Scape (botany)

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A bundle of garlic scapes
Amaryllis belladonna, its scape emerging directly from the bulb immediately underground

In botany, a "scape" is a long internode forming the basal part or the whole of a peduncle. Typically it takes the form of a long, leafless flowering stem rising directly from a bulb, rhizome, or similar subterranean or underwater structure.

The scapes of garlic are used as a vegetable.[1]

Etymology and usages[edit]

A garlic scape

The word "scape", as used in botany, is cognate with the word "sceptre"; etymologically it has nothing to do with such words as "escape" or "landscape".[2] Its meaning is fairly vague and arbitrary; various sources provide divergent definitions. Some older usages simply amount to a stem or stalk in general,[2] but modern formal usage tends to favour the likes of "A long flower stalk rising directly from the root or rhizome",[2] or "a long, naked, or nearly naked, peduncle, rising direct from the base of a plant, whether 1- or many-fid."[3] Other authorities refer to the scape rising directly from the ground, without morphological analysis.[4][5] For example: "A leafless floral axis or peduncle arising from the ground, as in Cyclamen.[6]

Practical definition[edit]

The modern trend is towards usefully distinguishing the definition of "scape" from those of related, but more general, terms such as peduncle and inflorescence. It now is rarely used for such objects as stems or inflorescences in general. However, it is not easy to find coherent and fully general definitions. Typical examples from authoritative online sources Include the following: "a peduncle arising at or beneath the surface of the ground in an acaulescent plant... broadly: a flower stalk...",[7] "a leafless stalk in plants that arises from a rosette of leaves and bears one or more flowers..."[8] and several more very similar.[9]

All those definitions are descriptive, but morphologically vacuous. In contrast a professional botanical publication puts the matter plainly in a key to Eriogonum: "Scapes (the first internode)...[10] Botanically, any such structure is practically of necessity an internode, as illustrated here.

Description[edit]

In the purest sense, that of a smooth stem without leaves or branches, a scape is a single internode. It might comprise an entire peduncle with just one flower (e.g. Tulipa) or just the basal internode of a peduncle. This is in contrast to the typical compound peduncle, which morphologically speaking is derived from a branch, or from an entire shoot.

A single scape may bear a single flower or many, depending on the species. When it bears more than one flower, there is the terminal part of an inflorescence on top, as in Amaryllis. Compare this with say, the peduncle of Agave, which sensu stricto, is not a scape.

Scapes are found on plants of many families, including Amaryllidaceae, Balsaminaceae, Liliaceae, Papaveraceae, Droseraceae, and Violaceae.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Etoh, T.; Simon, P.W. (2002). "Diversity, fertility, and seed production of garlic". In H.D. Rabinowitch; L. Currah. Allium crop science: recent advances. CABI Pub. 
  2. ^ a b c Brown, Lesley (1993). The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Eng.]: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-861271-0. 
  3. ^ Chittenden, Fred J. Ed., Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, Oxford 1951
  4. ^ Porter, C.L. (1959, 1967). Taxonomy of flowering plants. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press. 
  6. ^ Jackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accent; Published by Gerald Duckworth & Co. London, 4th ed 1928
  7. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/scape
  8. ^ http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/scape
  9. ^ http://www.memidex.com/scape+stalk
  10. ^ Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, Hohn Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. Arizona Flora. University of California Press 1960. ISBN 978-0520006379