A British Army Scammell Pioneer towing an 8-inch howitzer of 1st Heavy Regiment, near Calais (12 January 1940)
|Type||Tractor, Heavy Artillery
Tractor, Heavy Breakdown
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|Weight||18760 pounds (8.4 tons)|
|Length||20 feet 7 inches
Tk Tpt 22 ft (6.70 m) with trailer 36 ft 6 in (10.97 m)
|Width||8 feet 6 inches
Tk Tpt trailer 9 ft 5 in (2.87 m)
|Height||9 feet 9 inches|
|Engine||Gardner 6-cylinder diesel
|Suspension||Walking beam, 6 x 4|
|430 miles ( 54 Gallons )|
|Speed||18 mph Max|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Scammell Pioneer.|
The Pioneer was designed from the outset as an off-road vehicle for use in Britain's colonies where made-up roads were scarce. First produced in 1927, whilst it was not an all-wheel drive vehicle, the combination of a suspension with a lot of movement while maintaining traction and a low-revving engine gave it impressive pulling power on rough ground although at low speeds.
Whilst it was not designed with the military in mind, in 1932 the British War Office purchased a single petrol engined example equipped as a tank transporter with a permanently coupled 18t semi-trailer. This was assigned to a training unit and further transporters were not purchased until 1937.
With the exception of the single early tank transporter, all Pioneers purchased by the British Army were equipped with a 102 bhp Gardner 6 cylinder diesel engine, driving the rear wheels through a constant speed gearbox and fitted with a power take-off driving a Scammell winch.
Introduced in 1935, the Pioneer R100 heavy artillery tractor was used throughout WWII to tow medium and heavy artillery pieces, it had accomodation for the gun's crew, tools, equipment, and ammunition.
Typical early war use included towing such medium pieces as the 60-pounder, 6-inch howitzer and even the 4.5-inch gun and 5.5-inch howitzer until the AEC Matador medium gun tractor was issued in sufficient numbers. Heavy artillery pieces towed included the 6-inch gun, 8-inch howitzer, 155 mm Long Tom and the 7.2-inch howitzer.
Many Pioneer gun tractors were lost in France in June 1940 with the evacuation of the BEF, either destroyed by the withdrawing troops or captured by the Germans.
Scammel produced 980 Pioneer R100 heavy artillery tractors by the end of the war, never available in sufficient numbers, the Pioneer was supplimented by the Albion CX22S heavy artillery tractor from late 1943.
From 1936, the British Army began to receive Pioneer heavy recovery vehicles. The first 43 delivered were designated the Pioneer SV1S and the Pioneer SV1T both with a 3 ton folding crane and lockers for recovery equipment and towing bars. Most of these early Pioneer recovery vehicles were lost with the BEF.
The Pioneer SV2S had a simpler redesigned extending crane that provided greater lifting height, introduced in 1938 the SV2S would remain in production throughout the war, a total of 1,975 were built by wars end.
Among the Pioneer's equipment was a pair of tracks that could be fitted over the rear two axels, effectively converting it into a half-track and giving greater traction on soft ground.
The last Pioneer recovery vehicle was not retired from the British Army until the 1980s in Belize.
With the exception of the initial delivery in 1932, delivery of a production variant tank transporter did not begin until 1937. The production variant was equipped with a longer chassis for an extended cab to accommodate the tank crew as passengers and larger rear wheels than the Artillery tractor and Recovery vehicle variants and was given the designation Pioneer TRCU20.
20 and 30-ton (Pioneer TRMU30/TRCU30) tractor/trailer combinations were delivered, in both cases the trailer was more-or-less fixed to the tractor and not demountable like modern semi-trailer trucks. Hinged ramps were used to get the tank onto the trailer, which if immobilised could be pulled on with the tractor unit's winch.
One problem was found when carrying American tanks on British roads, the higher profile of the US tanks meant that on occasions the vehicles could not pass under bridges and the vehicle was effectively superseded in the Tank transporter role by the Diamond T tank transporter from 1941, despite this it remained in production throughout the war with 459 being produced. As a result, the trailers were undesirable post war and most were scrapped while the tractors were retained for use with other trailers or sold into civilian use.
Scammell Pioneer Tank transporter recovers as Matilda II tank, North Afica 1942.
- REME Museum of Technology, Scammell Pioneer Tank Transporter, retrieved 14 Dec 14.
- REME Museum of Technology, Tractor Heavy Breakdown 6 x 4 Scammell Pioneer Model SV1S, retrieved 14 Dec 14.
- REME Museum of Technology, Tractor Heavy Breakdown 6 x 4 Scammell Pioneer Model SV2S, retrieved 14 Dec 14.
- Vanderveen, Bart, Historic Military Vehicles Directory, Battle of Britain Prints International, 1989.
- Ware, Pat, A complete dictionary of military vehicles, Anness Publishing Ltd, Leicestershire, 2012.
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