Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
|Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha
Heil unserem Herzog, heil
"Hail to our Duke, hail"
The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
|Capital||Coburg and Gotha|
|-||German Revolution||18 November 1918|
|-||1905||1,977 km² (763 sq mi)|
|Density||122.4 /km² (317 /sq mi)|
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is the collective name for the duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany. They were in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. The Duchy (German: Herzogtum) came to an end in November 1918 with the other German monarchies, and the Free State of Saxe-Coburg and the Free State of Saxe-Gotha were established. The former was merged into the Free State of Bavaria and the latter into the new state of Thuringia two years later.
The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha also refers to the family of the ruling House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which played many varied roles in nineteenth and twentieth-century European dynastic and political history, branches of which currently reign in Belgium and the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha were Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty. The duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originated as the personal union of these two duchies in 1826, after the death of the last Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg without male heirs. His Wettin relations repartitioned his lands. The former husband of Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the only niece of the last duke, was Duke Ernest III of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He received Gotha and changed his name and title to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, although the two duchies remained separate.
Ernest I died in 1844. His elder son and successor, Ernest II, ruled until his own death in 1893. As he died childless, the throne of the duchies would have passed to the male descendants of Ernest's late brother Albert, the Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, the constitutions of both duchies excluded the British heir apparent from the ducal thrones if there were other eligible male heirs, although Albert Edward, Prince of Wales had already renounced his claim to the ducal throne in favour of his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
Alfred's only son, also Alfred, committed suicide in 1899, so when Duke Alfred died in 1900 he was succeeded by his nephew the Duke of Albany, the 16-year-old son of Queen Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, Alfred's next brother Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and his son Prince Arthur of Connaught having renounced the succession. Reigning as Duke Carl Eduard, or Charles Edward, under the regency of the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg until he came of age in 1905, the new duke also continued to use his British title, Duke of Albany. As a result of Charles Edward fighting for Germany against the British in the First World War he was stripped of his British titles in 1919.
Charles Edward reigned until November 18, 1918, when, during the “November Revolution”, the Workers' and Soldiers' Council of Gotha deposed him. The two Duchies, now without a common ruler, became two independent states, the Free States of Coburg and Gotha, but in 1920 they ceased to exist. Coburg united with Bavaria while Gotha merged with other small states to form the state of Thuringia in the Weimar Republic.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was the only European country to appoint a diplomatic consul, Ernst Raven, to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He was assigned to a position in the state of Texas. He applied to the Confederate Government for a diplomatic exequatur on July 30, 1861 and was accepted.[full citation needed]
According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the full title of the Duke was:
Wir, Ernst, Herzog zu Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Jülich, Cleve und Berg, auch Engern und Westphalen, Landgraf in Thüringen, Markgraf zu Meißen, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf zu der Mark und Ravensberg, Herr zu Ravenstein und Tonna usw.
Translation: We, Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleves and Berg, also Angria and Westphalia, Landgrave in Thuringia, Margrave of Meissen, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna, et cetera.
Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1826–1918)
Heads of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1918–present)
Title and Style of other members of the House
Use of titles may be restricted in case of marriage in opposition to House laws or a member renouncing for themselves and their descendants.
- Sandner, Harold. "II.1.4 Prinz Albert". Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001 (in German). Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. p. 86. ISBN 3-00-008525-4. "Der zukünftige König von England und der vorraussichtliche englische Thronfolger sind von der von Regierung im Herzogtum ausgeschlossen"
- The London Gazette: . 28 March 1919. Retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Sandner, Harold. "I.11 Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha". Das Haus von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1826 bis 2001 (in German). Andreas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (preface). 96450 Coburg: Neue Presse GmbH. p. 27. ISBN 3-00-008525-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.|
- The Ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – the official website of the house, in German and English
- The Catholic Encyclopedia: Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – article about the duchy, with details of religious issues, written in 1910)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Saxe-Coburg-Gotha". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press