|Fields||digital currencies, computer science, cryptography|
|Known for||inventing Bitcoin|
Satoshi Nakamoto (中本哲史 Nakamoto Satoshi ) is the pseudonymous entity that designed and created the original Bitcoin software, currently known as Bitcoin-Qt. Nakamoto is often claimed to be a veil for a group of people.
His involvement in the original Bitcoin software does not appear to extend past mid-2010.
Nakamoto is believed to be in possession of roughly one million bitcoins. As of December 2013, this is the equivalent of 1.1 billion US Dollars. 
There are no records of Nakamoto's identity or identities prior to the creation of Bitcoin. Satoshi is a male, Japanese name, whose meaning is variously given as "wise", "clear-thinking", "quick-witted" or "intelligent history", i.e. a person with intelligent ancestors. In Japanese, naka means "inside" or "relationship" and moto means "origin".
On his P2P foundation profile, Nakamoto claimed to be an individual male at the age of 37 and of Japanese origin, which was met with great skepticism due to his use of English and his Bitcoin software not being documented nor labelled in Japanese.
The first release of his original Bitcoin software is speculated to be of a collaborative effort, leading some to claim that Satoshi Nakamoto was a collective pseudonym for a group of people.
Claimed Identities of Satoshi Nakamoto
- In a 2011 article in the New Yorker, Joshua Davis claimed to have narrowed down the identity of Nakamoto to a number of possible individuals, including the Finnish economic sociologist Dr Vili Lehdonvirta and Irish student Michael Clear, then a graduate student in cryptography at Trinity College Dublin. Clear strongly denies he is Nakamoto, as does Lehdonvirta.
- In October 2011, investigative journalist Adam Penenberg cited circumstantial evidence that identified Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry. This included a patent application they filed in 2008. All three men denied being Nakamoto when contacted by Penenberg.
- In May 2013 Ted Nelson speculated that Nakamoto is really Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki Later, an article was published in The Age newspaper, in which it was claimed that Mochizuki has denied these speculations.
- Jed McCaleb, is claimed by some to be Nakamoto. McCaleb is the creator of Overnet, the eDonkey2000 file-sharing application and the founder of Mt.Gox Bitcoin exchange. Once a strong supporter of Bitcoin, McCaleb later co-founded the company Ripple Labs, to develop another crypto-currency, Ripple. McCaleb is known to be a Japanophile, who resided in that country.
- In 2013, two Israeli mathematicians, Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir, published a paper claiming a link between Nakamoto and Ross William Ulbricht, alleged by the FBI to be the owner of the Silk Road online black market. The two based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of Bitcoin transactions, but later retracted their claim.
- In December 2013, Josh Zerlan, the Chief Operating Officer of Butterfly Labs (the first Bitcoin hardware manufacturer), stated his belief Nakamoto was a group of people based in Europe, who had connections with the financial sector.
In 2008, Nakamoto published a paper on The Cryptography Mailing list at metzdowd.com describing the Bitcoin digital currency. In 2009, he released the first Bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the Bitcoin currency.
Nakamoto continued to contribute to his Bitcoin software release with other developers until contact with his team and the community gradually began to fade in mid-2010. He gave all original Bitcoin properties and alert key functions of his software to Gavin Andresen near this time.
The smallest unit of the Bitcoin currency (1/100,000,000 of a full bitcoin) is named "satoshi" in his homage.
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- Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System by Satoshi Nakamoto
- Bitcoin-Qt/Bitcoind: The original Bitcoin software