Scarborough (UK Parliament constituency)
|Former County constituency|
|for the House of Commons|
|Major settlements||Scarborough, Whitby|
|Number of members||One|
|Replaced by||Scarborough and Whitby|
|Created from||Scarborough and Whitby|
|Number of members||Two (1295-1885)
|Type of constituency||Borough constituency|
Scarborough was the name of a constituency in Yorkshire, electing Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, at two periods. From 1295 until 1918 it was a parliamentary borough consisting only of the town of Scarborough, electing two MPs until 1885 and one from 1885 until 1918. In 1974 the name was revived for a county constituency, covering a much wider area; this constituency was abolished in 1997.
Scarborough was first represented in a Parliament held at Shrewsbury in 1282, and was one of the boroughs sending 2 MPs to the Model Parliament of 1295 which is now generally considered to be the first parliament in the modern sense.
Until the Great Reform Act of 1832 Scarborough was a corporation borough, the right of election resting solely with the 44-member corporation or "common council". At an earlier period, it seems to have been a matter of some dispute whether the freemen of the borough could also vote, but at an election in 1736 the corporation and the (much more numerous) freemen backed different candidates. The candidate of the freemen was returned to Parliament, but on petition from his defeated opponent the House of Commons decided that only the corporation votes should stand, and overturned the result. In later days the Corporation was entirely under the influence of the Duke of Rutland and Earl of Mulgrave, who each nominated one of the Members of Parliament; by 1832, Scarborough had continuously been represented by junior members of their respective families for more than half a century. The restriction on the franchise was challenged in 1791, and Parliament declared in favour of "the ancient right of inhabitant householders" in the borough to vote, but the decision seems to have been a dead-letter for at the election of 1802, the last to be contested before the Reform Act, only 33 voters cast their votes.
At the time of the Reform Act, the borough had a population of about 8,760 in just over 2,000 houses, and the Act left its boundaries and two members intact, though widening the franchise. (There were 431 electors registered at the 1832 election.) The constituency remained broadly unchanged until 1918, though from 1885 its representation was reduced from two MPs to one.
After abolition in 1918, the constituency was absorbed into the new Scarborough and Whitby county constituency. However, the boundary changes which came into effect at the February 1974 general election created a new constituency named Scarborough. This was a county constituency including, in addition to Scarborough itself and its suburb Scalby, the town of Pickering and the Scarborough and Pickering rural districts.
There were further boundary changes at the 1983 general election, which brought in Whitby and its surrounding area in place of the Pickering district. The constituency was abolished once more for the 1997 general election, when it was again largely replaced by a new Scarborough and Whitby constituency.
Members of Parliament
- Constituency created (1295)
- Representation reduced to one member (1885)
|1885||representation reduced to one member|
|1885||Sir George Reresby Sitwell||Conservative|
|1886||Joshua Rowntree||Gladstonian Liberal|
|1892||Sir George Reresby Sitwell||Conservative|
|1906||Walter Russell Rea||Liberal|
|1918||constituency abolished: see Scarborough and Whitby|
|Feb 1974||Sir Michael Shaw||Conservative|
|1997||constituency abolished: see Scarborough and Whitby|
Election in the 1990s
|General Election 1992: Scarborough|
|Labour||David L. Billing||17,600||29.9||+6.2|
|Liberal Democrat||A. Bromley Davenport||11,133||18.9||−6.8|
|Green||Dr. Richard C. Richardson||876||1.5||+1.5|
Elections in the 1980s
|General Election 1987: Scarborough|
|Social Democrat||H Callan||14,046||25.71|
|General Election 1983: Scarborough|
|Social Democrat||R Jordan||14,048||27.24|
Elections in the 1970s
|General Election 1979: Scarborough|
|General Election October 1974: Scarborough|
|General Election February 1974: Scarborough|
|Independent Conservative||BM Stoker||102||0.22|
Notes and references
- "History of Parliament". Retrieved 2011-09-28.
- Knighted 1626
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 2)[self-published source][better source needed]
- Cobbett's Parliamentary History records that "21 June 1660, Mr Robinson was discharged by an Order of the House from sitting, and a writ ordered to be issued to elect another in his room; but the Journals do not give us the reason for this expulsion"
- Created a baronet as Sir John Legard, December 1660
- Dupplin beat Osbaldeston in the by-election by 154 votes to 27, but Dupplin's votes came mostly from the freemen and Osbaldeston had the majority of corporation votes (26 to 18). On petition the freemen's votes were discounted, Dupplin's election voided and Osbaldeston declared duly elected.
- Created a baronet as Sir John Major, 1765
- Became Lord Mulgrave in 1792
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 6 Dec 2010.
- D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1954)
- Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) 
- F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (2nd edition, Aldershot: Parliamentary Research Services, 1989)
- Thomas Hinderwell, The history and antiquities of Scarborough and the vicinity (2nd edition, York: Thomas Wilson & Son, 1811) 
- J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
- Edward Porritt and Annie G Porritt, The Unreformed House of Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1903)
- Henry Stooks Smith, The Parliaments of England from 1715 to 1847 (2nd edition, edited by FWS Craig - Chichester: Parliamentary Reference Publications, 1973)
- Robert Walcott, English Politics in the Early Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956)
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Constituency represented by the Speaker