The scaphe (or skaphe, also scaphium or scaphion) was a sundial said to have been invented by Aristarchus (3rd century BC). It consisted of a hemispherical bowl which had a vertical gnomon placed inside it, with the top of the gnomon level with the edge of the bowl. Twelve gradations inscribed perpendicular to the hemisphere indicated the hour of the day. Using this measuring instrument Eratosthenes of Cyrene (c. 220 BC) measured the length of Earth's meridian arc.
- Biémont, E., Time Measurement in Astronomy in Heck, A. (ed.) (2003), Information Handling in Astronomy: Historical Vistas, page 20. Springer.
- Resnikoff, H., O'Neil Wells, R., (1984), Mathematics in Civilization, pages 93–93. Courier Dover Publications.
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