Satavahana dynasty

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Satavahana Empire
शालिवाहन​,आंध्रभ्ृत्य​
ಶಾತವಾಹನ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ
శాతవాహన సామ్రాజ్యము
सालवाहण

230 BCE–220 CE
Territorial extent of the Satavahana Empire (continuous line) and conquests (dotted line).
Capital Amaravati
Languages Kannada,Telugu,Maharashtri Prakrit
Religion Hinduism
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 -  230–207 BC Simuka
 -  190s AD Madhariputra Svami Sakasena (?)
Historical era Antiquity
 -  Established 230 BCE
 -  Disestablished 220 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mauryan Empire
Vakataka
Kadamba
Ikshvaku
Chutu
Pallava
Western Satraps
Today part of  India
Part of a series on
History of Andhra Pradesh
Vijayawada-Kondapalli Fort
Chronology of Telugu people & Andhra Pradesh history
Andhra Pradesh States
Geography  ·  Political history

The Śātavāhana Empire (Sanskrit:शालिवाहन​,आंध्रभ्ृत्य​,Kannada: ಶಾತವಾಹನ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ,Teluguశాతవాహన సామ్రాజ్యము,Maharashtri: सालवाहण) was a royal Indian dynasty based from Kotilingala as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.

Sātavāhanas started out as feudatories to the Mauryan dynasty, but declared independence with its decline. They are known for their patronage of Hinduism. The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed. They formed a cultural bridge and played a vital role in trade as well as the transfer of ideas and culture to and from the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the southern tip of India.

They had to compete with the Sungas and then the Kanvas of Magadha to establish their rule. Later, they played a crucial role to protect a huge part of India against foreign invaders like the Sakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas. In particular their struggles with the Western Kshatrapas went on for a long time. The great rulers of the Satavahana Dynasty Gautamiputra Satakarni and Sri Yajna Sātakarni were able to defeat the foreign invaders like the Western Kshatrapas and stop their expansion. In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states.

Origins[edit]

In the Pūrānas and on their coins the dynasty is variously referred to as the Sātavāhanas or Sālavāhaṇa, Sātakarnīs.[1][2][3] A reference to the Sātavāhanas by the Greek traveler Megasthenes indicates that they possessed 100,000 infantry, 1,000 elephants, and had more than 30 well built fortified towns:

Next come the which possesses numerous villages, and thirty towns defended by walls and towers, and which supplies its king with an army of 100,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants.

Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8–23. 11., quoting Megasthenes[4]

The Sātavāhanas ruled a large and powerful empire that withstood the onslaughts from Central Asia. Aside from their military power, their commercialism and naval activity is evidenced by establishment of Indian colonies in Southeast Asia.

The Edicts of Ashoka mention the Sātavāhanas as feudatories of Emperor Ashoka. Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edicts of Ashoka (238 BCE), in Brahmi, sandstone. British Museum.

The Sātavāhanas began as feudatories to the Mauryan Empire. They seem to have been under the control of Emperor Ashoka, who claims they were in his domain. among them:

Here in the king's domain among the Yavanas (Greeks), the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dhamma.

Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika)

[citation needed]

The Satavahanas declared independence some time after the death of Ashoka (232 BCE), as the Maurya Empire began to weaken.

It is believed that they were originally practicing Sanatana Dharma (as per Sthala Purana of Amaravati).[5] Some rulers like Maharaja Satakarni are believed to have performed Vedic sacrifices as well.[5]

They were not only worshipers of Vishnu and Shiva but also other incarnations of, Gauri, Indra, the sun and moon.[6][7]

The origin of the satavahana dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history.In ancient times the areas south of the Godavari river including southern districts of modern Maharashtra, northern districts of modern Karnataka and south Karnataka districts of Shimoga and Chitradurga were collectively called Kuntala. An inscriptional passage the upper valley of the Krishna points to this theory [Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 153. See Mirashi, Studies in Indology,]. In the Sanskrit work Udayasundarikatha of Soddhala (11th cent. A.D.) Pratishthana on the Godavari is said to be the capital of the Kuntala country. In early times Kuntala was probably included in the larger country called Maharashtra. The Aihole inscription of Pulakeshi II includes all these areas mentioned in Kuntala as Maharashtra. This designation of the entire area seems to be confirmed in Chinese notes as well. During these times, Kuntala came to denote the predominantly Kannada-speaking country, further corroborating views of historians such as Dr. Altekar and Dr. P.B. Desai. The Early Chalukyas of Badami and the Later Chalukyas of Kalyani were known as Kuntaleshvaras or lords of Kuntala. All their inscriptions are in Kannada and Sanskrit and their regal capitals at different times, Badami, Manyakheta(Malkhed in Gulbarga district) and Kalyani were also in present day Karnataka, which historically would be southern Kuntala. During these times however, the districts of Kolhapur, Satara, Sholapur, Ahmadnagar and Bid which are now Marathi-speaking, were included in Kuntala, indicating that Kannada country spread much further north of today's political boundaries. The Kannada classic Kavirajamarga calls the entire region between the Godavari and Kaveri rivers as Karnataka indicating Kannada country at one time extended far north and east of present day boundaries. Perhaps this was the region that embraced Hale Kannada as the official language. It is well known that during these times, Kannada and Telugu were written in Hale Kannada script. The Early Rashtrakuta, who were ruling over this territory as feudatory of the Chalukyas, were known as Kuntaleshvaras as well and their inscriptions call their overlords at that time as Karnataka Bala. Much later their imperial empire would rule large parts of India from regal capital Manyakheta in present day Karnataka, though as their empire grew they had many provincial capitals. Their oldest inscription is found in Satara district of Maharashtra belonging to 6th century. In it Rashtrakuta king Avidheya has donated a village to learned Brahmins. The inscription is in Sanskrit written in Brahami script. This has confirmed their origin at above place generally called Kuntala. From above theories it is clear that the ancient regional names such as Kuntala, Karnata or Maharshtra may have covered large common areas in the deccan at different times in Indian history

Etymology[edit]

Śātavāhana, Śālivāhana, Śātakarṇi seem to be Sanskritised versions of the aboriginal name Sātakaṇi and appears as Sālavāhaṇa in Prakrit vernacular then.[8]

Early rulers[edit]

The Early Satavahanas ruled Andhra Pradesh and Telangana regions which were always their heartland. The Pūrānas list 30 rulers. Many are known from their coins and inscriptions as well.

Simuka (c.230–207 BCE)[edit]

After becoming independent around 230 BCE, Simuka, the founder of the dynasty, conquered the present-day Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh (including Malwa). He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207–189 BCE), who further extended his state to the present day Andhra Pradesh. Later, Simuka made Srikakulam as his capital.

Satakarni (c.180–124 BCE)[edit]

Early Satakarni issue, MaharashtraVidarbha type.
Satavahana 1st century BCE coin inscribed in Brahmi: "(Sataka)Nisa". British Museum.

His successor Sātakarnī I was the sixth ruler of the Satavahana. He is said to have ruled for 56 years.

Satakarni defeated the Sunga dynasty of North India by wresting Western Malwa from them, and performed several Vedic sacrifices at huge cost, including the horse sacrifice – Ashwamedha yajna. He also was in conflict with the Kalinga ruler Kharavela, who mentions him in the Hathigumpha inscription. According to the Yuga Purana he conquered Kalinga following the death of Kharavela. He extended Satavahana rule over Madhya Pradesh and pushed back the Sakas from Pataliputra (he is thought to be the Yuga Purana's "Shata", an abbreviation of the full name "Shri Sata" that occurs on coins from Ujjain), where he subsequently ruled for 10 years.

By this time the dynasty was well established, with its capital at kotilingala and Pratishthānapura (Paithan).

Kanva suzerainty (75–35 BCE)[edit]

Many small rulers succeeded Satakarni, such as Lambodara, Apilaka, Meghasvati and Kuntala Satakarni, who are thought to have been under the suzerainty of the Kanva dynasty. The Puranas (the Matsya Purana, the Vayu Purana, the Brahmanda Purana, the Vishnu Purana) all state that the first of the Andhra rulers rose to power in the 1st century BCE, by slaying Susarman, the last ruler of the Kanvas.[9] This feat is usually thought to have been accomplished by Pulomavi (c. 30–6 BCE), who then ruled over Pataliputra.

Victory over the Shakas, Yavanas and Pahlavas[edit]

The 1st century CE saw another incursion of the Sakas of Central Asia into India, where they formed the dynasty of the Western Kshatrapas. The four immediate successors of Hāla (r. 20–24 CE) had short reigns totalling about a dozen years. During the reign of the Western Satrap Nahapana, the Satavahanas lost a considerable territory to the satraps, including eastern Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Pune.[10]

Gautamiputra Satakarni (78–102 CE)[edit]

Eventually Gautamiputra (Sri Yagna) Sātakarni (also known as Shalivahan) (r. 78–102 CE)([ref ?) defeated the Western Satrap ruler Nahapana, restoring the prestige of his dynasty by reconquering a large part of the former dominions of the Sātavāhanas.

According to the Nasik inscription made by his mother Gautami Balasri, he is the one...

...who crushed down the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas (the native Indian princes, the Rajputs of Rajputana, Gujarat and Central India); who destroyed the Shakas (Western Kshatrapas), Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians),... who rooted the Khakharata family (The Kshaharata family of Nahapana); who restored the glory of the Satavahana race.[11]

Gautamiputra Satakarni may also have defeated Sakas in 78 CE (ref ?) and started the calendar known as Shalivahana era or Shaka era, which is followed by the Gujarati, Marathi, Kannadiga and Telugu people and is the Indian national calendar. Earlier in 56 BCE, Vikramaditya king of Ujjain defeated Sakas and started Vikram Samvat era.

Gautamiputra Sātakarni's son, Vashishtiputra Pulumāyi (r. 102–130 CE), succeeded him. Gautamiputra was the first Sātavāhana ruler to issue the portrait-type coinage, in a style derived from the Western Satraps.[12]

Successors[edit]

Gautamiputra's brother, Vashishtiputra Sātakarni, married the daughter of Rudradaman I of the Western Satraps dynasty. Around 150 CE, Rudradaman I, now his father-in-law, waged war against the Satavahanas, who were defeated twice in these conflicts. Vashishtiputra Satakarni was only spared his life because of his family links with Rudradaman:[13]

"Rudradaman (...) who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha, on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him."

—Junagadh rock inscription[14]

As a result of his victories, Rudradaman regained all the former territories previously held by Nahapana, except for the extreme south territories of Pune and Nasik.[12] Satavahana dominions were limited to their original base in the Deccan and eastern central India around Amaravati. However, the last great king of this dynasty, Yajna Satakarni, defeated the Western Satraps and reconquered their southern regions in western and central India which led to the decline of the Western Satraps Dynasty.[15] During the reign of Sri Yajna Sātakarni (170–199 CE) the Sātavāhanas regained some prosperity, and some of his coins have been found in Saurashtra[16] but around the middle of the 3rd century, the dynasty came to an end.

Decline of the Satavahanas[edit]

Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni (r. 167–196 CE).

Four or five kings of Yajna Satakarni's line succeeded him, and continued to rule till about the mid 200s CE. However, the dynasty was soon extinguished following the rise of its feudatories, perhaps on account of a decline in central power.[17]

Several dynasties divided the lands of the kingdom among themselves. Among them were:

Coinage[edit]

Royal earrings, Andhra Pradesh, 1st Century BCE.

The Satavahanas are the first native Indian rulers to issue their own coins with portraits of their rulers, starting with king Gautamiputra Satakarni, a practice derived from that of the Western Satraps he defeated, itself originating with the Indo-Greek kings to the northwest.

Satavahana coins give unique indications as to their chronology, language, and even facial features (curly hair, long ears and strong lips). They issued mainly lead and copper coins; their portrait-style silver coins were usually struck over coins of the Western Kshatrapa kings.

The coin legends of the Satavahanas, in all areas and all periods, used a Prakrit dialect without exception. Some reverse coin legends are in Telugu language,[18] which seems to have been in use in their heartland abutting the Godavari, Kotilingala, Karimnagar, Krishna, Amaravati, Guntur in Andhra Pradesh.[19]

Their coins also display various traditional symbols, such as elephants, lions, horses and chaityas (stupas), as well as the "Ujjain symbol", a cross with four circles at the end. The legendary Ujjayini Emperor Vikramditiya on whose name the Vikram Samvat is initiated might be Satakarni II a Satavahana emperor as the Ujjayini symbol also appeared on the Satavahana coins.

Cultural achievements[edit]

An aniconic representation of Mara's assault on the Buddha, 2nd century, Amaravati.

Of the Sātavāhana kings, Hāla (r. 20–24 CE) is famous for compiling the collection of Maharashtri poems known as the Gaha Sattasai (Sanskrit: Gāthā Saptashatī), although from linguistic evidence it seems that the work now extant must have been re-edited in the succeeding century or two. The Lilavati describes his marriage with a Ceylonese Princess.

The Satavahanas influenced South-East Asia to a great extent, spreading Hindu culture, language and religion into that part of the world. Their coins had images of ships.

Art of Amaravati[edit]

Scroll supported by Indian Yaksha, Amaravati, 2nd–3rd century CE.

The Sātavāhana rulers are also remarkable for their contributions to Buddhist art and architecture. They built great stupas in the Krishna River Valley, including the stupa at Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh. The stupas were decorated in marble slabs and sculpted with scenes from the life of the Buddha, portrayed in a characteristic slim and elegant style. The Satavahana empire colonized Southeast Asia and spread Indian culture to those parts. The Amaravati style of sculpture spread to Southeast Asia at this time.

Art of Sanchi[edit]

The Satavahanas contributed greatly to the embellishment of the Buddhist stupa of Sanchi. The gateways and the balustrade were built after 70 BCE, and appear to have been commissioned by them. An inscription records the gift of one of the top architraves of the Southern Gateway by the artisans of the Satavahana Emperor Satakarni:

Gift of Ananda, the son of Vasithi, the foreman of the artisans of rajan Siri Satakarni[20]

List of rulers[edit]

Indian ship on lead coin of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi, testimony to the naval, seafaring and trading capabilities of the Satavahanas during the 1st–2nd century CE.

Puranic list of Satavahana rulers.[21] This list, the most complete one with 30 kings, is based on the Matsya Purana.

  • Simuka or Sisuka (r. 230–207 BCE).
  • Krishna (r. 207–189 BCE), ruled 18 years.
  • Sri Mallakarni (or Sri Satakarni) (r. 189–179 BCE), ruled 10 years.
  • Purnotsanga (r. 179–161 BCE), ruled 18 years
  • Skandhastambhi (r. 161–143 BCE), ruled 18 years
  • Sātakarnī I (r. 143–87 BCE), ruled 56 years
  • Lambodara, ruled 18 years.(r. 87–67 BCE)

Probably as vassals of Kanva dynasty (75–35 BCE):

See also[edit]

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline and

cultural period

Northwestern India

(Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India
Western Gangetic Plain

(Kuru-Panchala)

Northern India

(Central Gangetic Plain)

Northeastern India

(Northeast India)

IRON AGE
Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period

(Brahmin ideology)[a]

Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period

(Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b]

Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history
 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha Adivasi (tribes)
Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation"

Rise of Shramana movements
Jainism - Buddhism - Ājīvika - Yoga

Pre-history
 5th century BC (Persian rule) Shishunaga dynasty Adivasi (tribes)
 4th century BC (Greek conquests)

Nanda empire
Kalinga

HISTORICAL AGE
Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period
(300 BC – AD 200)
 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - AD300)[e][f]
Epics - Puranas - Ramayana - Mahabharata - Bhagavad Gita - Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition
Mahayana Buddhism
Sangam period

(continued)
(300 BC – AD 200)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek Kingdom Sunga Empire Adivasi (tribes) Early Cholas

Early Pandyan Kingdom

Satavahana dynasty

Cheras

46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC Yona Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty
 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians
Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom
 2nd century Pahlava Varman dynasty
 3rd century Kushan Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa kingdom Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g]
Puranas
Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism
 4th century Gupta Empire Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Kadamba Dynasty

Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Maitraka Adivasi (tribes) Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Vishnukundina

 6th century Kalabhras dynasty

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[h]
Advaita Vedanta - Tantra
Decline of Buddhism in India
 7th century Indo-Sassanids Vakataka dynasty, Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi (tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Pandyan Kingdom(Revival)

Pallava

 8th century Kidarite Kingdom Pandyan Kingdom

Kalachuri

 9th century Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) Gurjara-Pratihara Pandyan Kingdom

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chalukya

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Pala dynasty

Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Medieval Cholas

Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas)

Chera Perumals of Makkotai

Rashtrakuta

References[edit]

General
  • Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta (1976). A History of South India. Madras: Oxford University Press. 
  • Rapson, E. J. (1990). A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Coins of Andhra Dynasty, the Western Ksatrapas etc. Patna. 
  • Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra (2003). Ancient India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 
Notes
  1. ^ G. Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P.G. Publishers, Guntur, p. 116, (http://igmlnet.uohyd.ernet.in:8000/gw_44_5/hi-res/hcu_images/G2.pdf[dead link]
  2. ^ Chapter 2. "History of the Andhras". Durga Prasad. P. G. PUBLISHERS. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  3. ^ Chapter 9. "A Journey Through India's Past". Chandra Mauli Mani. Northern Book Centre. ISBN 81-7211-194-0. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  4. ^ Source:fragment LVI.[dead link]
  5. ^ a b HISTORY – ANCIENT PERIOD "CHAPTER 2: SATAVAHANA EMPIRE AND ITS FEUDATORIES*"
  6. ^ Mahajan, P. 400 Ancient India
  7. ^ [1] G. Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P.G. Publishers, Guntur
  8. ^ Kosambi, Damodar Dharmanand (1956). "Satavahana Origins". Introduction to the study of India history (second 1975 ed.). Mumbai: Popular prakashan. pp. 243, 244. ISBN 978-81-7154-038-9. 
  9. ^ Rapson, LXIV
  10. ^ "The Satavahanas did not hold the western Deccan for long. They were gradually pushed out of the west by the Sakas (Western Khatrapas). The Kshaharata Nahapana's coins in the Nasik area indicate that the Western Kshatrapas controlled this region by the first century CE. By becoming master of wide regions including Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara and the Nasik and Pune, Nahapana rose from the status of a mere Kshatrapa in the year 41 (58 CE) to that of Mahakshatrapa in the year 46 (63 CE)." in "History of the Andhras"
  11. ^ Rapson, XXXVII, Original Prakrit, line 5 and 6 of the inscription: "Khatiya-dapa-mana-madanasa Saka-Yavana-Palhava-nisudanasa — Khakharatavamsa-niravasesa-karasa Satavahana-kula-yasa patithapana-karasa"
  12. ^ a b Rapson
  13. ^ "Satakarni, Lord of the Deccan, [whom Rudradaman] (inscription dated Saka 72=150 CE) twice in a fair fight was completely defeated, but did not destroy on account of the nearness of their connection" Rapson, XXXVIII, quoting the Junagadh inscription
  14. ^ "Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman". 
  15. ^ "later Satavahana named Yajna Satakarni seems to have conquered the Southern Dominions of the Western Satraps. His coins contain figures of ships, probably indicating the naval power of the Andhras. He not only ruled Aparanta, but probably also the eastern part of the Central Provinces". Majumdar, p. 135
  16. ^ Rapson, CLXXXVI
  17. ^ ""The different branches of the Satavahana family, which ruled in different parts of the kingdom after the decline in central authority, weres soon ousted by new powers some of which were probably feudatories at the outset." Majumdar
  18. ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2003). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. University of California Press. ISBN 0-5202-4500-8.  p. 291
  19. ^ Rapson, CLXXXVII
  20. ^ Original text "L1: Rano Siri Satakarnisa L2: avesanisa vasithiputasa L3: Anamdasa danam", Marshall, John. A guide to Sanchi. p. 52. 
  21. ^ "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc...", Rapson

External links[edit]