Sayisi Dene

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The Sayisi Dene, (People of the East), are Chipewyan, a Dene First Nation Aboriginal peoples of Canada group living in northern Manitoba. They are members of the "Sayisi Dene First Nation (Tadoule Lake, Manitoba)" (58°42′43″N 98°28′50″W / 58.71194°N 98.48056°W / 58.71194; -98.48056Coordinates: 58°42′43″N 98°28′50″W / 58.71194°N 98.48056°W / 58.71194; -98.48056) and are notable for living a nomadic caribou-hunting and gathering existence.

In 1956, the Sayisi Dene residing at Little Duck Lake (at 59°24′46.09″N 97°44′1.2″W / 59.4128028°N 97.733667°W / 59.4128028; -97.733667 ) in northem Manitoba were relocated to Churchill. The relocation of the Sayisi Dene is viewed as one of the most grievous errors committed by the federal government.[1]

Origin[edit]

The Chipewyan's ancestral homeland stretched west from Hudson Bay, including the area that straddles northern Manitoba and the southern Northwest Territories, as well as northern Alberta and northern Saskatchewan. Chipewyan lived in bands. Some lived near the port of Churchill, Manitoba, by Hudson Bay. Others lived at North Knife River, north of Churchill. Other lived in the Barren Lands by Nueltin Lake. Still others ("Duck Lake Dene") established a semi-settled encampment at Little Duck Lake when European traders arrived, calling the former Hudson's Bay Company trading post "Caribou Post" as it was close to the caribou migration range.[2]

Little Duck Lake[edit]

While some Chipewyan bands evolved into fur trader/hunters, the existence of Duck Lake Dene continued to be centered around hunting caribou whose migratory populations varied between decades. Canadian government officials noted a significant decrease in the caribou population of this region between 1942 and 1955. Duck Lake Dene, called "Caribou-eater Chipewyan" by Europeans, were considered the main reason for the decline.[2][3]

Churchill re-location[edit]

In the mid 20th century, caribou dwindled from approximately 670,000 animals in 1942 to 277,000 animals by 1955. According to the Manitoba Government, the decision to relocate the Dene community at Duck Lake was due to incorrect assumptions from Manitoba wildlife officials about the impact of the Dene's traditional hunting practices on what was in fact a healthy herd.[4] In addition the Hudson's Bay Company wished to close its nearby post which had served the band and was not as financially lucrative as it once was.[5] In 1956 the Canadian and Manitoba governments decided to relocate the Duck Lake Dene away from caribou lands to Churchill, Manitoba where other Chipewyan Dene were located. For a decade, the Little Duck Lake band, now a part of the "Churchill Band of Caribou-eater Chipewyan", lived in tents and shanties on the outskirts of town. Around 1967, the Canadian government developed a housing project for them called "Dene Village". But the transition from a traditional nomadic caribou hunting economy to a non-migratory urban life was unsuccessful: as much as a third of the "Churchill Chipewyan" population died as a direct result of the relocation to Churchill.[6][7]

Tadoule Lake re-location[edit]

In 1969, some Duck Lake Dene began discussing the possibility of becoming self-reliant and returning to the ancestral life-style. In 1973, the Duck Lake Dene moved north and set up a new community at Tadoule Lake (pronounced Ta-doo-lee, derived from the Dene ts'eouli, translated as "floating ashes"). The Tadoule Lake settlement is one of the most northern and isolated settlements in Manitoba, reachable only by plane, dog team, snowmobile or canoe. The nearest rail link is back in Churchill, 250 miles away. The settlement is located by the underdeveloped, wild, and rugged Seal River, about 80 km. south of the treeline, and centered within the winter range of the Qaminuriak Caribou Herd (barren-ground caribou). The Sayisi, with a population of around 360 people, have found it difficult, but not impossible, to return to ancestrally traditional hunting and trapping ways. They deal with spousal, drug and alcohol abuse. But by the 1990s, the Duck Lake Dene saw it could succeed in its new environment and changed its legal name from "Churchill, Band of Caribou-eater Chipewyan" to "Sayisi Dene First Nation (Tadoule Lake, Manitoba)".[8][9][10][11]

Ila Bussidor, Chief of the "Sayisi Dene First Nation (Tadoule Lake, Manitoba)", co-authored a 1997 book entitled, Night Spirits, The Story of the Relocation of the Sayisi Dene a chronicle of the band's ordeal from Little Duck Lake to Churchill to Tadoule Lake. Bussidor is currently working on a land claim settlement on behalf of her people, in addition to working with other First Nations on public works and community management projects.[7][9][12] On August 2, 2010 Manitoba promised 13,000+ acres of Crown land, aside from any other treaty land entitlement, to compensate for the effects of the relocation. [4] But, she (Ila Bussidor, Chief of the Sayisi Dene) says this book: for my people, the impact of the relocation had the same effect as genocide.[13]

Language[edit]

Sayisi Dene speak the Dene Suline language, of the Athabaskan linguistic group. Teaching their language to children and young adults who became English language speakers in Churchill is a priority. Elder Betsy Anderson said:[14]

“There was a time when all the people and all the animals understood each other and spoke the same language. ("Yanízį Denesųłiné chu tįch’adíe įłághe yati hot’a ʔełnedárení hél tth’i ʔełedárí tth’agh nisnį.")

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Virginia Phyllis Petch (1998), Relocation and loss of homeland, the story of the Sayisi Dene of Northern Manitoba. A Thesis presented to the University of Manitoba in partial fulfillment of the requirements of a Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, June, 1998
  2. ^ a b "Human History in Far Northern Saskatchewan". rkc.ca. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  3. ^ "VIDEO REVIEW". brandonu.ca. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  4. ^ a b "Province Apologizes to Sayisi Dene". Winnipeg Free Press. August 3, 2010. 
  5. ^ "The Dene Deserve Justice". Winnipeg Free Press. August 5, 2010. 
  6. ^ Kwesi Baffoe. "Profile of the Sayisi Dene Nation of Tadoule Lake in Northern Manitoba" (Tribal Law Journal). unm.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  7. ^ a b Jean-Guy Goulet. "Ila Bussidor and Üstün Bilgen-Reinart. 1997. Night Spirits: The Story of the Relocation of the Sayisi Dene". ualberta.ca. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  8. ^ "Employer Info: Sayisi Dene Education Authority". educationcanada.com. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  9. ^ a b Michael Riordon. "An Unauthorized Biography of the World: Oral History on the Front Lines, Ts'eouli -- Floating Ashes". oralhistory-productions.org. Between the Lines, Toronto, Canada, 2005. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  10. ^ "The Sayisi Dene (Manitoba)" (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada). inac.gc.ca. Retrieved 2007-10-12. [dead link]
  11. ^ "IN THE PUBLIC INTEREST: The first 25 years of The Public Interest Law Centre" (Public Interest Law Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 25th Anniversary, 1982-2007). publicinterestlawcentre.ca. Archived from the original on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-10-13. 
  12. ^ "Sharing the Story - Experiences of Six First Nations Communities". Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2006-07-17. Retrieved 2007-10-15. [dead link]
  13. ^ Ila Bussidor - Üstün Bilgen-Reinart (1997). Night Spirits: The Story of the Relocation of the Sayisi Dene. Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press. ISBN 978-0-88755-643-2. 
  14. ^ "Dene Quotes from Elders". sicc.sk.ca. Retrieved 2007-10-15. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]