A scallion is one of various Allium species, all of which have hollow green leaves (like the common onion), but which lack a fully developed root bulb. It has a relatively mild onion flavour, and is used as a vegetable, either raw or cooked. Many other names are used, including green onion, spring onion, salad onion, table onion, green shallot, onion stick, long onion, baby onion, precious onion, yard onion, gibbon, or syboe.
The words scallion and shallot are related and can be traced back to the Greek askolonion as described by the Greek writer Theophrastus. This name, in turn, seems to originate from the name of the town of Ashkelon. The plant itself apparently came from farther east of Europe.
The Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum) does not form bulbs even when mature, and is grown in the West almost exclusively as a scallion or salad onion, although in Asia this species is of primary importance and used both fresh and in cooking. "Scallion" is also used for young plants of the common onion (A. cepa var. cepa) and shallot (A. cepa var. aggregatum, formerly A. ascalonicum), harvested before bulbs form, or sometimes when slight bulbing has occurred. Most of the cultivars grown in the West primarily as salad onions or scallions belong to A. cepa var. cepa. Other species sometimes used as scallions include A. ×proliferum and A. ×wakegi.
Species and cultivars which may be called "scallions" include:
- Allium cepa
- "White Lisbon"
- "White Lisbon Winter Hardy" – an extra-hardy variety for overwintering
- Allium chinense
- Allium fistulosum
- A. ×proliferum
- Allium ×wakegi
Harvested for their taste, they are milder than most onions. They may be cooked or used raw as a part of salads, salsas, or Asian recipes. Diced scallions are used in soup, noodle and seafood dishes, as well as sandwiches, curries or as part of a stir fry. In many Eastern sauces, the bottom half-centimetre (quarter-inch) of scallion roots is commonly removed before use.
In Mexico and the Southwest United States, cebollitas are scallions that are sprinkled with salt and grilled whole for cheese and rice . Topped with lime juice, they typically serve as a traditional accompaniment to asado dishes.
In Catalan cuisine, calçot is a variety of green onion traditionally eaten in a calçotada (plural: calçotades). A popular gastronomic event of the same name is held between the end of winter and early spring, where calçots are grilled, dipped in salvitxada or romesco sauce, and consumed in massive quantities.
In Vietnam, Welsh onion is important to prepare dưa hành (fermented onions) which is served for Tết, the Vietnamese New Year. A kind of sauce, mỡ hành (Welsh onion fried in oil), is used in dishes such as cơm tấm, bánh ít, cà tím nướng, and others. Welsh onion is the main ingredient in the dish cháo hành, which is a rice porridge dish to treat the common cold.
In India it is eaten as an appetizer (raw) with main meals. In north India Coriander, Mint and Green Onion Chutney is made using Scallions (raw).
In southern Philippines, it is ground in a mortar along with some ginger and chili pepper to make a native condiment called wet palapa, which can be used to spice up dishes, or topped in fried or sun dried food. It could also be used to make the dry version of palapa, which is stir fried fresh coconut shavings and wet palapa.
Regional and other names
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Scallions have various common names throughout the world. In some countries, green onions are mistakenly called shallots by non-gardeners, and shallots are referred to by alternative names such as eschallot or eschalotte.
- Arab: Known in the Arab-speaking countries as "البصل الأخضر".
- Australia: The common name is "shallot". Grocers and supermarkets occasionally label them as "spring onion" however most refer to them as "shallot". Professional chefs use the names "shallot" and "scallion" interchangeably.
- Austria and Germany: Known as Frühlingszwiebel, which means "spring onion".
- Belgium: Known as sjalotjes.
- Brazil: Known as cebolinha.
- Canada: Known as green onion.
- Caribbean: Often referred to as "chives".
- China: The common name is cōng (葱); xiǎocōng (小葱) is another term for spring onions.
- India: They may be referred to as "spring onions".
- Indonesia and Malaysia: Known as daun bawang.
- Iran: Known as پیازچه.
- Ireland: The term "scallions" is commonly used.
- Japan: Known as negi (葱 / ねぎ) in Japanese.
- Korea: Known as pa (파).
- Netherlands: Known as bosuitjes, which literally translates as "forest onions", or lenteuitjes, which translates as "spring onions".
- New Zealand: The common name is "spring onion".
- Peru: The common name is cebolla china which means "Chinese onion" in Spanish.
- Philippines: Known as sibuyas. Same as onion.
- Serbia: Known as mladi luk, which means "baby onion".
- Sweden: Known as salladslök or vårlök.
- United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, including Singapore: The most common name is "spring onion". In Northern Ireland, the name scallion is preferred; in Scotland they are known in Scots as cibies or sibies, from the French syboe.
- United States: Known as "scallion" or "green onion". The term "green onion" is also used in reference to immature specimens of the ordinary onion (Allium cepa) harvested in the spring, and the term "spring onion" refers exclusively to this onion in the United States.
- Wales: Also known as "gibbon" //. Known in South Wales as shibwns.
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- Fritsch, R.M.; N. Friesen (2002). "Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy". In H.D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 0-85199-510-1.
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- Cebollitas, last retrieved 2012-09-01.
- At the Nation's Table: Chicagoat New York Times Archives, last retrieved 2012-09-01.
- Els "Calçots"
- Grilled Green Onions with Romesco, last retrieved 2012-09-01.
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