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Scarborough was a transport and convict ship of 430 tons, built at Scarborough, England in 1782. She formed part of the First Fleet, which commenced European settlement of Australia in 1788 and was subsequently chartered by the British East India company to transport cargo. Her masters included John Marshall.
On her first convict voyage, as part of the First Fleet, her master was John Marshall and her surgeon was Dennis Considen. She left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, carrying 208 male convicts, and arrived at Port Jackson, Sydney, on 26 January 1788. On leaving Port Jackson on 5 May 1788, in company with Lady Penrhyn, she traveled to China. On 17 May 1788 she landed at Lord Howe Island for birds and vegetables, and arrived in England on 15 June 1789.
She returned to New South Wales with the notorious Second Fleet. In company with Surprize and Neptune she sailed from England with 253 male convicts on 19 January 1790. Her master was again John Marshall and the surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer. She arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13 April 1790, and spent 16 days there, taking on provisions, and 8 male convicts from HMS Guardian, which had been wrecked after striking an iceberg. She and Neptune parted from Surprize in heavy weather and arrived at Port Jackson on 28 June, 160 days out from England. During the voyage 73 convicts died (28%) and 96 (37%) were sick when landed.
After returning to England in 1792, she underwent repairs including resheeting and was reduced in tonnage to 411 bm. She then plied the London to St.Petersburg route. Further repairs were undertaken in 1795 and 1798. In 1800 the vessel plied the London to St.Vincent (Caribbean) run and was repaired and completely resheeted. Scarborough was then employed on the London-West Indies / St. Vincent run from 1801 to 1803. Between 1804 and 1805, she plied the London to Tobago run.
- Spennemann, Dirk H.R. "Historic Ships Associated with the Marshall Islands No. 2". Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Farrington, Anthony. Catalogue Of East India Company Ships' Journals & Logs (1600-1834). Ms. British Library.
- "Entries from the log book - Convict Ship Scarborough 1788". The settler or felon?. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Lloyd's Register 1793-1805
- "LLOYD'S MARINE LIST. - June 1". Caledonian Mercury (13072). 22 June 1805.
- "Ship News". The Aberdeen Journal (2999). 3 July 1805.
- Sailing Directions - South China Sea. Taunton: UK Hydrographic Office.
- Gillen, Mollie, The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet, Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1989.
- Bateson, Charles, The Convict Ships, 1787–1868, Sydney, 1974.
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