Scaled Composites (often abbreviated as Scaled) is an aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Spaceport, Mojave, California, United States. Prior to acquisition by Northrop Grumman, the company was founded to develop experimental aircraft, but now focuses on designing and developing concept craft and prototype fabrication processes for aircraft and other vehicles. It is known for unconventional designs, for its use of non-metal, composite materials, and for winning the Ansari X Prize with its experimental spacecraft SpaceShipOne.
Scaled Composites was established in 1982 and purchased by the Beech Aircraft Corporation in 1985, as a result of the collaboration on the Starship project. In 1988, Beech's parent company, Raytheon, sold Scaled back to Rutan, who then sold it to Wyman-Gordon. After Wyman-Gordon was acquired by Precision Castparts Corp., Rutan and ten investors re-acquired the company as Scaled Composites, LLC. Northrop Grumman, a major shareholder in the company with a 40% stake, said it would acquire the company outright on July 20, 2007. Both companies said Northrop Grumman's acquisition would not affect Scaled Composites' strategy or involve replacing Burt Rutan as senior manager. The acquisition by Northrop Grumman was completed on August 24, 2007. Rutan retired in April 2011.
The company revealed in April 2003 that it was working on a privately funded spacecraft, in an attempt to win the Ansari X PRIZE for the first private, manned spaceflight. This experimental rocket-powered spacecraft was given the name SpaceShipOne. On December 17, 2003, they announced SpaceShipOne's first supersonic flight, the first flight of its kind by a privately funded aircraft. SpaceShipOne successfully made this flight, reaching 68,000 feet (21,000 m) and 930 mph (Mach 1.2). The craft was brought aloft by the White Knight carrier aircraft. On the same day, Paul Allen, one of the founders of Microsoft, confirmed publicly the rumors that he was the angel investor behind the SpaceShipOne venture.
On April 1, 2004, the U.S. Department of Transportation issued the company what it called the world's first license for a sub-orbital manned rocket flight. The license was approved by the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation, which has backed licenses for more than 150 commercial launches of unmanned launch vehicles in its 20 years, but never a license for manned flight on a sub-orbital trajectory. The Mojave Airport, operating part-time as Mojave Spaceport, is the launch point for SpaceShipOne. SpaceShipOne performed the first privately funded human spaceflight on June 21, 2004. Flight 16P on September 29, 2004 and Flight 17P on October 4, 2004 won the X-Prize for Scaled Composites and SpaceShipOne.
Other famous vehicles
Before forming Scaled Composites, Burt Rutan designed several aircraft for amateur builders, including the famous VariEze, often considered one of general aviation's most innovative designs. He also designed the Beechcraft Starship, which was, however, a commercial failure. These aircraft were novel because of their canard configuration, winglets and pusher propellers.
Before SpaceShipOne, Rutan was best known for his Voyager aircraft, which his brother, Dick Rutan, and Jeana Yeager flew around the world without refueling in 1986. In 2005, the single-jet Global Flyer was flown by billionaire adventurer Steve Fossett on the first solo non-stop, non-refueled flight around the world, and later in the longest flight in history: 41,467.53 km (25,766.73 mi).
Although their role was not widely publicized, Rutan and John Roncz, who had provided aerodynamics support to a number of previous Rutan projects including Starship, helped design, and Scaled manufactured, the double slotted wing mast for the Stars & Stripes catamaran for Dennis Conner's entry in the 1988 America's Cup.
On July 26, 2007, an explosion occurred during testing of SpaceShipTwo's systems, killing three employees and injuring three more. In 2012 an international group of propulsion engineers obtained the Cal/OSHA accident investigation report. They have produced a comments and observations paper based on the contents of that report. The comments and a copy of the report itself can be found at http://www.knightsarrow.com/rockets/scaled-composites-accident/.
Rutan Aircraft Factory aircraft
Scaled Composites aircraft
Beechcraft 2000 Starship, based upon the Model 115
- Model 115 Starship: 85% scale prototype, went into production as the Beechcraft Model 2000 Starship (1982)
- B-2 Spirit: Scale model pole-mounted B-2 for radar cross section tests
- Model 133 ATTT (1987) tandem-wing STOL transport
- Model 143 Triumph: Built for Beechcraft (1988)
- IAI Searcher: longer-winged version of Pioneer UAV (1988)
- Model TRA324 Scarab: Developed for Teledyne Ryan, now Northrop Grumman (1988)
- DC-X: Constructed the structural aeroshell and control surfaces under contract to McDonnell Douglas
- Model 151 ARES (1990)
- Orbital Sciences Pegasus rocket: Wings, fins for air launch rocket (1990)
- Model 158 Pond Racer: Built for air racer Bob Pond (1990)
- Bell Eagle Eye: Tilt-rotor demonstrator aircraft for Bell Helicopter (1993)
- Model 202 Boomerang: Asymmetric 5 seat aircraft
- Model 205, first preliminary design for airlaunch of a booster rocket heavier than 500,000 pounds (230,000 kg) (1991)
- Model 206, second preliminary design for heavy airlaunch (1991)
- Model 247 Vantage: Developed for VisionAire (1996)
- Model 271 V-Jet II: Developed for Williams International (1997)
- Model 276 NASA X-38: fuselage of drop test vehicle (1998)
- Model 281 Proteus (1998)
- Roton ATV (1999)
- Model 287 NASA ERAST: R/C model for proof of concept of 85,000 ft (26,000 m) UAV
- Model 309 Adam M-309: Prototype for the Adam A500 (2000)
- Model 326 Northrop Grumman X-47A (2001)
- Model 302 Toyota TAA-1 (2002)
- Tier One (2003)
- Model 311 Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer: Same mission as Voyager, except a solo flight using a jet engine (2004)
- Tier 1b (2008)
- Stratolaunch carrier aircraft (Model 351), world's largest wingspan aircraft
- Model 367 BiPod (2011) A hybrid electric roadable aircraft.
- USAF Hunter-Killer project (2007?) in cooperation with Northrop Grumman
- SpaceShipThree: The name of the proposed next iteration of Scaled Composites' manned spacecraft series.
- LauncherOne: The orbital launch vehicle now under development for Virgin Galactic, based on the technology from the SpaceShip series of Scaled Composites.
External Projects - Aircraft
- ^ "MP-RTIP: Rutan To Get First Crack At Flight Test". UVOnline.com. Shephard Group. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved December 7, 2006.
- ^ Associated Press (July 20, 2007). "Northrop to Own SpaceShipOne Builder". Forbes. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
- ^ "Northrop Grumman Completes Acquisition of Scaled Composites, LLC". Retrieved August 25, 2007.
- ^ "Burt Rutan Announces Retirement Plans". Retrieved July 10, 2011.
- ^ "SpaceShipOne gets federal go-ahead". msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- ^ "Fatal explosion at Mojave Airport".
- ^ a b Belfiore, Michael (2012-01-23). "Burt Rutan on Designing the World’s Largest Aircraft". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 2012-01-20. "In 1991, to address a requirement to launch a booster heavier than 500,000 pounds, [Rutan] did the Model 205 and 206 preliminary designs."
- ^ a b Linehan, Dan. SpaceShipOne: An Illustrated History. Zenith Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7603-3188-0.
- ^ Belfiore, Michael (2012-01-05). "Stratolaunch: world’s biggest airplane to launch spaceships". Retrieved 2012-01-14. "The mothership is currently known only by its Scaled model number: M351 ...[with design] planned for completion by late summer of next year ... [and to] begin flight testing in late 2015 in Mojave, with rocket test launches from the airplane to begin at Cape Canaveral in late 2016."
- ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/hyperbola/2008/12/exclusive-virgin-galactic-unve.html
- ^ "Virgin Galactic relaunches its smallsat launch business". NewSpace Journal. 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- ^ EXCLUSIVE: Virgin Galactic unveils LauncherOne name!, Rob Coppinger, Flightglobal Hyperbola, December 9, 2008
Coordinates: 35°03′23″N 118°09′41″W / 35.056488°N 118.161370°W