|Rom(m)ani; Romani rakripa|
|unknown (undated figure of 6,000)|
Official language in
|recognised minority language in
rmg – Traveller Norwegian
rmu – Tavringer Romani (Sweden)
rmd – Traveller Danish
Scandoromani (Swedish: romani, Norwegian: romani, Scandoromani: romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani. It is spoken by the Scandinavian Travellers, a Romani minority community, in Norway (ca. 6,000 speakers), and formerly in Sweden and Denmark.
"Scandoromani" is a term coined by academics. In Sweden, Scandoromani is referred to as resande rommani (Traveller Romani) or svensk rommani (Swedish Romani), while in Norway the same language is known as norsk romani (Norwegian Romani).
Like Angloromani in Britain and Caló (Spanish Romani) in Spain, Scandoromani draws upon a (now extinct) vocabulary of inflected Romani. Much of the original Romani grammar, however, has been lost to the users, and they now communicate in Swedish or Norwegian grammar. Scandoromani must not be confused with the Rodi language.
There is no standarised form of Scandoromani, so variations exist in vocabulary, pronunciation, and usage, depending on the speaker. In print, Scanodromani words are often written with Swedish (S) or Norwegian (N) letters (ä, æ, ø, å) and letter combinations to represent Romani sounds, e.g., tj- (/ɕ/) or kj- (/ç/ alt. /tʃ/) to represent the Romani č /tʃ/ and čh /tʃʰ/. Some examples of Scandoromani variant spellings are: tjuro (S) / kjuro (N) 'knife'; gräj (S) / grei (N) 'horse'.
- Hancock, Ian (1992) "The Social and Linguistic Development of Scandoromani", Jahr, Ernst Håkon (ed.), Language Contact: Theoretical and Empirical Studies, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-012802-0, pp. 37–52
- Cf. Romani rakripa
- Karlsen, Ludvig. "Tavringens Rakripa: Romanifolkets Ordbok" (in Norwegian and Scandoromani). Landsorganisasjonen for Romanifolket. Retrieved 18 November 2008.[dead link]
- A recent suggestion apparently backed by the Swedish Language Council is to call the language Svedo romani (i.e. "Swedish Romani"). This usage, however, is not widely documented amongst Scandoromani speakers.
- Ethnologue Romani, Tavringer
- LLOW Language Server - Tavringer Romani
- Resande Folkets Riksorganisation (2006). Ordlista i resandespråket romani (in Swedish and Scandoromani) (2nd ed. ed.). Malmö: Föreningen Resande Folkets Riksorganisation. ISBN 91-631-9668-9.
Suggested further reading
- Lindell, Lenny; Thorbjörnsson-Djerf, Kenth (2008). Carling, Gerd, ed. Ordbok över svensk romani: Resandefolkets språk och sånger (in Swedish). Stockholm: Podium. ISBN 978-91-89196-43-8. (A lexicon and grammatical overview of Swedish Scandoromani; includes several Traveller song texts in extenso)