Save the Children
|This article reads like a news release, or is otherwise written in an overly promotional tone. (August 2011)|
|Registration No.||England & Wales (213890) Scotland (SC039570)|
|Origins||London, England (UK)|
|Mission||A world in which every child attains the right to survival, protection, development and participation.|
|Motto||"We save children’s lives. We fight for their rights. We help them fulfill their potential."|
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an internationally active non-governmental organization that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries. It was established in the United Kingdom in 1919 in order to improve the lifes of children through better education, health care, and economic opportunities, as well as providing emergency aid in natural disasters, war, and other conflicts.
In addition to the UK organisation, there are 30 other national Save the Children organisations who are members of Save the Children International, a global network of nonprofit organisations supporting local partners in over 120 countries around the world.
Save the Children promotes policy changes in order to gain more rights for young people especially by enforcing the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Alliance members coordinate emergency-relief efforts, helping to protect children from the effects of war and violence. Save the Children has general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Declaration of the Rights of the Child
- 3 Campaigns
- 4 Structure and accountability
- 5 Controversies
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 Related videos
- 10 Related audio
- 11 External links
The Save the Children Fund was founded in London, England, on April 15, 1919 by Eglantyne Jebb and her sister Dorothy Buxton as an effort to alleviate starvation of children in Germany and Austria-Hungary during the Allied blockade of Germany of World War I which continued after the Armistice. Jebb's life and the foundation of the fund is documented in Clare Mulley's biography 'The Woman Who Saved the Children' (OneWorld Publications, 2009).
The Fight the Famine Council was initially started earlier in 1919 in order to put political pressure on the British government to end the blockade, the first meeting having been held at the home of Catherine Courtney, at 15 Cheyne Walk. However, on April 15, 1919, the sisters succeeded in separating itself from the politics of the Council and creating a separate “Save the Children Fund”.
In May 1919, the Fund was publicly established at a meeting in London's Royal Albert Hall in order to "provide relief to children suffering the effects of war" and raise money for emergency aid to children suffering from the wartime shortages of food and supplies.
The first branch was opened in Fife, Scotland in 1919. A counterpart, Rädda Barnen (which means "Save the Children"), was founded later that year in Sweden, and together with a number of other organizations, they founded the International Save the Children Union in Geneva on January 6, 1920. Jebb built up excellent relationships with other Geneva-based organisations, including the Red Cross who supported Save’s International foundation.
Jebb used many new ground-breaking fund-raising techniques, making Save the Children the first charity in the United Kingdom to use page-length advertisements in newspapers. Jebb contracted doctors, lawyers and other professionals in order to devise mass advertisement campaigns. In 1920, Save the Children started individual child sponsorship as a way to engage more donors. By the end of the year, Save the Children raised the equivalent to about £8,000,000 in today’s money.
By August 1921, the UK Save the Children had raised over £1,000,000, and conditions for children in Central Europe were improving due to their efforts. However, the Russian famine of 1921 made Jebb realize that Save the Children must be a permanent organisation and that children's rights constantly need to be protected. Their mission was thus changed to "an international effort to preserve child life wherever it is menaced by conditions of economic hardship and distress".
From 1921 to 1923, Save the Children created press campaigns, propaganda movies and feeding centers in Russia and in Turkey in order to feed and educate thousands of refugees. They began to work with several other organisation such as the Russian Famine Relief Fund and Nansen which resulted in recognition by the League of Nations. Although Russia was largely closed off to international relief and aid, Save the Children persuaded Soviet authorities to let them have a ground presence.
At home, the Daily Express criticised the Fund's work, denying the severity of the situation and claiming they should be helping their own people before helping Russia. The charity responded with increased publicity about the famine, showing images of starving children and mass graves. The campaign gained national appeal, eventually allowing the organisation to charter the SS Torcello off to Russia with 600 tons worth of relief supplies. Over 157 million rations were given out, saving nearly 300,000 children. Save the Children closed its Russian feeding program in the summer of 1923 and allowed the organisation to reach international legitimacy and acclaim.
World War 2
At the end of World War II, images of malnourished and sick children ran throughout Europe. Jebb and her sister worked to gain public sympathy in order to elicit support aid. Save the Children staff were among the first into the liberated areas after World War II, working with refugee children and displaced persons in former occupied Europe, including survivors of concentration camps. At the same time, work in the United Kingdom focused on improving conditions for children growing up in cities devastated by bombing and facing huge disruptions in family life.
The 1950s saw a continuation of this type of crisis-driven work, with additional demands for help following the Korean War and the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, but also the opening of new work in Africa, Asia and the Middle East in response to the decline of the British empire.
Like other aid agencies, Save the Children was active in the major disasters of the era—especially the Vietnam War and the Biafra secession in Nigeria. The latter brought shocking images of child starvation onto the television screens of the West for the first time in a major way. The sort of mass-marketing campaigns first used by Save the Children in the 1920s were repeated, with great success in fundraising.
Disasters in Ethiopia, Sudan, and many other world hotspots led to appeals which brought public donations on a huge scale, and a consequent expansion of the organisation's work. However, the children's rights-based approach to development originated by Jebb continues to be an important factor. It was used in a major campaign in the late 1990s against the use of child soldiers in Africa.
Declaration of the Rights of the Child
In 1923, Jebb wrote: "I believe we should claim certain rights for the children and labour for their universal recognition, so that everybody--not merely the small number of people who are in a position to contribute to relief funds, but everybody who in any way comes into contact with children, that is to say the vast majority of mankind--may be in a position to help forward the movement."
Jebb created an initial draft for what would become the UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child in 1923. It contained the following five criteria:
- The child must be given the means requisite for its normal development, both materially and spiritually.
- The child that is hungry must be fed, the child that is sick must be nursed, the child that is backward must be helped, the delinquent child must be reclaimed, and the orphan and the waif must be sheltered and succoured.
- The child must be the first to receive relief in times of distress.
- The child must be put in a position to earn a livelihood, and must be protected against every form of exploitation.
- The child must be brought up in the consciousness that its talents must be devoted to the service of its fellow men.
These five points were adopted by the League of Nations in 1924 and was thus known as the Declaration of Geneva. This was the first important assertion of the rights of children as separate from adults, and began the process that would lead to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the United Nations in 1989.
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Following the atrocities of World War II, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. However, many felt the rights of children needed to be addressed in further detail with a separate document.
In November 1959, the UN General Assembly altered Jebb's initial criteria in order to produce the Declaration of the Rights of the Child. This consisted of ten non-binding principles for states to follow in order to work in the best interests of the child. However, this 1959 declaration was not legally binding and was only a statement of general principles and intent. In 1989, however, it was adopted by the UN General Assembly. On 2 September 1990 it became international law.
The convention consists of 54 articles that address the basic human rights that all children are entitled to: the right to survival; development to the fullest; protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and full participation in family, cultural and social life. The four core principles of the convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child.
Every Beat Matters
The Every Beat Matters campaign, started in August 2012, aims to end preventable child deaths. Every year, more than 7 million children die before their 5th birthday, largely due to preventable and treatable causes like pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria. As part of the campaign, OneRepublic created the new song "Feel Again". Lead singer Ryan Tedder was inspired to write the song by listening to heartbeats of children in need in remote villages in Malawi and Guatemala. Proceeds from the sale of “Feel Again” on iTunes will benefit Save the Children, which trains frontline health workers to save children’s lives around the world. In developing countries, frontline health workers are often the only link to health care for children who live beyond the reach of hospitals and clinics. They can provide a range of proven, lifesaving services including maternal and newborn care, child health, and management of chronic and communicable diseases, such as tuberculosis, AIDS and diabetes. Yet according to the World Health Organization, there is a global shortage of at least one million frontline health workers.
Every One Campaign
The Every One Campaign was started in October 2009 as a result of the Millennium Development Goals created in 2000. The fourth goal aims to reduce the child mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015. Save the Children is working to achieve this goal through their Every One Campaign and their seven step program stating:
- Implement credible national plans
- Focus on newborn babies
- Prioritize equally
- Mobilize additional resources
- Train and deploy more health care workers
- Tackle malnutrition
- Increase focus on children during emergencies
Rewrite the Future
Rewrite the Future is Save the Children's first global campaign involving all 28 members of the Save the Children Alliance. Beginning in 2006, the campaign focuses on obtaining equal and quality education for children who are unable to attend school due to conflict or war. The campaign is focused in 28 states where armed conflict is particularly relevant including Afghanistan, Angola, Colombia Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Indonesia, Liberia, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Sri Lanka, and Uganda.
In 2008, Save the Children surpassed its goal of improving educational standards for eight million children by reaching over 10 million.
Structure and accountability
Save the Children is an international umbrella organization, with 29 national organizations serving over 120 countries.
All members of the alliance are bound by the International Save the Children Alliance Bylaws which includes The Child Protection Protocol and Code of Conduct. These set a standard for common values, principles, and beliefs.
The Save the Children website states that the member organizations work towards achieving four key initiatives:
- Secure quality education for 8 million children affected by armed conflict.
- Expand and improve our presence in countries of strategic importance.
- Create a stronger voice for children where more than one Member has programmes by integrating country operations.
- Become the emergency response agency for children worldwide by improving disaster preparedness and response capacity so that we can best deliver immediate and lasting improvements to children
Connections with other organizations
Save the Children helps to fund, and is aided with funds raised by, the national will-making scheme Will aid, in which participating solicitors waive their usual fee to write a basic will and in exchange invite the client to donate to charity.
The Save the Children Fund Film
Main article: The Save the Children Fund Film
In 1969, Save the Children UK commissioned film director Ken Loach and producer Tony Garnett to make The Save the Children Fund Film. The resulting film was unacceptable to the organisation because they felt it presented their work in an unfavourable light. They refused to pay for the film and tried to have it destroyed, out of concern that it would damage their reputation. Loach and Garnett took legal action to get paid. Eventually a legal agreement was arrived at which involved the material being deposited in the National Film Archive. The legal battle nearly left Kestrel Films, Loach and Garnett's company, bankrupt. In 2011, roughly 42 years later, it was shown to the public for the first time in decades.
Expulsion from Pakistan
On September 6, 2012 it was reported that the Pakistani Government had requested Save the Children's foreign staff to leave the country, although the Minister for Home Affairs later said that this request had been suspended.
Newspaper stories claimed that the July 2012 draft report of a Pakistani government inquiry into the conduct of Dr. Shakil Afridi, who is said to have conducted a fake vaccination campaign at the request of the CIA, includes reference to claims by Dr Afridi that he was working for Save the Children. However, Save the Children has denied that Dr Afridi ever worked for them, or that they had any connection with the fake vacination campaign. The report is also alleged to have included a claim by Dr Afridi that Michael McGrath, who was Save the Children country director in Pakistan until 2009, was the person who recruited him. However, Dr Afridi provided no evidence to support his claim, and as the alleged recruitment happened long after Michael McGrath left Pakistan, the allegation was clearly false. The Government of Pakistan conducted an extensive investigation into these claims by Dr Afridi, but could not find an association between him and Save the Children's programme in Pakistan. The report of the Pakistani Government inquiry has not been released.
Western NGO officials say Pakistani authorities have made it much harder for them to do their jobs, but they also have criticized the CIA for using humanitarian work as a cover for intelligence gathering.
In January 2013, the Deans of twelve top U.S. schools of public health sent a letter to President Obama protesting against the entanglement of intelligence operations in public health campaigns. The letter describes the negative and lasting impacts of the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) use of a fake vaccination campaign in Pakistan during the hunt for Osama bin Laden in 2011, which exacerbated the already persistent public mistrust of vaccines in the country. A series of deadly attacks against aid and health workers associated with polio eradication campaigns have occurred over the past month in Pakistan.
- Children's interests (rhetoric)
- Child Development Index
- Save the Children International
- Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report
- International Save the Children Union
- Declaration of the Rights of the Child
- Convention on the Rights of the Child
- Charity Commission Registration details
- About Us. Save the Children/
- Nault, pg. 4 2003
- Yates 2011
- Nault, pg. 6 2003
- History. Save the Children.
- Nault, pg. 7 2003
- Breen, Rodney (1994). "Saving Enemy Children: Save the Children's Russian Relief Organisation, 1921-1923". Disasters 18 (3), 221-237.
- Hyder, pg. 2 2005
- Hyder, pg. 3 2005
- UNICEF 2008
- Nault 2003
- [dead link]
- WHO | Children: reducing mortality. Who.int. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
- OneRepublic Donate New Single Proceeds To Save The Children « New York’s 92.3 NOW. 923now.cbslocal.com (2012-08-23). Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
- Connecting to the iTunes Store. Itunes.apple.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
- Every One. Save the Children.
- Rewrite the Future. Save the Children.
- Our Structure. Save the Children.
- Will Aid
- Banned Ken Loach charity documentary Save The Children Fund to be shown after 42 years | Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk (2011-08-21). Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
- Pakistan evicts Save the Children foreign workers
- CIA Vaccination Cover in Pakistan. Jhsph.edu (2013-01-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-25.
- Lynda Mahood, Vic Satzewich, "The Save the Children Fund and the Russian Famine of 1921–23: Claims and Counter-Claims about Feeding “Bolshevik” Children," Journal of Historical Sociology, 22,1 (2009), 55–83.
- Clare Mulley, "The Woman Who Saved the Children: A biography of Eglantyne Jebb, Founder of Save the Children" (Oneworld Publications, 2009): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781851686575
- Children and War. Lecture given by Mattito Watson, Deputy Field Office Director for Save the Children/U.S. November 8, 2006
- An audio recording by CUiD of Robert Hingley, trustee of Save the Children talking on "Child Survival: Where and Why are Children Dying