Scanian dialect

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Scanian
Skånska
Native to Sweden
Region Skåne
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Indo-European
Dialects
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog scan1238[2]
Skåne in southern Sweden

Scanian (About this sound skånska ) is a closely related group of dialects which formed part of the old Scandinavian dialect continuum, spoken mainly in the province Scania in southern Sweden. It is by most[citation needed] historical linguists considered to be an East-Danish dialect group,[3] but due to the modern era influence from Standard Swedish in the region and because traditional dialectology in the Scandinavian countries normally have not considered isoglosses that cut across state borders,[4] the Scanian dialects have normally been treated as a South-Swedish dialect group in Swedish dialect research. However, many of the early Scandinavian linguists, including Adolf Noreen[5] and G. Sjöstedt,[6] classified it as "South-Scandinavian", and some linguists, such as Elias Wessén, also considered Old Scanian a separate language, classified apart from both Old Danish and Old Swedish.[7]

Considering Old Danish, this was most probably due to the geographical factor, split into at least three languages with minor differencies, around the end of the 11th century. The continental Jutland, (Western Danish), the Scanian provinces (Eastern Danish) and the islands in between (Central Danish). By the time of 17th century Danish was the only language, even if dialectal differencies still existed. Sweden gained Eastern Denmark in 1658, Treaty of Roskilde, Bornholm went back to Denmark in 1660 after the Treaty of Copenhagen. During the Swedish king Charles XI a "swedification" process began, but was interrupted by temporary Danish recaptures. The last peace treaty between Sweden and Denmark was written in Stockholm at 3 July 1720.[8] Here did Sweden (as in 1660) agree to Scanian rights of own law and own right to property.[8] And "own law" in combination with "own right to property" could be interpreted also as "own right to taxes". However Sweden has during the last 300 years not lived up to their promises. And also after 1720 the "swedification" process continued. Still three centuries later a large amount of Danish words (that differs from Swedish) have survived the "swedification". Some of them are adapted into the Swedish language, but are only in use in Scanian. Some examples (Scanian / Danish, English, Swedish)

  • spann / spand, "bucket", hink
  • mölla / mølle (also kværn), "mill", (väder-)kvarn
  • bränne / brænde, "wood" (to burn), ved
  • visping / hvepse, "wasp", geting
  • romma/ramme, träffa/træffe (ett/et mål), "hit" (a target)
  • skoband / snørebånd, "shoelace"/"shoestring", skosnöre
  • alika/"allike", kaja/kaje, "jackdaw" / "daw" (bird)
  • rabbemos, rotmos /rodmos, a dish (like mashed potatoes, but with other vegetables)
  • grishals/grisehals, karré/karré, a certain kind of pork meat (and dish)

Note that letters "Ä", "ä" equal "Æ", "æ" and "Ö", "ö" equal "Ø", "ø" and that Danish spellings "hv.." and "..nd.." are (almost) equal to "v.." and "..nn.." in pronunciation.

Typical Scanian words which are not in use in either Swedish or Danish include:

  • upplänning, ---, a person from north of Scania (from any "unknown" province; neighbouring provinces may be excluded; in Swedish the same word means a person from the province of Uppland only)

The word grina (grine in Danish) means "laugh" in Scanian (and Danish) but "cry" in Swedish.

Also the pronunciation of Scanian and Danish has common denominators, like diphthongs and the pronunciation of the "French R" (as in French, German, Danish, the Dutch languages and in parts of the Norwegian coast). This "French R" leads to the pronunciation of the consonant combination "R"+"S" as spelled, while within Swedish in general, this letter combination often turns into a retroflex pronunciation. Also pronunciation of certain vowels differ from Swedish.

Status[edit]

Scanian is considered a separate language mainly from a historical or cultural point of view and is not regarded as a separate language by the Swedish government.[9] The boundaries established in traditional Swedish dialectology as a delimiter for the South-Swedish dialect area (Sydsvenska mål in Swedish) are approximately the same, and also include within its classification most of the historical Skåneland region, but with the exception of Bornholm and with the addition of the old border region in southern Småland.

Scanian was in the 15th edition of the Ethnologue (2005) classified as a regional language by SIL International, but before the latest update (2009), the Swedish representative to ISO/TC 37, the technical committee overseeing ISO 639, required that Scanian be removed from the ISO/DIS 639-3, the draft just prior to the final draft FDIS, or a positive vote from Sweden would not be forthcoming .[citation needed] A request for reinstatement was submitted during the 2009 annual review process, but rejected on the grounds of mutual intelligibility; it is listed in ISO 639-6 with code scyr.[10] Within the previous SIL International classification of Scanian were the dialects in the province of Scania, some of the southern dialects of Halland (halländska in Swedish), the dialects of Blekinge (blekingska in Swedish) and the dialects of the Danish island of Bornholm (bornholmsk in Danish).

With the establishment of the Scanian Academy and with recent heritage conservation programs, funded by Region Skåne and the Swedish Government, there is a renewed interest in the region for Scanian as a cultural language and as a regional identity, especially among younger generations of Scanians. Many of the genuine rural dialects have been in decline subsequent to the industrial revolution and urbanization in Sweden.

The population of Skåne County consists of around 13% of the total population in Sweden.

History[edit]

Swedish and Danish are considered to have been the same dialect, Old East Norse, up until the 12th century. However, some scholars speculate that there might have been certain dialect differences within the Nordic language area as early as the Proto-Nordic period.[11] The term Swedish is not mentioned specifically in any source until the first half of the 14th century,[11] and no standard spoken language had developed in either Sweden or Denmark before 1500, although some scholars argue that there may have been tendencies towards a more formal "courteous" language among the aristocracy.[12]

Anders Sunesøn's 13th century version of the Scanian Law and Church Law, containing a comment in the margin called the "Skaaningestrof": "Hauí that skanunga ærliki mææn toco vithar oræt aldrigh æn." (Let it be known that Scanians are honorable men who have never tolerated injustice.)

Scanian appeared in writing before 1200,[13] at a time when Swedish and Danish had yet to be codified, and the long struggle between Sweden and Denmark over the right to claim the Old Scanian manuscripts as an early form of either of the two national state languages has led to some odd twists and turns. Two Scanian fragments dated to around 1325 were initially claimed to be (younger) Old Swedish, but further research in modern times has claimed that the language was not Swedish, but Scanian. During the 20th century the fragments were thus relabeled early Old Danish by Scandinavian linguists, and as explained by Danish linguist Britta Olrik Frederiksen, the fragments are now thought to "represent as such a newly claimed territory for the history of the Danish language".[14] Like the Scanian Law, one of the fragments, a six-leaf fragment (catalogued as SKB A 120), is written in the runic alphabet. The place of writing, according to Frederiksen, has been tentatively identified as the Cistercian monastery at Herrevad Abbey in Scania. The fragment contains a translation of Mary's lament at the cross. The other fragment (catalogued as SKB *A 115) is a bifolium with just over a hundred metrical lines of knittelvers, a translation from Latin of the apocryphal gospel Evangelium Nicodemi about Christ's descent into hell and resurrection.[14] One of the artifacts sometimes referred to as support for the view of Scanian as separate from both the Swedish and Danish language is a letter from the 16th century, where the Danish Bible translators were advised not to employ Scanian translators since their language was not "proper Danish".[15]

Language politics[edit]

After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the former Danish provinces of Blekinge, Halland and Scania became a Swedish dominion, but they were allowed to keep their old privileges, laws and customs. However, from the 1680s, a process of Swedification was introduced, including a switch of languages used in churches and restrictions imposed on cross border travel and trade. The situation in Scania was unique from a linguistic point of view; modern sociolinguistic studies often approach it as a way to study the roots of linguistic nationalism. As pointed out by the Norwegian scholar Lars S. Vikør, professor, Nordic and Linguistics Studies, University of Oslo, in the 2001 book Language and Nationalism, the "animosity between the two countries [Sweden and Denmark], and the relative closeness of their standard languages (dialectal differences within each of the two countries were greater than the two standards), made it imperative to stress the difference between them in the standardization process". According to Vikør, the "Swedish treatment of the Scanians perhaps shows [that] the most important element of the [linguistic nationalism] ideology is the desire to stress the difference from another linguistic entity that in some way may be considered threatening or challenging one's own autonomy."[16]

In Scania, the Swedish government officially limited the use of Scanian in 1683 by nullifying the self-rule granted in the Treaty of Roskilde and the Malmö Recess, where Scania had been granted the right to a certain degree of autonomy including preservation of its old laws and customs. Scania became fully integrated into the Swedish Kingdom in 1719, and the assimilation has accelerated during the 20th century, with the dominance of Standard Swedish-language radio and television, urbanization, and movement of people to and from the other regions of Sweden.

Bornholm was once part of Skåneland, but rebelled and returned to Denmark in 1659. The Scanian dialect of Bornholm remained in use as a functioning transitional stage, but Standard Danish soon became dominant in official contexts and the dialect is thought to be disappearing.[17]

Historic shifts[edit]

The gradual transition to Swedish has resulted in the introduction of many new Swedish characteristics into Scanian since the 18th century, especially when it comes to vocabulary and grammar. In spite of the shift, Scanian dialects have maintained a non-Swedish prosody, as well as details of grammar and vocabulary that in some aspects differ from Standard Swedish. The prosody, pronunciation of vowels and consonants in such qualities as length, stress and intonation, has more in common with Danish, German and Dutch (and occasionally English) than with Swedish.[18] The degree of contrast between Scanian dialects and standard Swedish is sometimes in the popular press compared to the differences between British English and Australian English. However, as pointed out by the researchers involved in the project Comparative Semantics for Nordic Languages,[19] it is difficult to quantify and analyze the fine degrees of semantic differences that exist between the Scandinavian languages in general, even between the national languages Danish, Swedish and Norwegian: "[S]ome of the Nordic languages [..]are historically, lexically and structurally very similar.[...]Are there systematic semantic differences between these languages? If so, are the formal semantic analytic tools that have been developed mainly for English and German sufficiently fine-grained to account for the differences among the Scandinavian languages?"[20]

The characteristic Scanian diphthongs, which do not occur in Danish or Swedish, are in popular belief often seen as signs of Scanian natives' efforts to adapt from a Danish to a "proper" Swedish pronunciation. However, linguists reject this explanation for the sound change; at present, there are no universally-accepted theories for why sound changes occur.

Research that provides a cross-border overview of the spectrum of modern dialects in the Nordic region has recently been initiated through the Scandinavian Dialect Syntax Project, based at the University of Tromsø in Norway, where nine Scandinavian research groups collaborate to systematically map and study the syntactic variation across the Scandinavian dialect continuum.[21]

Historic preservation[edit]

Scanian once possessed many unique words which do not exist in either Swedish nor Danish. In attempts to preserve the unique aspects of Scanian, these words have been recorded and documented by the Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research in Sweden.[22] Preservation is also accomplished through comparative studies, such as the Scanian-Swedish-Danish dictionary project, commissioned by the Scanian Academy. This project is led by Dr. Helmer Lång and involves a group of scholars from different fields, including Professor Birger Bergh, linguistics, Professor Inger Elkjær and Dr. Inge Lise Pedersen, researcher in Danish dialects. Many specialty Scanian dictionaries have been published through the years, including one by Dr. Sten Bertil Vide, who wrote his doctoral thesis[23] on the names of flowers in Scanian. This publication, and a variety of other Scanian dictionaries are available through the Department of Dialectology and Onomastics in Lund.[24]

The words and pronunciation differ around Scania, as they were sometimes only spoken by a small number of people in remote villages. Villages close to the sea, for example, such as Falsterbo and Limhamn, had many unique words connected to fishing. Most of these words no longer have any use in the spoken language.

Modern history[edit]

General public and academic interest in protecting the Scanian dialect or language was first established in the early 19th century with the advent of folkloristics and romantic nationalism in Scandinavia (see for example Norwegian romantic nationalism). According to Dr. Helmer Lång, associate professor, Comparative Literature, Lund University, Scanian and the folklore of the region had not been given proper attention because the Swedes considered them Danish, and the Danes, on the other hand, avoided dealing with this area which they had lost.[25]

An early advocate was Henrik Wranér (1853–1908) who wrote books on Scanian (Kivikja Snackk..., 1901). His contribution was manifested with his Selected Works (Valda Verk) which was published in 1922-23. His primary successor was Axel Ebbe (1869–1941), who wrote Rijm å rodevelske in Scanian along with a witty translation of the Bible (Bibelsk historie, 1949). The writer Nils Ludvig Olsson (1893–1974) wrote poetry in scanian (Di fåste fjeden (1921), Mä pilepiba å tollabössa (1922) and Nykommed (1924)).

The Scanian movie actor Edvard Persson, active during the 1930s and 1940s, was one of the first nationally recognized artists to sing in Scanian. More recently, radio voices Kjell Stensson and Sten Broman have popularized the dialect.

Today[edit]

There are a sizable number of singers and other celebrities who speak Scanian and use it in their professional life. Artist Mikael Wiehe, voted "Scanian of the Year" in 2000, explained his relation to Scanian by referring a "love, knowledge of and pride in Scania's history and uniqueness": "To be a Scanian, to love Scania, to take an interest in its history and to cherish its uniqueness [...] has helped me to understand and respect other people's love for and pride over their native area. [...] In the same way, I love the Scanian language. Not because it is better than other languages, but because it is the language I express myself best in. This love for my native region and my language has given me a security and confidence which has made it possible for me to go out and explore the world without fear."[26] Wiehe received the Swedish Martin Luther King Award of 2005 for his work at home and internationally for peace, freedom, justice and solidarity.[27]

Hans Alfredson, a popular showman, producer, singer and performer during the last 50 years, has produced several movies with Scanian dialogue, including the internationally recognized movie "The Simple-Minded Murder", starring Scanian-speaking Stellan Skarsgård who grew up in Malmö.[28] Thomas Öberg, the singer of Swedish rock group bob hund, is a notable speaker of Scanian, who also sings in Scanian. The rock artist Kal P. Dal, considered a cult favourite in some areas, Björn Afzelius, rock artist Peps Persson and the band Joddla med Siv are also popular examples of Scanian artists. The folk-singer Danne Stråhed is very popular in some regions, not the least due to his trademark song När en flicka talar skånska ("When a girl speaks Scanian"), which is composed - words and music - by another popular Scanian Michael Saxell, who also wrote Scanian classic Om himlen och Österlen, which has been recorded and sung by many Swedish artists including Jan Malmsjö, Lill Lindfors, Östen Warnerbring, Lasse Stefanz, Sanna Nielsen and the composer himself. Henrik Larsson, declared one of Sweden's best football players by the press,[29] also speaks Scanian and was voted Scanian of the Year 2006. Football star Zlatan Ibrahimović speaks Scanian and rapper Timbuktu raps in Scanian. Pop-singer Ola Svensson was born in Lund, Skåne but sings in English.

Recently, several humorously written Scanian dictionaries have been published. As there is no Scanian language standard, the choice of words to be included is always under debate.

Sounds[edit]

Scanian realizes the phoneme /r/ as a uvular trill, [ʀ] in clear articulation, but in everyday speech more commonly as a voiceless, [χ] or voiced uvular fricative, [ʁ], depending on phonetic context. This is in contrast to the alveolar articulations and retroflex assimilations in most Swedish dialects north of Småland. The realizations of the highly variable and uniquely Swedish fricative /ɧ/ also tend to be more velar and less labialized than in other dialects. Though the phonemes of Scanian correspond to those of Standard Swedish and most other Swedish dialects, long vowels have developed into diphthongs which are unique to the region. In the southern parts of Skåne many diphthongs also have a pharyngeal quality, similar to Danish vowels.

Vocabulary[edit]

Scanian used to have many words which differed from standard Swedish. In 1995 Skånska Akademien released Skånsk-svensk-dansk ordbok, a dictionary with 2,711 Scanian words and expressions. It should be mentioned however that not all of these words are in wide use today. While the general vocabulary in modern Scanian does not differ considerably from Standard Swedish, a few specifically Scanian words still exist which are known in all of Scania, occurring frequently among a majority of the speakers. These are some examples:[30][31]

  • påg, "boy" (Standard Swedish: pojke, former Danish: poge / pog)
  • tös, "girl" (Standard Swedish: flicka or tös (archaic), Danish: pige or tøs)
  • rälig, "disgusting", "ugly", "frightening" (Standard Swedish äcklig, ful, skrämmande/otäck, former Swedish rälig, dialect Danish: rærlig)
  • vann, "water" (Standard Swedish: vatten, Danish: vand)
  • hutta, "throw" (Standard Swedish: kasta)
  • hoe, "head" (Standard Swedish: huvud, Danish: hoved)
  • mög, "dirt" (Standard Swedish: smuts, smutsigt, dåligt, Danish: møg)

There are other Scanian words that are well known in Scania but could be considered old-fashioned or extremely rural in general usage:

  • pantoffel, "potato" (Standard Swedish: potatis, Danish: kartoffel; pära related to Swedish päron, "pear", Danish: pære "pear").
  • rullebör, "wheelbarrow" (Standard Swedish: skottkärra, Danish: rullebør, trillebør)
  • sylten, "hungry" (Standard Swedish: hungrig, Former Swedish svulten, Danish sulten)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bornholmsk". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Scanian". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Perridon, Harry (2003). "Dialects and written language in Old Nordic II: Old Danish and Old Swedish". p. 1018. Old Nordic III: The ecology of language, in The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume 1. Eds. Oskar Bandle, Kurt Braunmuller, Ernst Hakon Jahr, Allan Karker, Hans-Peter Naumann and Ulf Teleman. Walter De Gruyter: 2003. ISBN 3-11-014876-5. See also: Ingers, Ingemar (1939). Studier över det sydvästskånska dialektområdet. Lund: Gleerupska Univ. bokhandeln. (In Swedish) and Nordisk Familjebok: "Scanian is one of the three main dialects into which the Danish branch of Old Norse was split". (In Swedish).
  4. ^ Ringgaard, Kristian (2003). "General history of Nordic dialectology". In Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages, p. 280: "[Dialectologists] don't cross the national borders. The Danes say Scanian is an East Danish dialect, and then leave it to the Swedes. The Swedes say the inhabitants of Bornholm speak a South Swedish dialect, and then leave it to the Danes. In Jämtland, [...] they may speak Norwegian dialects, but no dialectologist has crossed the border since J. Reitan in 1930. Luckily this situation is changing."
  5. ^ Noreen, Adolf (1887). De nordiska språken. Noreen was a Professor of Nordic Languages at Uppsala university 1887–1919, an internationally recognized linguist, known through his publications in German about Nordic languages.
  6. ^ Sjöstedt, G. (1936). "Studier över r-ljuden i sydskandinaviska mål". Dissertation, Lund University. The title translates to: 'Studies of r-sounds in South-Scandinavian Dialects.' (Published in Swedish).
  7. ^ Holmbäck, Åke and Elias Wessén (1933). Svenska landskapslagar, 4th ed.: Skåne och Gutalagen. Awe Gebers: Uppsala, 1979.
  8. ^ a b http://www.nad.riksarkivet.se/BildVisning/R0000328_00001
  9. ^ Spolsky, Bernard (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01175-2. For a recent study on the attitudes and the controversy surrounding Scanian, see also Göran Hallberg's 2003 paper "Kampen om skånskan", published in the peer reviewed Swedish journal Språkvård (3/2003). The title translates to 'The Struggle over Scanian'. (Swedish only)
  10. ^ Registration Authority decision on Change Request no. 2009-049: to create a new code element [scy] “Scanian”. "The appropriate part within the ISO 639 body of standards to have an identifier for the language variety Scanian is within the recently adopted ISO 639-6 standard."
  11. ^ a b Ottosson, Kjartan (2003). "Old Nordic: A definition and delimitation of the period". In The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume 1. Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., p. 798.
  12. ^ Bandle, Oscar. "Diachrony and synchrony in Nordic language history". In The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume 1. Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., p. 30.
  13. ^ Nielsen, Herluf (2003). "The development of Latin Script IV: In Denmark". The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume 1. Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., p. 851: The Scanian Law was written before 1200.
  14. ^ a b Frederiksen, Britta Olrik (2003). "The history of Old Nordic manuscripts IV: Old Danish". The history of Old Nordic Manuscripts VI: Old Danish, In The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Volume 1, Eds. Oskar Bandle et al., p. 823.
  15. ^ Johs Brøndum-Nielsen (1914). "Sproglig Forfatterbestemmelse" (a Professor of Nordic Philology, Copenhagen).
  16. ^ Barbour, Stephen and Cathie Carmichael ed. (2001). Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-823671-9, p. 109-110.
  17. ^ Statsbiblioteket, Denmark, L. Wimmer & V. Thomsen et al. (1991). Danske talesprog, Dialekter, Regionalsprog, Sociolekter. For the development of Modern Danish, see also: Hans Basbøll's "Prosody, productivity and word structure: the stød pattern of Modern Danish" and John D. Sundquist's "The Rich Agreement Hypothesis and Early Modern Danish embedded-clause word order" in Nordic Journal of Linguistics (26, 2003).
  18. ^ Gårding, Eva et al. (1973). "Talar skåningarna svenska", (Do Scanians speak Swedish), p 107, 112. In Svenskans beskrivning. Ed. Christer Platzack. Lund: Institutionen för nordiska språk. p. 107, 112). (In Swedish). See also Yip, Moira J. (1980). "Why Scanian is not a case for multi-valued features". Linguistic Inquiry 11.2: 432-6: "[T]his temporal pattern is not typical of Southern (Scanian) Swedish. Gårding et al. (1974) have shown that Scanian Swedish does not have long consonants following short stressed vowels. There, the duration of the singleton following a short stressed vowel is only 13% longer than when following a long stressed vowel. Thus, Scanian Swedish behaves like the other Germanic languages that have vowel quantity, e.g. German, Dutch and Danish."
  19. ^ For current research in comparative semantics, see the special issue of Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2004), 27, devoted to the research project Comparative Semantics for Nordic Languages (NORDSEM), which was funded by the Joint Committee of the Nordic Research Councils for the Humanities in 1998–2001 and involved researchers at the Copenhagen Business School, Göteborg University and the University of Oslo.
  20. ^ Elisabet Engdahl and Robin Cooper (2004). "Introduction." Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2004), 27.
  21. ^ Scandinavian Dialect Syntax. Official site. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  22. ^ Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research. Official site. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  23. ^ Vide, S.-B. (1966). Sydsvenska växtnamn. Published by Department of Dialectology and Onomastics in Lund.
  24. ^ Department of Dialectology and Onomastics, Lund. Official site. Retrieved 27 January 2007.
  25. ^ Lång, Helmer. "Den bortglömda skånska litteraturen." 333-årsboken om Skånelandsregionen 1658 - 1991. Online version published by Stiftelsen Skånsk Framtid. (Swedish only.)
  26. ^ Wiehe, Mikael (2000). Tacktal - Årets skåning. Malmö, 16 Jul. 2000. In Swedish.
  27. ^ "Mikael Wiehe fick Martin Luther King priset 2005". Martin Luther King Priset, in Swedish. (See also The Martin Luther King-day in Sweden).
  28. ^ Alfredsson, Hans. Den enfaldige mördaren (1982). Scanian language movies. Scanian movie titles, IMDb.
  29. ^ Hansson, Kent. "Sveriges bästa talar skånska". Expressen, 6 December 2006. (In Swedish). Retrieved 9 January 2007.
  30. ^ Lång and Vide (1995). Skånsk-svensk-dansk ordbok. Litteraturtjänst. ISBN 91-85998-39-7.
  31. ^ Svenska Akademiens ordbok on the Internet

References[edit]

  • Bandle, Oskar & Kurt Braunmüller et al., eds. (2002–2003) The Nordic Languages: An international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. Vol I. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 2002. xxvii + 1057 pp.
  • Basbøll, Hans. "Prosody, productivity and word structure: the stød pattern of Modern Danish." Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2003), 26: 5-44 Cambridge University Press doi:10.1017/S033258650300101X
  • Hallberg, Göran, 2003: "Kampen om skånskan." I: Språkvård 3/2003.
  • Lång, Helmer (1991). "Den bortglömda skånska litteraturen" 333-årsboken om Skånelandsregionen 1658-1991. Eds. Assarsson & Broberg et al. Uddevalla: Settern, 1991.
  • Lång, Helmer Skånska språket (Klippan 2002)
  • Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2004), Vol 27, Issue 2. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S0332586504001222.
  • Lång & Vide, Skånsk-svensk-dansk Ordbok (2002)
  • Noreen, Adolf (1887). De nordiska språken.
  • Nordisk familjebok (1917) article Skåne, page 1309
  • Scandinavian Dialect Syntax. Project involving research groups at University of Tromsø, University of Iceland, University of Oslo, Norwegian University of Technology and Science (Trondheim), University of Aarhus, University of Copenhagen, Lund University, and University of Helsinki
  • Sjöstedt, G. (1936). "Studier över r-ljuden i sydskandinaviska mål". Dissertation, Lund University.
  • Sundquist, John D.(2003). "The Rich Agreement Hypothesis and Early Modern Danish embedded-clause word order." Nordic Journal of Linguistics (2003), 26:1, 233-258. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/S0332586503001094.
  • Vide, S.-B. (1966). Sydsvenska växtnamn. Landsmålsarkivet, Lund.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]