|Countries||Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia|
|- left||Savinja, Sutla, Krapina, Lonja, Ilova-Trebež, Orljava, Bosut|
|- right||Ljubljanica, Krka, Kupa, Una, Vrbas, Ukrina, Bosna, Tinja, Drina, Kolubara|
|Cities||Kranj, Ljubljana, Zagreb, Sisak, Slavonski Brod, Brčko, Sremska Mitrovica, Šabac, Obrenovac, Belgrade|
|- location||Kranjska Gora, Slovenia|
|- elevation||833 m (2,733 ft)|
|- location||Belgrade, Serbia|
|- elevation||68 m (223 ft)|
|Length||990 km (615 mi) a|
|Basin||97,713.2 km2 (37,727 sq mi)|
|Discharge||for the river mouth|
|- average||1,564 m3/s (55,232 cu ft/s)|
|a Including 45 km (28 mi) Sava Dolinka headwater|
The Sava is a river in Southeast Europe, a right side tributary of the Danube river discharging in Belgrade. It is 990 kilometres (615 miles) long, including 45-kilometre (28 mi) Sava Dolinka headwater rising in Zelenci, Slovenia – draining the second largest catchment among Danube tributaries after Tisza and covering 97,713 square kilometres (37,727 square miles) of surface area. It flows through Slovenia, Croatia, along the northern border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and through Serbia. Its central part is a natural border of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. The Sava is considered to be the northern border of the Balkan Peninsula.
It belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin and, together with Sava Dolinka, represents the third longest tributary of the Danube, as well as the greatest by volume of water. It drains a significant portion of the Dinaric Alps region, through the significant tributaries of Drina, Bosna, Kupa, Una, Vrbas, Lonja, Kolubara, Bosut and Krka. The Sava is one of the longest rivers in Europe and among a handful of European rivers of that length, that do not drain directly into a sea.
The Sava River is formed of the Sava Dolinka and the Sava Bohinjka headwaters in northwest Slovenia. The river's headwater area also encompasses several tributaries, including the 52-kilometre (32 mi) Sora, the 27-kilometre (17 mi) Tržič Bistrica and the 17-kilometre (11 mi) Radovna rivers—flowing into the Sava at confluences located as far east downstream as Medvode. Valleys of the Sava Dolinka and the Sava Bohinjka are glacial valleys, carved out by the Sava Dolinka and Bohinj glaciers advancing down Karavanke mountain range to vicinity of present-day Radovljica. In the late Pleistocene, Bohinj Glacier was the largest glacier in the territory of present-day Slovenia, up to 900 metres (3,000 feet) thick.
The Sava Dolinka rises at the Zelenci Pools near Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, in a valley separating the Julian Alps from Karavanke range. The spring is located near Slovene-Italian border at 833 metres (2,733 feet) above sea level, in area of drainage divide between Adriatic and Danube basins. The Sava Dolinka spring is thus fed by groundwater possibly exhibiting bifurcation of source karst aquifer to Sava and Soča basins. Losing stream of short Nadiža creek, flowing nearby, is the source of Zelenci Pools water. Sava River is considered to comprise Sava Dolinka as its initial, 45-kilometre (28 mi) segment.
The Sava Bohinjka originates in Ribčev Laz, at confluence of the Jezernica, a short watercourse flowing out from Lake Bohinj—and the Mostnica River. Some sources define the Jezernica as a part of the Sava Bohinjka, specifying the latter as flowing directly out of the lake, while another group of sources include Savica, rising at the southern flank of Triglav as the 78-metre (256 ft) Savica Falls, downstream from Triglav Lakes Valley, and flowing into the lake, as a part of the Sava Bohinjka. The watercourse flows 41 kilometres (25 miles)—including length of the Savica—east to Radovljica, where it discharges into the Sava Dolinka. Downstream from the confluence, the river is referred to as the Sava.
The Sava is located in Southeast Europe, flowing through Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia and along the Bosnia-Herzegovina border. Its total length is 990 kilometres (615 miles), including the 45-kilometre (28 mi) Sava Dolinka and the 945-kilometre (587 mi) Sava proper. As a right tributary of the Danube, the river belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin. The Sava River is the third longest tributary of the Danube, slightly shorter than the 966-kilometre (600 mi) Tisza and the 950-kilometre (590 mi) Prut—the Danube's two longest tributaries—when the Sava Dolinka headwater is excluded from its course. It is also the largest tributary of the Danube by discharge. The river course is sometimes used to describe the northern boundary of the Balkans, and the southern border of the Central Europe. Before the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, the river was located completely inside Yugoslav borders and it was the longest river with its entire course within the country.
From source to the Sutla 
The Sava Dolinka rises in the Zelenci Pools, west of Podkoren in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia at 833 metres (2,733 feet) above sea level (a.s.l.), and flows east, past Kranjska Gora to Jesenice, where it turns southeast. At Žirovnica, the river enters the Ljubljana Basin and encounters the first hydroelectric dam—Moste plant—before proceeding to the east of the glacial Lake Bled towards Radovljica and confluence of the Sava Bohinjka, at 411 metres (1,348 feet) a.s.l. Downstream of Radovljica, the Sava proceeds southeast towards Kranj. Between Kranj and Medvode, its course comprises the Trbojsko Lake and the Zbiljsko Lake reservoirs, built for the Mavčiče and the Medvode power plants.
The Sava then flows through the capital of Slovenia, Ljubljana, where another reservoir is located on the river, adjacent to the Tacen Whitewater Course. There the river course turns east and leaves the Ljubljana Basin via Dolsko, at 261 metres (856 feet) a.s.l. (at confluence of the Ljubljanica and the Kamnik Bistrica). The course continues through the Sava Hills, where it passes the Litija Basin with the mining and industrial town of Litija, the Central Sava Valley with the mining towns of Zagorje ob Savi, Trbovlje, and Hrastnik, turns to the southeast and runs through the Lower Sava Valley with the towns of Radeče, Sevnica, and Krško. The course through the Sava Hills forms the boundary of traditional regions of Lower Carniola and Styria, At Radeče, the Vrhovo hydroelectric dam reservoir is located. The latter is site of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, which uses the Sava River water to dissipate excess heat. The easternmost stretch of the Sava River course in Slovenia runs to the south of Brežice, where it is joined by the Krka, and the river ultimately becomes a border river between Slovenia and Croatia, marking 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) near confluence of the Sutla (Slovene: Sotla). At that point, the Sava reaches 132 metres (433 feet) a.s.l. after flowing 221 kilometres (137 miles) through Slovenia and along its border.
From the Sutla to the Una 
The westernmost part of the 562-kilometre (349 mi) Sava River course in Croatia, takes the river east, through the western part of the Zagreb County, between Samobor and Zaprešić. The area encompasses forests interspersed by marshes and lakes formed in gravel pits. As the Sava approaches the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, the marshes give way to urban landscape, but there are surviving examples of the gravel pit lakes, such as the Jarun, and the Bundek within the city. At the western outskirts of Zagreb, there is the western terminus of the 32-kilometre (20 mi) Sava–Odra flood-relief canal connecting the Sava to the Odra River plain which is intended to act as flood control retention basin. The canal has been built in response to the most destructive flooding of the river that occurred in Zagreb in 1964, when one third of the city was flooded and 17 people were killed. The city itself marks the western extent of the Sava River basin area especially prone to flooding, spanning from Zagreb to confluence of the river in Belgrade, Serbia.
East of Zagreb, the river turns southeast again further through the Central Croatia, to the Sisak-Moslavina County, the city of Sisak, reaching 91.3 metres (300 feet) a.s.l. The city of Sisak marks the westernmost extent of the Sava River navigable to larger vessels. Navigation conditions on the river are poor due to limited draft and fairway width, meandering of the river, bridge clearance restrictions, poor fairway markings as well as presence of sunken vessels and other objects, including unexploded ordnance. The ordnance is left over from various conflicts including the World War II, Croatian War of Independence, Bosnian War, and the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. Before reaching confluence of Una at Jasenovac and 86.8 metres (285 feet) a.s.l, the Sava River traces Lonjsko Polje nature park, encompassing marshes frequently flooded by the Sava and its tributaries in the area.
From the Una to the Drina 
Downstream of confluence of the Una River, the Sava is once again tracing an international border—between Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Its meandering course turns generally eastwards along Gradiška, and Slavonski Brod to Županja, where it turns south to Brčko. There, the river resumes its predominantly eastward course towards Sremska Rača and confluence of the Drina River. The right bank of the Sava, in this segment of its course, belongs to Bosnia-Herzegovina—largely to Republika Srpska, but also to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Brčko District, while the opposite bank belongs to Croatia and its Sisak-Moslavina, Brod-Posavina and Vukovar-Syrmia counties, except in the area of Jamena and further downstream—which belongs to Serbia and the province of Vojvodina. No cities in this segment of the course span the river as it represents an international frontier, but there are adjacent settlements located in two different countries, divided by the Sava. Those include Gradiška, Brod and Brčko in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Stara Gradiška, Slavonski Brod and Gunja in Croatia opposite them.
The 337.2-kilometre (209.5 mi) segment between the Una and the Drina confluences, marking corresponding to the entire length of the Sava flowing along the border of Bosnia-Herzegovina, exhibits small change of elevation—from 86.8 metres (285 feet) a.s.l at Jasenovac to 76.6 metres (251 feet) a.s.l. at Brčko gauges, over 287.5 kilometres (178.6 miles) of the river between them. The entire course of the river downstream from Zagreb flows down 0.4‰ slope on average, significantly less steep than the course in Slovenia, where the average slope exceeds 0.7‰—resulting in the Sava's meandering course running through a wide plain bordered by wetlands.
From the Drina to the Danube 
Downstream from confluence of the Drina, the Sava River changes its eastward course to northeast, until it reaches Sremska Mitrovica, from where it flows to the southeast and then south to Šabac, before finally turning east towards Belgrade. Most of the river's course in Serbia represents a border between province of Vojvodina, on the left bank, and Central Serbia, on the right bank. Exceptions to that are in area around Sremska Mitrovica, where both banks are in Vojvodina, and downstream of Progar suburb of Belgrade where both banks are in Central Serbia. The river meanders and forms wetlands in there as well—the most significant wetland among them centering on Obedska bara oxbow lake. The Sava River forms several large islands in this segment of the course, with the largest among them—800-hectare (2,000-acre) Ada Ciganlija in Belgrade—connected to the right bank by a pair of artificial embankment dams forming the Sava Lake since 1967. The Sava discharges into the Danube, after reaching 68.3 metres (224 feet) a.s.l. as its right tributary at the Great War Island off the easternmost tip of Syrmia in Belgrade, 1,169.9 kilometres (726.9 miles) away from the Danube's confluence and the Black Sea.
Population in the Sava river basin is estimated at 8,176,000, and it includes four capitals—Belgrade, Ljubljana, Sarajevo and Zagreb. All of them, except Sarajevo, are also located directly on the river banks and represent the three largest settlements found along the Sava River course. Belgrade, located at the confluence of the river, is the largest city in the basin with urban population of 1,135,502. Ten municipalities where the city is situated have combined population of 1,283,783 as suburban settlements are added, while the Belgrade metropolitan area encompasses population of 1,639,121. Zagreb is the second largest city on the river, comprising population of 686,568 living in the city itself, and 792,875 in the city-administered area. Together with the Zagreb County, largely corresponding to various definitions of the city's metropolitan area, it has a combined population of 1,110,517. Ljubljana is the third-largest city on the banks of the Sava, encompassing population of 258,873 living in the city itself and 265,881 in the city-governed area.
The largest city in Bosnia-Herzegovina situated on the Sava River course is Brčko, whose urban population is estimated at 40,000. Other cities along the river, with populations of 20,000 and larger, are Slavonski Brod (53,473), Šabac (52,822), Sremska Mitrovica (37,586), Kranj (35,587), Sisak (33,049), Obrenovac (24,568), Novo Mesto (22,415), and Gradiška (est. 20,000).
|The most populous urban areas along the Sava River|
|Rank||City||Country||Urban population||Municipal population|
|Sources: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia 2011 Census; Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 Census; Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002 Census; Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
The Sava River basin, covers a total area of 97,713.2 square kilometres (37,727.3 square miles) making it the second largest Danube tributary catchment by area size, surpassed by the Tisza basin only, and it encompasses 12% of the Danube basin, draining into the Black Sea. The Sava represents the third longest tributary of the Danube and its largest tributary by discharge. The catchment area borders the remainder of the Danube basin to the north and east, and the Adriatic Sea basin to the west and south. The river basin generally consists of parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia, with a very small part of the catchment area belonging to Albania. Topography of the basin varies significantly. Upstream portion of the basin is more rugged than downstream one, but asymmetry of the basin topography is particularly apparent when comparing right and left bank areas—the former dominated by the Alps and the Dinarides reaching elevations in excess of 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) a.s.l, while the latter is dominated by Pannonian Plain. Mean elevation of the basin is 545 metres (1,788 feet) a.s.l.
|Country||Sava basin area||Share of national
territory in the basin
|Share of the Sava basin|
|Slovenia||11,734.8 km2 (4,530.8 sq mi)||52.8%||12.01%|
|Croatia||25,373.5 km2 (9,796.8 sq mi)||45.2%||25.97%|
|Bosnia-Herzegovina||38,349.1 km2 (14,806.7 sq mi)||75.8%||39.25%|
|Serbia||15,147.0 km2 (5,848.3 sq mi)||17.4%||15.50%|
|Montenegro||6,929.8 km2 (2,675.6 sq mi)||49.6%||7.09%|
|Albania||179.0 km2 (69.1 sq mi)||0.59%||0.18%|
|Source: International Sava River Basin Commission;|
Major tributaries 
The most important tributaries of the Sava River found in its upper basin are characterized by relatively steep grades of flow, high flow velocities and rapids. Those are left tributaries: the Kokra, the Kamnik Bistrica and the Savinja; and right tributaries: the Sora, the Ljubljanica and the Krka. Further downstream larger rivers empty into the Sava, as the right bank of the basin grows steadily. Right tributaries in this lower segment of the basin start as fast flowing courses, only to slow down as they enter the Pannonian Basin. They include the Kupa, the Una, the Vrbas, the Ukrina, the Bosna, the Brka, the Tinja, the Drina and the Kolubara. Left tributaries in the lower segment drain plains consequently exhibiting less steep course grades, lower flow rates and meandering. They include the Sutla, the Krapina, the Lonja, the Ilova, the Orljava and the Bosut.
The 346-kilometre (215 mi) Drina is the largest tributary of the Sava, flowing in Bosnia-Herzegovina and along border of the country and Serbia. It is formed by headwaters of the Tara and the Piva at the border of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, near Šćepan Polje. Its 20,319.9-square-kilometre (7,845.6 sq mi) catchment extends across parts of four countries—reaching as far south as Albania. The Bosna and the Kupa river basins are the second and third largest catchments of the Sava tributaries, each surpassing 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 square miles) in size.
|List of major tributaries of Sava River|
|Left bank||Catchment area||Length||Confluence||Right bank|
|Slovenia||Central Slovenia||1,860.0 km2 (718.2 sq mi)||41.0 km (25.5 mi)||Ljubljanica||Central Slovenia||Slovenia|
|Savinja||Savinja||1,849.0 km2 (713.9 sq mi)||93.9 km (58.3 mi)||Savinja|
|Lower Sava||2,247.0 km2 (867.6 sq mi)||94.6 km (58.8 mi)||Krka||Lower Sava|
|Croatia||Zagreb||Sutla||584.3 km2 (225.6 sq mi)||88.6 km (55.1 mi)|
|Krapina||1,237.0 km2 (477.6 sq mi)||66.9 km (41.6 mi)||Zagreb||Croatia|
|Sisak-Moslavina||10,225.6 km2 (3,948.1 sq mi)||297.4 km (184.8 mi)||Kupa||Sisak-Moslavina|
|Lonja||4,259.0 km2 (1,644.4 sq mi)||49.1 km (30.5 mi)|
|Ilova-Trebež||1,796.0 km2 (693.4 sq mi)||104.6 km (65.0 mi)|
|9,828.9 km2 (3,795.0 sq mi)||214.6 km (133.3 mi)||Una||Border river at the confluence|
|Brod-Posavina||6,273.8 km2 (2,422.3 sq mi)||249.7 km (155.2 mi)||Vrbas||Republika Srpska||Bosnia-Herzegovina|
|Orljava||1,618.0 km2 (624.7 sq mi)||87.6 km (54.4 mi)|
|1,504.0 km2 (580.7 sq mi)||80.7 km (50.1 mi)||Ukrina|
|10,809.8 km2 (4,173.7 sq mi)||281.6 km (175.0 mi)||Bosna||Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Vukovar-Syrmia||904.0 km2 (349.0 sq mi)||99.4 km (61.8 mi)||Tinja||Brčko District|
|Serbia||Vojvodina||20,319.9 km2 (7,845.6 sq mi)||346.0 km (215.0 mi)||Drina||Border river at the confluence|
|Bosut||2,943.1 km2 (1,136.3 sq mi)||186.0 km (115.6 mi)||Vojvodina||Serbia|
|Central Serbia||3,638.4 km2 (1,404.8 sq mi)||86.6 km (53.8 mi)||Kolubara||Central Serbia|
|Notes: Country/region/county of location of confluence with Sava corresponding to tributary bank side;
The list includes rivers with catchment areas greater than 900 square kilometres (350 square miles), with addition of Sutla.
Source: International Sava River Basin Commission;
Upstream of the Sora river confluence, its average annual flow rate stands at 65 cubic metres (2,300 cubic feet) per second. Downstream of the Krka confluence the average flow rate reaches 317 cubic metres (11,200 cubic feet) per second, gradually increasing as tributaries discharge along the course—340 cubic metres (12,000 cubic feet) per second downstream of the Sutla, 880 cubic metres (31,000 cubic feet) per second following discharge of the Kupa and the Una, 990 cubic metres (35,000 cubic feet) per second downstream of the Vrbas confluence, 1,180 cubic metres (42,000 cubic feet) per second after the Bosna River empties into the Sava, and finally of 1,564 cubic metres (55,200 cubic feet) per second at confluence of the Sava in Belgrade. The highest flow rate of 4,161 cubic metres (146,900 cubic feet) per second was recorded by Županja gauging station in 1970.
Seven out of eight largest reservoirs in the Sava River basin are located in the Drina catchment, the largest among them being the 0.88-cubic-kilometre (0.21 cu mi) Piva Lake on the eponymous river in Montenegro, created after construction of Mratinje Dam. Overall, there are 22 reservoirs holding more than 5,000,000 cubic metres (180,000,000 cubic feet) of water in the basin, with only four of them situated directly on the Sava, including one on the Sava Dolinka. Most of the reservoirs are used primarily, or even exclusively, for electricity generation, but they are also used as supply of drinking water, industrial water source, for irrigation and food production.
Groundwater is a very important resource in the Sava River basin, generally used for public water supply of potable water, as a source of water for industrial use, but also as the mainstay of aquatic ecosystems. There are 41 identified significant groundwater bodies in the Sava River basin of basin-wide importance, ranging in area size from 97 to 5,186 square kilometres (37 to 2,002 square miles), as well as numerous minor ground water bodies. Even though most of them are transboundary waters, eleven are considered to be largely located in Slovenia, fourteen in Croatia, seven in Bosnia-Herzegovina, five in Serbia and four in Montenegro.
Electric power generation 
There are 18 hydroelectric power plants with power generation capacity exceeding 10 Megawatts in the Sava River basin. In Slovenia, most of them are located on the Sava itself. In other countries, the hydroelectric power plants are situated on its tributaries. Total power generation capacity of the 18 power plants, and additional smaller plants largely found in Slovenia, amounts to 41,542 Megawatts, and their annual production capacity stands at 2,497 Gigawatt-hours. In addition, approximately 3.3 cubic kilometres (0.79 cubic miles) of water per year in the river's basin is used to cool thermoelectric and nuclear power plants.
As of October 2012[update], there are six existing hydroelectric power plants built along the Sava River. Upstream of Ljubljana there are Moste, Mavčiče and Medvode power plants, while Vrhovo, Boštanj and Blanca are located downstream of the capital. There is one additional plant under construction near Krško. The Krško hydroelectric power plant, as well as two additional plants planned on the Sava River course downstream of Ljubljana—Brežice and Mokrice—should be completed by 2018. The power plants downstream of Ljubljana, except Vrhovo, are developed as a chain of five Slovenia's Lower Sava Valley plants since 2002. They will have production capacity of 2,000 Gigawatt-hours per year and 570 Megawatts of installed capacity. Completion of the five power plants is expected to cost 700 million Euros. There are also plans for construction of ten new powerplants in the middle Sava valley HE Suhadol, HE Trbovlje, HE Renke, HE Ponovice, HE Kresnice, HE Jevnica, HE Zalog, HE Šentjakob, HE Ježica and HE Tacen. Croatia is planning construction of four hydroelectric power plants on the Sava River in Zagreb area. The four plants—Podsused, Prečko, Zagreb and Drenje—are scheduled to be completed by 2021 at a cost of 800 million Euros. The four power plants will have installed capacity of 122 Megawatts and annual production capacity of 610 Gigawatt-hours.
|Hydroelectric power plant||Location||Installed capacity||Annual production capacity|
|Moste||Moste, Slovenia||21 MW||56 GWh|
|Mavčiče||Mavčiče, Slovenia||38 MW||62 GWh|
|Medvode||Medvode, Slovenia||25 MW||72 GWh|
|Vrhovo||Vrhovo, Slovenia||34.2 MW||116 GWh|
|Boštanj||Boštanj, Slovenia||36 MW||115 GWh|
|Blanca||Blanca, Slovenia||42 MW||144 GWh|
|Sources: Savske Elektrarne Ljubljana, Hidroelektrarne na spodnji Savi.|
Water supply and food production 
Use of water for public water supply in the Sava River basin is estimated at 783,000,000 cubic metres (2.77×1010 cubic feet) per year, and another 289,000,000 cubic metres (1.02×1010 cubic feet) per year. Use of water for agriculture in the Sava River basin is relatively high, but most of it is applied in non-consumptive uses, such as fish farming. Use of water for irrigation is relatively low, estimated at 30,000,000 cubic metres (1.1×109 cubic feet) per year. Commercial fishing on the Sava River is in decline since the middle of the 20th century. In 1978, there were only 97 commercial fishermen there, while recreational fishing became dominant. The decline became more rapid during the wars in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, reducing quantity of fish caught in the river to approximately one third of the pre-war catches which ranged from 719 to 988 tonnes (708 to 972 long tons; 793 to 1,089 short tons) between 1979 and 1990. The International Sava River Basin Commission (ISRBC), a cooperative body established by Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and Serbia and Montenegro in 2005, is tasked with establishment of sustainable management of surface water and groundwater resources in the Sava River basin.
The Sava is navigable to navigable to larger vessels for 593.8 kilometres (369.0 miles) between its confluence with the Danube in Belgrade, Serbia and Galdovo Bridge in Sisak, Croatia, 2.8 kilometres (1.7 miles) upstream from confluence of Sava and Kupa rivers. The confluence marks the westernmost point of the river course designated as a Class IV international waterway in compliance with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's European Agreement on Main Inland Waterways of International Importance (AGN). The classification means that the river course between Sisak and Belgrade is navigable to ships of the maximum length of 80 to 85 metres (260 to 279 feet), the maximum beam of 9.5 metres (31 feet), the maximum draught of 2.5 metres (8 feet 2 inches) and tonnage up to 1,500 tonnes (1,500 long tons; 1,700 short tons). The Sava River downstream of Sisak, is designated as European waterway E 80-12, branching off from the E 80 waterway spanning the Danube and Le Havre via the Rhine. The largest ports on the Sava River are Brčko and Šamac in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sisak and Slavonski Brod in Croatia, and Šabac and Sremska Mitrovica in Serbia.
As of 2008[update], 24.5 kilometres (15.2 miles) of the river course between Slavonski Šamac and Oprisavci, as well as additional 219.8 kilometres (136.6 miles) between Slavonski Brod and Sisak, are considered by the Croatia's Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure to fail the Class IV criteria, permitting navigation of vessels up to 1,000 tonnes (980 long tons; 1,100 short tons) only, complying with the AGN's Category III. The Slavonski Šamac–Oprisavci section is especially troublesome for navigation as it offers 250 centimetres (98 inches) draught in less than 50% of an average hydrological year, causing navigation to cease each summer. Similar interruptions are less frequent elsewhere on the river, occurring 30 days a year on average upstream from Oprisavci, and even more rarely downstream from Slavonski Šamac.
The restricted draft and fairway is compounded with meandering of the river's course—limiting length of vessels—and low bridge clearance. Further problems are incurred through poor transport infrastructure along the route, including poor navigation markings, and presence of sunken vessels and unexploded munitions. Navigation along further 68 kilometres (42 miles) of the river upstream to Rugvica near Zagreb is possible for vessels with tonnage below 1,000 tonnes (980 long tons; 1,100 short tons), and the section of the river belongs to the AGN's Category II. There are plans for restoration of the Category IV compliant waterway downstream of Sisak and betterment of navigation infrastructure between Sisak and Rugvica, as well as upgrading of the waterway between Brčko and Belgrade to Category Va, matching that of the Danube, with uninterrupted navigation through the year. The plan is planned to be supported by the European Union and As of October 2012[update], an agreement to implement the plan was signed by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia, while Serbia is invited to join the project. The plan aims to increase safety and volume of river transport, which declined by about 70% since the breakup of Yugoslavia, largely because of poor maintenance of the route. The ISRBC is tasked with establishment of an international regime of navigation on the river since 2005.
|Slavonski Brod||139,364 t||2007|
|Serbia||Sremska Mitrovica||295,551 t||2009|
Road, rail and pipeline transport 
The Sava River valley is also a route for road and rail traffic. The river valley routes are a part of the Pan-European Corridor X, and forming junctions with Pan-European Corridors V, Vb, Vc, Xa and Xb in area of Ljubljana (V), Zagreb (Vb, Xa), Slavonski Šamac (Vc), and Belgrade (Xb). The motorways forming the Pan-European Corridor X in the area—Slovenia's A2, Croatia's A3 and Serbia's A1 motorways—represent a part of European route E70 Bordeaux–Turin–Ljubljana–Zagreb–Belgrade–Bucharest and the European route E61 Villach–Ljubljana–Trieste–Rijeka. A largely double track railroad with a railway electrification system is also a part of the Corridor X. The railroad was a part of the Simplon-Orient-Express and Direct-Orient-Express routes. The navigable river course between Belgrade and Galdovo north of Sisak is spanned by 25 bridges. The Sava River valley east of Sisak is also used as a route for the Jadranski naftovod, a crude oil pipeline. The system connects the Port of Rijeka oil terminal to oil refineries in Rijeka and Sisak, to Brod in Bosnia-Herzegovina, as well as Novi Sad and Pančevo in Serbia.
In 1751, Francesco Robba completed his Fountain of Three Carniolan rivers, the Ljubljanica, the Krka, and the Sava. It was originally on display at Town Square in Ljubljana. Since 2008, it is on display in the National Gallery of Slovenia, and a replica stands at the square.
Even though name Sava became very common among (and not only South) Slavs, especially as a form of personal name, either male or female, and has a "Slavic tone," the river's name is not Slavic but Celtic and Roman in origin; the Latin name was Savus. Another name, used for Sava in entirety or its lower part by Strabo, is Noarus. The old Celts associated their river goddess Adsullata with the Savus.
See also 
- T. Vrhovec; N. Pristov; A. Hočevar (1996). "Air Pollution Deposition Variability in a Slovene Alpine Headwater as a Consequence of Topography and General Circulation Assessed by Theoretical Model". In Josef Křeček; G. S. Rajwar; Martin J. Haigh. Hydrological Problems and Environmental Management in Highlands and Headwaters: Updating the Proceedings of the First and Second International Conferences on Headwater Control. Taylor & Francis. p. 123. ISBN 9789054107262. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Rivers, longer than 25 km, and their catchment areas (PDF). "Territory and climate". Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia) (41). 2002. ISSN 1318-5403. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Miloš Bavec; Tomaž Verbič (2001). "Glacial History of Slovenia". In J. Ehlers; P.L. Gibbard; P.D. Hughes. Quaternary Glaciations – Extent and Chronology: A Closer Look, Volume 4. Elsevier. p. 385. ISBN 9780444534477. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Justi Carey; Roy Clark (2005). The Julian Alps of Slovenia. Cicerone Press Limited. p. 50. ISBN 9781852844387. Retrieved 27 May 2005.
- Klement Tockner; Urs Uehlinger; Christopher T. Robinson (2009). "3.9.6. Sava River". Rivers of Europe. Academic Press. ISBN 9780123694492. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Niko Trišič; Marjan Bat; Janez Polajnar; Janko Pristov (1997). "Water balance investigations in the Bohinj region". In Andrej Kranjc. Tracer Hydrology 97: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Water Tracing, Portorož, Slovenia, 26–31 May 1997. Taylor & Francis. pp. 295–298. ISBN 9789054108757. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- "Sava River Basin Analysis Report" (PDF). Zagreb: International Sava River Basin Commission. September 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Fran Orožen (1901). Vojvodina Kranjska: Prirodoznanski, politični in kulturni opis [Duchy of Carniola: A natural-scientific, political and cultural description] (in Slovene). Slovenska matica. p. 96. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "River Sava Bohinjka (Sector I)". Fishing Association of Slovenia. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Steve Fallon (2010). Slovenia. Lonely Planet. p. 133. ISBN 9781741048575. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Robin McKelvie; Jenny McKelvie (2008). Slovenia: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 111. ISBN 9781841622118. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Frederick Bernard Singleton (1985). A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521274852. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Miha Primožič; Mira Kobold; Mitja Brilly (2008). "The implementation of the HBV model on the Sava River basin" (PDF). IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science (IOP Publishing) 4. doi:10.1088/1755-1307/4/1/012004. ISSN 1755-1315. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "About Basin". International Sava River Basin Commission. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Tisza Basin – the largest sub-basin of the Danube". International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Ion Bostan et al. (2011). "Conversion of renewable kinetic energy of water: Synthesis, theoretical modeling, and experimental evaluation". In Adrian Gheorghe; Liviu Mureșan. Energy Security: International and Local Issues, Theoretical Perspectives, and Critical Energy Infrastructures. Springer. p. 127. ISBN 9789400707184. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Maria Todorova (2009). Imagining the Balkans. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780195387865. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- Christian Promitzer; Klaus-Jürgen Hermanik; Eduard Staudinger (2009). (Hidden) Minorities: Language and Ethnic Identity Between Central Europe and the Balkans. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 10. ISBN 9783643500960. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- John R. Lampe (2000). Yugoslavia as History: Twice there was a Country. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780521774017. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "HE Moste" [Moste Hydroelectric Power Plant] (in Slovene). Holding Slovenske elektrarne. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Uroš Stepišnik (2012). "Glacial Geomorphology". In Miloš Stankoviansky; Adam Kotarba. Recent Landform Evolution: The Carpatho-Balkan-Dinaric Region. Springer Publishing. pp. 300–303. ISBN 9789400724471. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "HE Mavčiče" [Mavčiče Hydroelectric Power Plant] (in Slovene). Holding Slovenske elektrarne. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "HE Medvode" [Medvode Hydroelectric Power Plant] (in Slovene). Holding Slovenske elektrarne. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Površinske vode" [Surface waters] (in Slovene). Municipality of Ljubljana. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "WFD and hydromorphological pressures – Technical report – Case studies" (PDF). European Union. November 2006. pp. 81–83. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Presentation of the municipality". Dol pri Ljubljani Municipality. 15 December 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Town history". Municipality of Laško. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "HE Vrhovo" [Vrhovo Hydroelectric Power Plant] (in Slovene). Holding Slovenske elektrarne. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Plant systems and operation". Krško Nuclear Power Plant. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Google Inc. Google Maps – Approximate course of Sava River (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. https://maps.google.com/maps?saddr=Podkoren&daddr=Belgrade&hl=en&ll=45.644768,17.105713&spn=4.032074,10.821533&sll=45.514046,16.973877&sspn=4.041465,10.821533&geocode=FdxvxQIdVubRAA%3BFXChqwIdwUc4ASm9P7XXo3paRzHkfhfyXGS4HQ&mra=ls&t=m&z=7. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Ostroški, Ljiljana, ed. (December 2011). Geographical and Meteorological Data (PDF). "Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2011" [2011 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia]. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia (in Croatian and English) (Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics) 43: 41. ISSN 1333-3305. Retrieved 13 May 2012
- "Bird reserve". Zagreb County Tourist Board. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- B. Aničić; T. Treer (December 1997). "Uređenje krajolika u ribarstvu" [Landscape architecture in fisheries]. Ribarstvo (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb) 55 (4): 161–166. ISSN 1330-061x. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Mario Duspara (22 May 2006). "Obiteljski park na južnoj obali Save" [Family park at the south bank of Sava]. Nacional (weekly) (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Stjepan Šterc (June 1979). "Kanal Sava – Odra -Sava kao objekt obrane Zagreba od poplava" [Sava – Odra – Sava canal as floodwater protection structure of the city of Zagreb]. Hrvatski geografski glasnik (in Croatian) (Croatian Geographic Society). 41–42 (1): 95–117. ISSN 1331-5854. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Prije točno 47 godina katastrofalna poplava ubila je 17 ljudi i uništila veliki dio Zagreba" [Exactly 47 years ago, a catastrophic flood kills 17 and destroys a large part of Zagreb] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "U Savi kod Brčkog pronađena bomba iz Drugog svjetskog rata" [A Second World War bomb found in Sava near Brčko]. Dnevni avaz (in Bosnian). 17 October 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Sanja Rapaić (7 July 2011). "Bombe i minobacačke granate u slavonskim rijekama" [Bombs and mortar rounds in Slavonia's rivers]. t-portal (in Croatian). Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "NATO-ove bombe još uvijek prijete Srbiji" [NATO bombs still threaten Serbia] (in Croatian). Index.hr. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Indicator of river kilometres for the Sava River and its navigable tributaries" (PDF). Zagreb: International Sava River Basin Commission. 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Lonjsko Polje Nature Park Map". Lonjsko Polje Nature Park. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "O Parku" [About the park] (in Croatian). Lonjsko Polje Nature Park. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Branko Nadilo (2000). "Obnova graničnih mostova na Savi" [Reconstruction of border bridges on Sava] (PDF). Građevinar (in Croatian) (Croatian Association of Civil Engineers) 52 (3): 181–185. ISSN 0350-2465. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Ada Ciganlija" [Ada Ciganlija] (in Serbian). JP Ada Ciganlija. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia – First Results" (PDF). Belgrade: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements" (PDF). Statistical Reports (in Croatian and English) (Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics) (1441). June 2011. ISSN 1332-0297. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
- Ksenija Bašić (July 2005). "Apsolutna decentralizacija u populacijskom razvoju Zagrebačke aglomeracije" [Absolute Decentralization in Population Development of Zagreb Agglomeration]. Hrvatskigeografski glasnik (in Croatian) (Croatian geographic society) 67 (1). ISSN 1331-5854. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Population Census 2002 results". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Izvještaj Bosne i Hercegovine o zakonodavnim i drugim mjerama na provođenju načela utvrđenih u okvirnoj konvenciji za zaštitu nacionalnih manjina" [Report of Bosnia and Herzegovina on legislative and other measures regarding implementation of principles determined by framework convention on protection of national minorities] (PDF) (in Bosnian). Sarajevo: Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2003. p. 13. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Демографија" [Demographics] (in Serbian). Municipality of Gradiška. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- "Otvoren obnovljeni most Gunja-Brčko" [Reconstructed Gunja-Brčko bridge reopened] (in Croatian). Croatian Radiotelevision. 25 October 2000. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Engineers rebuild Brcko Road bridge". US Army. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Poročilo o delu za leto 2007" [Report on year 2007 works] (PDF) (in Slovene). Ljubljana: Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia. December 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- Mayer, Darko (December 1996). "Zalihe pitkih voda u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Potable water reserves in the Republic of Croatia]. Rudarsko-geološko-naftni zbornik (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb) 8 (1): 27–35. ISSN 0353-4529. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Roko Andričević. "Pilot Project on Climate Change Adaptation Building the Link between Flood Risk Management Planning and Climate Change Assessment in the Sava River Basin" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
- "Background paper No.2: Groundwater bodies in the Sava River Basin, v2.0" (PDF). Zagreb: International Sava River Basin Commission. November 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Analiza sliva rijeke Save – Sažetak" [Sava River basin analysis – Summary] (PDF) (in Bosnian). International Sava River Basin Commission. December 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "HE Boštanj" [Boštanj HPP] (in Slovene). Hidroelektrarne na Spodnji Savi, d.o.o. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Tatjana Jalušić (May 2011). Slovenija gradi, Hrvatska priprema izgradnju [Slovenia builds, Croatia prepares to build] (PDF) (in Croatian) 25 (244/284). Hrvatska elektroprivreda. p. 9. ISSN 1332-5310. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Hidroelektrarne na Savi" [Hydroelectric power plants on the Sava] (in Slovene). Savske Elektrarne Ljubljana. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Projekti" [Projects] (in Slovene). Hidroelektrarne na spodnji Savi. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Dobrila Habeković; Zlatko Homen; Krešo Fašaić (March 1990). "Ihtiofauna dijela rijeke Save" [Ichthiofauna of a part of the Sava River]. Ribarstvo (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb) 45 (1–2): 8–14. ISSN 1848-0586. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- D. Habeković; R. Safner; I. Aničić; T. Treer (October 1997). "Ihtiofauna dijela rijeke Save" [Ichthiofauna of a part of the Sava River]. Ribarstvo (in Croatian) (University of Zagreb) 55 (3): 99–110. ISSN 1848-0586. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "History". International Sava River Basin Commission. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Mission". International Sava River Basin Commission. 12 December 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Srednjoročni plan razvitka vodnih putova i luka unutarnjih voda Republike Hrvatske (za razdoblje 2009.-2016. godine)" [Mid-term plan of development of internal waterways and internal waterway ports in the Republic of Croatian (for 2009–2016 period)] (PDF) (in Croatian). Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). December 2008. pp. 16–21. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "European Agreement on Main Inland Waterways of International Importance (AGN)" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 19 January 1996. p. 28. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Sava" [Sava] (in Bosnian). BMG Bosanska medijska grupa. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- "Strateški plan Ministarstva mora, prometa i infrastrukture za razdoblje 2011.-2013." [Strategic plan of the Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure for period of 2011–2013] (in Croatian). Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure (Croatia). 6 August 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Šansa regionalnog razvoja riječnog prometa" [A chance for regional development of river transport] (in Bosnian). Al Jazeera Balkans. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "Transport : launch of the Italy-Turkey pan-European Corridor through Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Greece". European Union. 9 September 2002. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
- "European Agreement on main international traffic arteries (AGR) (with annexes and list of roads). Concluded at Geneva on 15 November 1975" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Nikolina Brnjac; Borna Abramović; Marinko Maslarić (July 2010). "Forecasting Intermodal Transport Requirements on Corridor X". PROMET – Traffic&Transportation (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering) 22 (4): 303–307. ISSN 0353-5320. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Orient-Express at Encyclopædia Britannica
- "Album of bridges on the Sava River and its navigable tributaries" (PDF). International Sava River Basin Commission. 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- "The JANAF system". Jadranski naftovod. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- Šašel Kos, Marjeta (2009). "Reka kot božanstvo – Sava v antiki" [River as a Deity – The Sava in Antiquity]. In Barachini, Jožef. Ukročena lepotica: Sava in njene zgodbe [The Tamed Beauty: The Sava and Its Stories] (in Slovene, abstract in English). Sevnica: Javni zavod za kulturo, šport, turizem in mladinske dejavnosti. pp. 42–50. ISBN 978-961-92735-0-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sava|
- Condition of Sava at locations in Slovenia (proceeding from the upper to the lower stream):
- Radovljica – graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Radovljica by ARSO)
- Medno – graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Medno by ARSO)
- Šentjakob – graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Šentjakob by ARSO)
- Hrastnik – graphs, in the following order, of water level, flow and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Hrastnik by ARSO)
- Jesenice na Dolenjskem – graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days (taken in Jesenice na Dolenjskem by ARSO)