|Career (Great Britain)|
|Owner:||John, George & Thomas Hopper|
|Port of registry:||Scarborough, North Yorkshire|
|Length:||111 feet 6 inches (34.0 m)|
|Beam:||30 feet 2 inches (9.2 m)|
|Sail plan:||Ship rig|
Construction and requisition
Scarborough was a square-sterned, three-masted barque of 411 tons, 111 feet 6 inches (34.0 m) long and 30 feet 2 inches (9.2 m) wide and with an initial height between decks of 4 feet 5 inches (1.35 m). She was built in 1782 in the port of Scarborough in North Yorkshire, and was owned by Yorkshire merchants John, George and Thomas Hopper. See illustration of Scarborough.
In 1787 Scarborough was contracted for the First Fleet voyage by south London shipbroker William Richards, who selected her after consultation with Royal Marine officers Watkin Tench and David Collins. Both marine officers would sail with the Fleet to Australia, Tench as a captain of marines and Collins as judge-advocate for the new colony. She was the second-largest transport selected for the Fleet after Alexander
After selection, Scarborough was sailed to Deptford dockyard to be refitted for convict transportation under the supervision of Naval Agent George Teer. The height between decks was increased to 6 feet 2 inches (1.9 m) amidships and between 6 feet 1 inch (1.9 m) and 5 feet 11 inches (1.8 m) fore and aft, and two windsails were brought aboard to improve the flow of air in the convict quarters. Bulkheads were also fitted to separate convict quarters from those of the marines and crew, and space set aside for stores and a sick bay. An Osbridge machine was also installed to filter Scarborough 's drinking water during the voyage to New South Wales.[b] Teer was entirely satisfied with Scarborough 's fitout; in December 1786 he advised the Navy Board that she and her fellow First Fleet transports. were "completed fitted [with] provisions and accommodations .. better than any other set of transports I have ever had any directions in."
Voyage with the First Fleet
On her first convict voyage, as part of the First Fleet, her master was John Marshall and her surgeon was Dennis Considen. She left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 208 male convicts, and arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, on 26 January 1788. On leaving Port Jackson on 6 May 1788, in company with Charlotte, she traveled to China. On 17 May 1788 the two ships landed at Lord Howe Island for birds and vegetables, then sailed for Whampoa. En route, the ships became the first European vessels to pass among the Marshall and Gilbert islands. Further north, they made landfall on Tinian in the Northern Marianas, where both ships were forced to anchor. The long sea voyage had depleted Scarborough 's stores, and scurvy had become rampant among her crew. Fifteen of the sickest men were brought ashore on Tinian and housed in tents on the dunes, while the remainder of the crew foraged for food. While anchored off Tinian, both vessels were nearly blown onto shore by strong winds, but disaster was averted when their captains decided to cut the anchor ropes and raise sail to move off shore.
After several weeks recovery on Tinian, Scarborough″s crew had returned to sufficient health for the voyage to resume. In easy sailing weather, Scarborough and Charlotte reached Macau on 9 September 9 and Whampoa shortly afterward. There they received cargoes of tea, and made ready to sail to England. Departing Whampoa on 17 December, the ships reached St. Helena by 20 March 1789 and arrived in England on 15 June.
Voyage with the Second Fleet
Scarborough returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790. Her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer. She arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, and spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, and 8 male convicts from HMS Guardian, which had been wrecked after striking an iceberg. She and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June, 160 days out from England. During the voyage 73 convicts died (28%) and 96 (37%) were sick when landed. She returned to England in 1792.
Scarborough 's Pacific voyages had left her increasingly decrepit, and in need of repairs to her hull. In 1792 she was resheeted to remove damage caused by shipworm, and was then set to work plying a trade route between London and St.Petersburg. Further repairs were undertaken in 1795 and 1798. Between 1800 to 1803 she was shuttled back and forth between London and the Caribbean, carrying trade goods and provisions for British colonies including St. Vincents, with extensive repairs between voyages. In 1804 and 1805 she plied a route between London and Tobago.
- Contemporary Admiralty surveys also record a figure of 418 36/94 tons burthen, based on design. Another informal source, First Fleet Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King estimated Scarborough at 430 tons burthen.
- Osbridge machines: a rudimentary means of circulating water to remove sediment and reduce the incidence of bacteria. Naval surgeon William Turnbull described their operation as follows, "This machine consists of a hand pump which is inserted in a scuttle made at the top of the cask, and by means of it the water, being raised a few feet, falls through several sheets of tin pierced like colanders, and placed in a half-cylinder of the same metal. The purpose of it is to reduce the water into numberless drops, which being exposed in this form to the open air is deprived of its offensive quality."
- Register of Transports 1774-1794", Admiralty 49/127. Cited in Bateson 1969, pp.96-97
- Bateson 1969, p.97
- Bateson 1969, p.96
- Spennemann, Dirk H.R. "Historic Ships Associated with the Marshall Islands No. 2". Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Farrington, Anthony. Catalogue Of East India Company Ships' Journals & Logs (1600-1834). Ms. British Library.
- "Entries from the log book - Convict Ship Scarborough 1788". The settler or felon?. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Keneally 2005, p. 49
- Frost 1984, p.112
- Gillen 1989, p.430
- Bateson 1969, p13
- Turnbull 1806, p.40
- Captain George Teer to Navy Board, 7 December 1786. Cited in Frost 1984, p. 113
- Letter from Newton Fowell, midshipman HMS Sirius, to John Fowell, 12 July 1788. Cited in Irvine (ed.) 1988, p.81
- Cavanagh 1989, p.4
- Lloyd's Register 1793-1805
- "LLOYD'S MARINE LIST. - June 1". Caledonian Mercury (13072). 22 June 1805.
- "Ship News". The Aberdeen Journal (2999). 3 July 1805.
- Bateson, Charles (1969). The Convict Ships. Brown, Son & Ferguson (Glasgow). OCLC 11085505.
- Cavanagh, A.K. (1989). "The Return of the First Fleet Ships". The Great Circle (The Australian Association for Maritime History) 11 (2). JSTOR 41562684. (subscription required (. ))
- Frost, Alan (1984). Botany Bay Mirages: Illusions of Australia's Convict Beginnings. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0522844979.
- Gillen, Mollie (1989). The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet. Library of Australian History. ISBN 0-908120-69-9.
- Irvine, Nance, ed. (1988). The Sirius Letters: The Complete Letters of Newton Fowell. Daniel O'Keefe. ISBN 1862900000.
- Turnbull, William (1806). The Naval Surgeon; Comprising the Entire Duties of Professional Men at Sea. London: B. McMillan. OCLC 822815824.