|Two preserved specimens of Crysomallon squamiferum|
Van Dover et al., 2001
The name Chrysomallon or Crysomallon squamiferum is listed in WoRMS because it is occasionally encountered on the web, and has also been used in a few academic papers. However, the name has never been validly published in the sense of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. 
This species was discovered in 2001, living on the bases of black smokers at the Kairei hydrothermal vent field, on the Central Indian Ridge, just north of the Rodrigues Triple Point and about 2,420 metres (7,940 ft) below the surface.
The snail's foot is very unusual in that it is armored with iron-mineral scales. It is protected by scale-shaped sclerites composed of iron sulphides greigite and pyrite. No other animal is known to use iron sulfides in this way.
The snail's shell is also unusual. The shell structure is composed of three layers. The outer layer is about 30 μm thick, and is made of iron sulphides, containing greigite Fe3S4. This makes this gastropod the only metazoan known so far that employs this material in its skeleton. The middle shell layer is organic, and is also the thickest of the three (about 150 μm). It is comparable to the periostracum, a thin protein coating found on other snail shells. The innermost layer is made of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate that is commonly found both in the shells of mollusks and in various corals.
Each layer contributes to the effectiveness of the snail's shell in different ways. The middle organic layer appears to absorb the mechanical strain and energy generated by a squeezing attack (as by the claws of a crab), making the shell much tougher. The organic layer also acts to dissipate heat.
- Van Dover CL, Humphris SE, Fornari D, Cavanaugh CM, Collier R, Goffredi SK, Hashimoto J, Lilley MD, Reysenbach AL, Shank TM, Von Damm KL, Banta A, Gallant RM, Gotz D, Green D, Hall J, Harmer TL, Hurtado LA, Johnson P, McKiness ZP, Meredith C, Olson E, Pan IL, Turnipseed M, Won Y, Young CR 3rd, Vrijenhoek RC (2001). "Biogeography and ecological setting of Indian Ocean hydrothermal vents". Science 294 (5543): 818–23. doi:10.1126/science.1064574. PMID 11557843.
- Yao, H., Dao, M., Imholt, T., Huang, J., Wheeler, K., Suresh, S., and C. Ortiz (2010). "Protection Mechanisms Informed by the Unique Iron-Plated Armor of a Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Gastropod". PNAS.
- Bouchet, P. (2014). Chrysomallon Auct.. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=736931 on 2015-02-16
- Warén A, Bengtson S, Goffredi SK, Van Dover CL (2003). "A hot-vent gastropod with iron sulfide dermal sclerites". Science 302 (5647): 1007. doi:10.1126/science.1087696. PMID 14605361.
- Pickrell, John (2003-11-07). "Armor-Plated Snail Discovered in Deep Sea". National Geographic News.
- "Snail's iron armour eyed by military". CBC News. 2010-01-19.
- Goffredi SK, Warén A, Orphan VJ, Van Dover CL, Vrijenhoek RC (2004). "Novel forms of structural integration between microbes and a hydrothermal vent gastropod from the Indian Ocean". Appl Environ Microbiol 70 (5): 3082–90. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.5.3082-3090.2004. PMC 404406. PMID 15128570.
- Suzuki Y, Kopp RE, Kogure T, Suga A, Takai K, Tsuchida S, Ozaki N, Endo K, Hashimoto J, Kato Y, Mizota C, Hirata T, Chiba H, Nealson KH, Horikoshi K, Kirschvink JL (2006). "Sclerite formation in the hydrothermal-vent scaly-foot gastropod - possible control of iron sulfide biomineralization by the animal". Earth Planet Sci Lett 242: 39–50. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.029.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Crysomallon squamiferum|