Sagar, Madhya Pradesh

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This article is about the municipality in Madhya Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Sagar District.
For other uses, see Sagar (disambiguation).
Sagar
सागर
City
Sagar City.JPG
Sagar is located in Madhya Pradesh
Sagar
Sagar
Coordinates: 23°50′N 78°43′E / 23.83°N 78.71°E / 23.83; 78.71Coordinates: 23°50′N 78°43′E / 23.83°N 78.71°E / 23.83; 78.71
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
District Sagar
Area
 • Metro 49.763 km2 (19.214 sq mi)
 • Sagar Division 6,375 km2 (2,461 sq mi)
Elevation 427 m (1,401 ft)
Population (2001)
 • City 371,987
 • Density 150/km2 (400/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 470001,2,3,4
Telephone code 91 7582
Vehicle registration MP-15
Spoken Languages Hindi, Bundeli
Website www.sagar.nic.in

Sagar (Saugor), (Hindi: सागर) is a city in Madhya Pradesh state of central India in a picturesque situation on a spur of the Vindhya Range and 1758 ft. above sea-level, and around 180 km northeast of state capital, Bhopal. Its original name 'Saugor' is an amalgamation of two words namely 'SAU' meaning 100 and 'GARH' meaning forts, as there were countless small-forts in this region. With time the name has changed from 'Saugor' to 'Sagar'.[1][2]

Heritage[edit]

Sagar is a handsomely built university town with great natural beauty and cultural heritage. Hindi is the official language of the city, while Bundelkhandi is the local dialect. Sagar is well known for its contribution to Hindi literature and hosts a number of writers, poets and other leading artists in their respective fields.

Tourism[edit]

The region is popular on India's tourism scene, due to its cultural heritage and diversity. Some places of interest in and around Sagar are the Rahatgarh Waterfalls, Garhphra Mountains and Temples, and Khimlasa Forts. Sagar is developing into an industrial area with many new corporate industries setting up their plants within the city. Sagar has an army cantonment unit. The city, known as the Heart of Madhya Pradesh, has a very good transportation network, with the railway system and national highways connecting it with all major cities across India. The nearest airport to the city is at Bhopal, the capital of the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Media[edit]

Sagar region is served by various media networks. Regional commercial television networks such as Doordarshan (DD) operate in and around the city. The region also receives local radio networks and is home to various daily newspapers such as Dainik Bhaskar and Dainik Jaagran, as well as Aajtak, ZeeNews, NDTV new and local cable network. The Pragati Shopping Mall and many commercial shops are located mainly in the Civil Lines area. Sagar has a small stadium, where different sporting events are organized. Cricket, Football and Hockey are the most popular sports.

Medical facilities[edit]

The health care services in Sagar are dependent mainly on the government hospital. After the opening of a Government medical college the medical facilities have improved. besides many other hospitals are functioning to provide cheap & good medical facilities like Bhagyodaya tirth & other private hospitals.

Cantonment[edit]

Sagar holds a large part of the city to the Army with Military battalions like MRC being its part.

History[edit]

The ancient Indian kingdom of Chedi had its capital as "Suktimati", which is located in Sagar in contemporary times. History of Sagar District was not known before 1022 A.D., after that all the records are available.Firstly, Sagar was under the rule of Ahir Rajas and their capital was at "Garhpehra". in 1660 A.D. Udenshah founded the present Sagar Town.[3] Sagar owes its importance to having been made the capital of the Maratha governor Govind Pant Bundele who established himself here in 1735. By a treaty concluded with the Maratha Peshwa in 1818, at the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the greater part of the present district was made over to the British. The town became the capital of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, then attached to the North-Western Provinces. The Saugor and Nerbudda Territories later became part of the Central Provinces (afterwards Central Provinces and Berar) and Sagar District was added to Jabalpur Division. During the Revolt of 1857 the whole district was in the possession of the rebels, except the town and fort, in which the British were shut up for eight months, until relieved by Sir Hugh Rose. The rebels were totally defeated and British rule restored by March 1858.

In the early 20th century Sagar had a British cantonment, which contained a battery of artillery, a detachment of a European regiment, a native cavalry and a native infantry regiment. Upon India's independence in 1947, the former Central Provinces and Berar became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

Geography[edit]

Sagar has an average elevation of 594 metres (1,949 ft). The total area of the city is 49 square kilometres (19 sq mi). The area of Sagar Division is 6,375 square kilometres (2,461 sq mi) in the shape of a triangle. It is the sixth largest city in the province of Madhya Pradesh.

Sagar is also important for the biodiversity it harbours. The small forests around Sagar university are home of varied flora and fauna. Snakes, in particular, find ideal habitat here.

Historical Centre point[edit]

Sagar also happens to be the exact centre of the original undivided India. The granite bench mark by British surveyors indicating this is placed in the compound of a church in Sagar Cantonment, next to a branch of the Oriental Bank of Commerce.

Climate[edit]

Sagar has a borderline humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) and tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with hot summers, a somewhat cooler monsoon season and cool winters. Very heavy rain falls in the monsoon season from June to September.

Climate data for Sagar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.2
(90)
35.0
(95)
39.1
(102.4)
42.8
(109)
46.0
(114.8)
44.8
(112.6)
40.0
(104)
35.3
(95.5)
38.1
(100.6)
36.0
(96.8)
34.6
(94.3)
30.6
(87.1)
46
(114.8)
Average high °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
26.7
(80.1)
32.2
(90)
37.8
(100)
40.6
(105.1)
37.2
(99)
30.2
(86.4)
28.6
(83.5)
30.4
(86.7)
31.6
(88.9)
28.7
(83.7)
25.1
(77.2)
31.13
(88.06)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
19.9
(67.8)
25.3
(77.5)
30.6
(87.1)
33.5
(92.3)
31.4
(88.5)
26.7
(80.1)
25.6
(78.1)
26.3
(79.3)
25.9
(78.6)
22.4
(72.3)
18.8
(65.8)
25.36
(77.63)
Average low °C (°F) 11.2
(52.2)
13.0
(55.4)
18.3
(64.9)
23.3
(73.9)
26.3
(79.3)
25.4
(77.7)
23.2
(73.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.1
(71.8)
20.2
(68.4)
16.0
(60.8)
12.5
(54.5)
19.5
(67.1)
Record low °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
4.9
(40.8)
9.8
(49.6)
14.3
(57.7)
18.3
(64.9)
18.1
(64.6)
19.9
(67.8)
16.6
(61.9)
17.0
(62.6)
12.1
(53.8)
9.1
(48.4)
6.0
(42.8)
4.6
(40.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 27
(1.06)
14
(0.55)
4
(0.16)
2
(0.08)
16
(0.63)
170
(6.69)
350
(13.78)
467
(18.39)
162
(6.38)
33
(1.3)
19
(0.75)
15
(0.59)
1,279
(50.36)
Avg. rainy days 2.3 2.3 0.8 0.2 1.9 9.6 16.5 19.7 10.0 2.2 0.9 1.2 67.6
 % humidity 49 43 32 25 29 55 81 86 75 52 43 49 51.6
Source: NOAA (1971-1990) [4]

Demographics[edit]

As of the 2001 India census,[5] Sagar had a population of 232,321. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Sagar has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%.

Religion in Sagar
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
65%
Muslims
  
11%
Jains
  
22%
Others†
  
1.50%
Christians
  
.50%
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (1%), Buddhists (<0.5%).

Crime Sagar district, of which Sagar Municipality is a part, surprisingly, has one of the highest rape percentages and even actual numbers of grimes against women in India, according to National Crime Records Bureau 2013. There were 141 reported incidences of rape and 509 incidences of assault with intention of outraging the modesty of a woman in Sagar in 2001, compared to the 127 rapes and 274 assaults in Mumbai, which is several times larger. The district wise 2013 data could not be obtained, but the state wide record still shows Madhya Pradesh has the highest rape incidences in the country every year.[6]

Education[edit]

University of Sagar, established in 1946 through the efforts of Dr. Hari Singh Gour, was the first university to be established in Madhya Pradesh, and it is the 18th university established in India. Situated on top of hills overlooking the town it has an extensively large University Teaching Department (UTD) Campus. Sagar also has a Government Engineering College and its very own Sagar Medical College to train doctors and nurses. Sagar is a popular location for pharmacy education. It has a reputed Pharmacy Department located in the University of Sagar. It offers courses like B.Pharm and M.Pharm and PhD in Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Quality Assurance and Pharmacognosy. Sagar enjoys status of alumni to many great achievers[who?] in the pharmacy field in India and abroad. The University has a center of Indira Gandhi Open University that offers all the major disciplines of study.

Dr. Hari Singh Gour University has now become a central university. The university has an excellent campus with a huge library. The dept of Forensic Science and Pharmaceutical Sciences are the leading ones[citation needed]. There is a reputed Private Pharmacy College named as Sagar Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, (SIPS) which is rated among top 75 Pharmacy Colleges of the country. SIPS offer B Pharm and M Pharm in Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, Quality Assurance and Pharmacognosy.

This city also houses the Indira Gandhi Engineering College (an autonomous government college).

There is a state-level police training academy JNPA (Jawaharlal Nehru Police Academy).

The city has schools, which include St Joseph's Convent School . There are also three Kendriya Vidyalayas in the city. Army Public School and a few other private schools are budding in and are trying their best to improve the quality of education which is imparted to the students. Vatsalya School has also established itself in the field of education, with many IIT (Indian Institutes of Technology), NIIT and medical selections[citation needed]. Swami Vivekanand University bundelkhand medical college established in 2009.

Transport[edit]

Railways[edit]

The Sagar Railway Station (Station Code: SGO) is the main railway station of the city which serves a few trains for Bombay and Calcutta, While it serves trains for Bhopal, Indore and Jabalpur too. The Sagar Railway Station lies between the two major rail stations linking northern India to South and Central India.

These [clarification needed] are the Katni and Bina Railway Stations. The Bina Railway Station falls on the Delhi-Bhopal Rail Route, while Katni is on the Allahabad-Itarasi rail route. Bina falls under the Sagar District and is just 1 hour distance from Sagar Town. So, by reaching Bina one can easily get trains for Delhi,Jhansi, Gwalior, Agra, Mathura, Jammu, Amritsar, Mumbai, Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Goa, Hydrabad and other South and north Indian cities. Katni is quiet a distance from Sagar. There are a pair of passenger trains running between Katni and Bina but they are few and are not always precise to scheduled time.

Roadways[edit]

Sagar is a focal point of two national highways and many state highways. It is about 190 km to Bhopal on the state highway, about 200 km to Jhansi on national highway 26, about 180 km to Jabalpur on state-highway, about 70 km to Bina (a rail head on main north-south India rail route), and about 200 km to Khajuraho, a well known tourist destination with an airport. The way to Jhansi from Sagar is being newly built and it a treat to the drivers for driving on that massive highway.It takes just a day to reach New Delhi from Sagar. The route is Sagar–Lalitpur–Jhansi–Gwalior–Agra–Mathura–Faridabad–New Delhi. However, a night halt is advisable at Gwalior.

From Sagar, one can visit Bhopal, Sanchi stupa, Khajuraho, Kanha forest at ease by vehicle either self-driven or by a driver. The Sagar city is a small place, so travelling from one place to the other does not take much time. There are cars in the city, but scooters and bikes and four-wheelers are frequently seen as well.

Long distance buses are available from Sagar to Bhopal, Jhansi, Damoh, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Banda.

Airways[edit]

Nearest airports with regular domestic flights are at Jabalpur and Khajuraho. Each of these airports are about 180–200 km from Sagar. It takes 3–5 hours by road to these airports. There is also an air-strip at Dhana(15 km) which has been proposed to be expanded[citation needed].

Entertainment spots[edit]

Sagar is full of entertainment. Common places to visit include the parks. One is located near the bus stop in front of Govt. Girls College. The bus-stand side of Lakha Banzaara lake is quite beautiful as it provides the full view of the great lake and the hills behind it. There are also parks at the Civil Lines. There is also the Varun Smriti park with a water park and restaurant.

The city is full of religious structures such as Mosques, Temples (Hindu and Jain), Gurdwara and a few Churches. The Jaama Masjid is at the Katra Square and the Hanumaan Temple is near the Kachhahari. There is also a great temple near Makroniya(city suburb) at Jabalpur-Sagar state highway,having a large statue of lord Shiva. As earlier mentioned that city contains around 22% Jain population so there are around 60 - 70 jain temples.

The city also has a stadium, A Sports Complex and a Mall at the Cantonment. Stadium is not used for most of the part of [clarification needed] year but beside a sports complex there is a huge play-ground which is used on regular basis. The sports complex is quite active[vague].

Cinemas include the Alankaar Talkies, The Cine City, Cineplex (named Shahbaaz Auditorium) at Cantonment Area, and Platinum Plaza at Makronia.[clarification needed] They play the all latest Bollywood and (Hindi dubbed) Hollywood movies.

The market is quite developed and organised, however it is not as big[compared to?]. The lights of the city can be seen in the night as the market provides a magnificent view. The area is known for its Mangauri & panipuri (called as 'fulki' locally). Tea shops at the Radha Market, Civil Lines, Bada Bazar & near the railway station, offer a great taste[opinion] of tea. Exploring the city on foot can be difficult and tiring as the whole city is built on hilly terrain.

Entertainment spot like cinema hall. Sagar city Biggest cinema hall is Platinum Plaza in the Paradise Hotel.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About Sagar". Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "Sagar Places To Visit". www.touristlink.com. Tourist Link. 
  3. ^ Arun K. Jain, A. N. Sharma (2006). "The Beria (Rai Dancers): A Socio-demographic, Reproductive, and Child Health Care Practices Profile". Berias. Sarup & Sons. p. 13. ISBN 9788176257145. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  4. ^ "Sagar Climate Normals 1971-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  6. ^ [ncrb.gov.in], following "Crime in India 2012", "Additional Tables", then option 10c.