo-European religion. "Hè idea tou agathou" means 'Reality in her most true appearance'. The One and The Good are identical to The Good. See RKK, Plato: leer