Satpura Range

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Satpura Range
Pachmarhi valley Madhya Pradesh INDIA.jpg
Pachmarhi valley
Highest point
Peak Dhupgarh
Elevation 1,350 m (4,430 ft)
Coordinates 22°27′2″N 78°22′14″E / 22.45056°N 78.37056°E / 22.45056; 78.37056
Naming
Native name सतपुड़ा
Geography
India Geographic Map.jpg
Topographic map of India showing the Satpura range in the Central region
Country India
States Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Chhatisgarh and Gujarat
Range coordinates 21°59′N 74°52′E / 21.98°N 74.87°E / 21.98; 74.87Coordinates: 21°59′N 74°52′E / 21.98°N 74.87°E / 21.98; 74.87

The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India. The range rises in eastern Gujarat state near the Arabian Sea coast, running east through the border of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the east till Chhattisgarh. The range parallels the Vindhya Range to the north, and these two east-west ranges divide Indian Subcontinent into the Indo-Gangetic plain of northern India and the Deccan Plateau of the south. The Narmada River originates from north-eastern end of Satpura & runs in the depression between the Satpura and Vindhya ranges, draining the northern slope of the Satpura range, running west towards the Arabian Sea. The Tapti River originates from eastern-central part of Satpura, crosses the range in the center & further runs at the southern slopes of Satpura towards west meeting the Arabian Sea at Surat, draining central & the southern slopes of the Satpura Range. The Godavari River and its tributaries drain the Deccan plateau, which lies south of the range, and the Mahanadi River drains the easternmost portion of the range. The Godavari and Mahanadi rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal. At its eastern end, the Satpura range meets the hills of the Chota Nagpur Plateau.

Geography[edit]

'Satpura' is a Sanskrit word,that means seven mountains(sapta=seven;pura=mountain)[citation needed].The eastern portion of the range receives more rainfall than the western portion, and the eastern range, together with the Eastern Ghats, constitute the Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion. The seasonally dry western portion of the range, together with the Narmada valley and the western Vindhya Range, are within the Narmada valley dry deciduous forests ecoregion.

The Narmada and the Tapti are major rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea. The Narmada originates in eastern Madhya Pradesh ( India) and flows west across the state, through a narrow valley between the Vindhya Range and spurs of the Satpura Range. It flows into the Gulf of Khambhat. The Tapi follows a shorter, parallel course, between 80 kilometres (50 mi) and 160 kilometres (99 mi) south of the Narmada, flowing through the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat to drain into the Gulf of Khambhat.

Ecology[edit]

Most of the Satpura range was heavily forested; but the area has been subject to gradual deforestation in recent decades, although significant stands of forests remain. These forest enclaves provide habitat to several at risk and endangered species, including the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris), gaur (Bos gaurus), dhole (Cuon alpinus), sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), chousingha (Tetracerus quadricornis), and blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).

However,Satpura now famous for numerous tiger reserves, once upon a time was ruled by wild Indian Elephant and Lions [1]

Several protected areas have been earmarked in the area, including the Kanha, Pench, Gugamal and Satpura National Parks, Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Melghat Tiger Reserve and the Bori Reserve Forest.

The Satpura Foundation, is a grass-roots organization that coordinates conservation efforts in the area, which continue to face challenges from development and infrastructure projects, logging and poaching.

Tourism[edit]

The national parks, Hill Stations, reserves and Towns in the Satpura range attract hundreds of thousands of visitors each year.

Pachmarhi, a beautiful hill station in the range is located in Madhya Pradesh, has a range of attractions from its forests, animal reserve, rivers and rocky terrain. It is a popular destination for trekking, fishing and adventure activities.It is also known as Queen of satpura because of its mystic beauty.And became known destiation for Bollywood film shootings.Highest point of satpura range Dhupgarh is located in Pachmarhi.

Satpura National Park is located in the district Hoshangabad of Madhya Pradesh. It gets its name from the Satpura ranges.It covers an area of 524 km2 (202 sq mi). Satpura National Park, and along with the adjoining Bori and Panchmarhi Sanctuaries, provides 1,427 km2 (551 sq mi) of unique central Indian highland ecosystem.The terrain of the national park is extremely rugged and consists of sandstone peaks, narrow gorges, ravines and dense forests. Satpura National Park, being part of a unique ecosystem, is very rich in biodiversity. The animals here are tiger, leopard, sambar, chital, Bhedki, nilgai, four-horned antelope, chinkara, bison (gour), wild boar, wild dog, bear, black buck, fox, porcupine, flying squirrel, mouse deer, Indian giant squirrel, etc. There are a variety of birds. Hornbills and peafowl are common birds found here.

The flora consists of mainly sal, teak, tendu, Phyllanthus emblica, mahua, bel, bamboo, and grasses and medicinal plants.

Kanha National Park is a national park and a Tiger Reserve near the range in Mandla and Balaghat districts of Madhya Pradesh, India. In the 1930s, Kanha area was divided into two sanctuaries, Hallon and Banjar, of 250 and 300 km² . Kanha National Park was created on 1 June 1955. Today it stretches over an area of 940 km² in the two districts Mandla and Balaghat. Together with a surrounding buffer zone of 1,067 km² and the neighboring 110 km² Phen Sanctuary it forms the Kanha Tiger Reserve."Kanha Tiger Reserve". Madhya Pradesh Forest Department. Retrieved 14 April 2010. This makes it the largest National Park in Central India.

The park has a significant population of Royal Bengal Tiger, leopards, the sloth bear, Barasingha and Indian wild dog. The lush sal and bamboo forests, grassy meadows and ravines of Kanha provided inspiration to Rudyard Kipling for his famous novel "Jungle Book "

Bori Wildlife Sanctuary,is a located in Madhya Pradesh.Bori Wildlife Sanctuary includes India's oldest forest preserve, the Bori Reserve Forest, established in 1865 along the Tewa River.

The sanctuary covers an area of 518 km2 (200 sq mi), located in the northern foothills of the Satpura Range. It is bounded by the Satpura National Park to the north and east, and by the Tawa River to the west. The sanctuary, together with Satpura National Park and the Pachmarhi Sanctuary, forms the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

The sanctuary is mostly covered in mixed deciduous and bamboo forests, part of the Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion. It is an important transition zone between the forests of western and eastern India. Dominant trees include teak (Tectona grandis), dhaora (Anogeissus latifolia), tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon), among others. Large mammal species include tiger, leopard, wild boar, muntjac deer, gaur (Bos gaurus), chital deer (Axis axis), sambar (Cervus unicolor), and Rhesus Macaques.

Bandhavgarh National Park, is one of the popular national parks in Madhya Pradesh located ear satpura range in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh was declared a national park in 1968, with an area of 105 km². The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and Katni and totals 437 km². The park derives its name from the most prominent hillock of the area, which is said to be given by Hindu Lord Rama to his brother Lakshmana to keep a watch on Lanka (Ceylon). Hence the name Bandhavgarh (Sanskrit: Brother's Fort).

This park has a large biodiversity. The density of the tiger population at Bandhavgarh is one of the highest known in India. The park has a large breeding population of Leopards, and various species of deer. Maharaja Martand Singh of Rewa captured the first white tiger in this region in 1951. This white tiger, Mohan, is now stuffed and on display in the palace of the Maharajas of Rewa.

Pench National Park,is situated to the south of Satpura Hills. It is named so after the name of the river Pench which flows through this area. This is the 19th project tiger reserve in India and was declared so in 1992. It has tropical moist deciduous forest. Meandering through the park from north to south. It is located on the southern boundary of Madhya Pradesh, bordering Maharashtra, in the districts of Seoni and Chhindwara.Pench National Park, comprising 758 km2, out of which a core area of 299 km2 of Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park and the Mowgli Pench Sanctuary and remaining 464 km2 of pench national park is the buffer area.

The area of the present tiger reserve has a glorious history. A description of its natural wealth and richness occurs in Ain-i-Akbari. Pench Tiger Reserve and its neighbourhood is the original setting of Rudyard Kipling's most famous work, The Jungle Book.

Amarkantak is a beautiful pilgrim town in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Also called "Teerthraj" (the king of pilgrimages), Amarkantak region is a unique natural heritage area and is the meeting point of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras, with the Maikal Hills being the fulcrum. This is where the Narmada River, the Sone River and Johila River emerge.

Chhindwara is one of the larger towns located in the Satpura range. It is situated on a plateau, surrounded by the lush green fields, rivers and sagaun trees. Chhindwara is surrounded by dense forest with diverse flora and fauna. Pench and Kanhan are two impotent rivers of chhindwara. Chhindwara is an urban agglomeration and a municipality in Chhindwara district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Chhindwara District. Chhindwara is reachable by rail or road from adjacent cities Nagpur and Jabalpur. The nearest airport is in Nagpur (130 km); however, a small airport (air-strip) is available at Chhindwara for landing charter aeroplanes/helicopters. The population of the District is 2,090,306, most of them are tribals with a growth rate of 13%, a sex ratio of .966 ♂/♀. The literacy percentage is 100% .

Toranmal is a hill retreat in Maharashtra. Its Gorakhnath Temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva and visited by thousands of devotees on Mahashivratri. Pilgrims often walk barefoot for days from surrounding areas in the Nandurbar district and across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat to make the yatra to Toranmal through Shahada.

Chikhaldara is a famous hill retreat in Maharashtra is located in satpura ranges in Amravati District.It is full natural beauty such rivers ,big waterfalls,dense forest,Rocks mountains,trekking,cool and fresh air,with full of adventure. It has various viewing points such as Bhimkund water fall,Devi point water fall,Vairat point(highest point),Gavilgarh Fort,Prospect point,Mozari point,coffe garden,Panchbol ponit etc.It is the only hill station in Vidharbha region of maharashtra.Also it is the origin point of many river such as Pili,Chandrabhaga,Shahnoor,Bichhan,Sapan,Sipna,Dolar,Bholeshwari etc.

Melghat Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve located in northern part of Amravati District of Maharashtra State in India. The Tapti River and the Gawilgadh ridge of the Satpura Range form the boundaries of the Reserve. In 1985 Melghat Wildlife Sanctuary was created. The Tapi river flows through the northern end of the Melghat Tiger Reserve, through a forest which lies within the catchment area of the river system. Many different kinds of wildlife, both flora and fauna, are found here.And there many river floes through the resvior such as Sipna river,Khurshi River,Dolar river,Garga River,Khapra River etc.

Gugamal National Park is another national park located in maharashtra and in satpura range has an area of 1673.93 square kilometers. Built in 1974, this park is located in Chikhaldara and Dharni Tehsils of Amravati District, Maharashtra, India. It is part of Melghat Tiger Reserve.

Flora The forest in rugged and hilly area of Melghat is typical Southern dry deciduous forest. This consist mainly of Tectona grandis, Ain, Tiwas, Aola, Lendia, Dhawada, Kusum are the important tree species. Bamboo is widely spread in the forests. Some orchids and strobilanthes in the upper hills. The area is rich in medicinal plants.

Fauna The area is rich in wild mammals including Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Jackal, Hyena, Chausinga, Sambar (largest Deer on earth) Gaur, Barking Deer, Ratel, Flying squirrel, Cheetal (type of Deer), Nilgai, Wild Boar, Langur, Rhesus Monkey, and Macaque. Also found here are 25 types of fishes and many varieties of butterflies.

Crocodiles were re-introduced in a systematic manner in March 1990 and February 1991 in Siddu Kund in Gadga river near Dhakna and Hathikund in the Dolar river in the Gugamal National Park.

Muktagiri is a Jain Pilgrimage centre, located on border of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in India. It comes under Bhainsdehi tehsil of Betul district or Baitul district in Madhya Pradesh, India. It is 14 km away from Paratwada, Dist. Amravati, Maharashtra. Muktagiri is 7 km away from Kharpi village on Paratwada - Baitul road. Muktagiri is also called as 'Mendhagiri'. There are 52 temples on the mountain, surrounding a beautiful waterfall. The waterfall is generally visible only when there is enough rainfall in the area. One can plan trip to Muktagiri between June to September to see the waterfall. A lot of monkeys can be seen near the 10th Temple - Bhagwan Sheetalnath temple - near which the waterfall is located. The 10th Temple is an ancient temple and is inside an ancient cave. The cave is prone to stonefall (which is generally said to happen only during night). Also, lot of honeybees are at a large distance from the cave. The 1st Temple, 10th Temple, 26th Temple and 40th Temple are the main temples. Contents.

Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Narmada district of Gujarat. This sanctuary has 607.70 Km2 area It has 575 species of flowering plants. There are vast patches of bamboo. It is a deciduous forest with semi-evergreen trees.Many type of animals like sloth bear, leopard, rhesus macaque, chausinga, barking deer, pangolin, herpetofauna, birds including Alexandrian parakeet are found here.

Other[edit]

INS Satpura (F48) is a Shivalik class frigate of the Indian Navy named for the range.

Places to Stay[edit]

There are Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation and Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation hotels .

For stay in Madhya Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation hotels one can visit their website http://mptourism.com/web/home.aspx for complete details about the properties ad bookings.

For stay in Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation hotels one can visit their website http://www.maharashtratourism.gov.in for reservations and details

See also[edit]

Tourism in Madhya Pradesh

Tourism in Maharashtra

Tourism in Gujrat

External links[edit]

References[edit]