Scarface (1983 film)

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Scarface
Scarface.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Brian De Palma
Produced by Martin Bregman
Written by Oliver Stone
Starring Al Pacino
Music by Giorgio Moroder
Cinematography John A. Alonzo
Edited by Gerald B. Greenberg
David Ray
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s)
  • December 9, 1983 (1983-12-09)
Running time 170 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $25 million
Box office $65.8 million[1]

Scarface is a 1983 American crime drama film directed by Brian De Palma and written by Oliver Stone. A remake of the 1932 film of the same name, Scarface tells the story of Cuban refugee Tony Montana (Al Pacino) who arrives in 1980s Miami with nothing, and rises up to become a powerful drug kingpin. The film also features Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Steven Bauer, and Michelle Pfeiffer.

The initial critical response to Scarface was mixed, with criticism over excessive violence, frequent strong language and graphic hard drug usage. Some Cuban expatriates in Miami objected to the film's portrayal of Cubans as criminals and drug traffickers. Contemporary reviews have been more positive, and screenwriters and directors such as Martin Scorsese have praised the movie. It is now considered a classic within the mob film genre and has resulted in many cultural references such as in comic books and video games.

Plot[edit]

In 1980, Cuban refugee Tony Montana (Al Pacino) arrives in Miami, and is sent to a refugee camp with his best friend Manny Ray (Steven Bauer), and their associates Angel (Pepe Serna) and Chi-Chi (Ángel Salazar). In exchange for assassinating a former Cuban government official at the request of wealthy drug dealer Frank Lopez (Robert Loggia), the group are released from the camp and given green cards. Frank's henchman Omar Suarez (F. Murray Abraham) gives the group the opportunity to purchase cocaine from Colombian dealers, but the deal collapses. Angel is dismembered with a chainsaw, while Manny and Chi-Chi rescue Tony and kill the Colombians. Suspecting that Omar betrayed them, Tony and Manny insist on personally delivering the recovered drugs and money to Frank. Impressed, Frank hires Tony and Manny. During their meeting, Tony meets, and is instantly attracted to Frank's girlfriend Elvira Hancock (Michelle Pfeiffer). Months later, Tony visits his mother Georgina (Míriam Colón), and younger sister Gina (Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio), of whom he is fiercely protective. His mother is disgusted by his life of crime and throws him out. As Tony gets in his waiting car, Manny comments on Gina's beauty before being warned by Tony to stay away from her.

Frank sends Tony and Omar to Bolivia to meet with cocaine kingpin Alejandro Sosa (Paul Shenar). Tony agrees to a deal with Sosa without Frank's approval, and Omar leaves to contact Frank. Sosa claims that Omar is a police informant and then has Tony witness as a beaten Omar is pushed to his death from a helicopter. Tony vouches for Frank's organization, and Sosa agrees to the deal, parting with a warning that Tony should never betray him. In Miami, Frank is infuriated by Omar's demise and the unauthorized deal struck by Tony. As a result, Tony's and Frank's relationship dissolves, resulting in Tony establishing his own organization and informing Elvira of his intentions toward her.

At a nightclub, corrupt detective Mel Bernstein (Harris Yulin) attempts to extort money from Tony in return for police protection and information. Tony angers Frank further by openly pursuing Elvira in the club. When Tony sees Gina dancing and being touched by a man, he argues with, and hits Gina before Manny takes her home. Hitmen then attempt to assassinate Tony, but he escapes the club. Suspecting that his former boss sent both Bernstein and the hitmen, Tony, Manny and Chi-Chi go to Frank's office, where they find him with Bernstein. Frank confesses to his involvement and begs for his life, but the group kills both him and Bernstein.

Tony marries Elvira and, with Sosa's supplies, he builds a multi-million-dollar empire. By 1983, the operation gradually struggles as Tony becomes increasingly paranoid, he and Elvira excessively use cocaine, his money launderer demands more pay, and Manny grows resentful as Tony takes all credit for their success. Eventually, Tony is charged with money laundering and tax evasion after a police investigation. Sosa offers to use his government connections to keep Tony out of jail if Tony assassinates a journalist intending to expose Sosa. Later, Tony further pushes Manny and Elvira away by blaming his friend for his arrest and accusing his wife of being infertile because of her drug use. As a result, Elvira leaves Tony.

In New York City, Tony, Chi-Chi and Sosa's henchman Alberto (Mark Margolis) prepare for the assassination. Alberto plants a bomb on the journalist's car, but when he is unexpectedly accompanied by his family, Tony calls off the mission. Alberto insists on continuing, and Tony becomes enraged and kills him. Returning home, Tony is contacted by Sosa who is furious about Tony's failure. Sosa ends their partnership and tells Tony that he should not have betrayed him.

Later, Tony learns that Manny and Gina have been missing for several days. His search leads him to a house where he finds Manny. When Tony also sees Gina in a state of undress, he kills Manny. Gina tells Tony that she and Manny had just gotten married the day before and were planning to surprise him. Tony returns to his mansion with Gina, where he displays remorse for Manny's death before burying his face in a large mound of cocaine. Meanwhile, Sosa's men begin assaulting the mansion and killing Tony's men, including Chi-Chi. A drugged Gina accuses Tony of wanting her himself and shoots him in the leg, before one of Sosa's men shoots and kills her. Tony kills the man and becomes distraught at the sight of Gina's corpse. In a cocaine-fueled fury, Tony uses a grenade-launcher-equipped M-16 to attack Sosa's hitmen. Tony is repeatedly shot, but continues to fight until he is shot in the back. His body falls into a fountain below, in front of a statue reading, "The World is Yours."

Cast[edit]

Michelle Pfeiffer was an unknown actress when she appeared in Scarface, and both star Al Pacino and director Brian De Palma argued against her casting.[2]

The cast also includes: Ángel Salazar as Chi-Chi, and Pepe Serna as Angel Fernandez, Tony's associates; Arnaldo Santana as Ernie, Frank's henchman; Michael P. Moran as Nick the Pig, Al Israel as Hector the Toad, Mark Margolis as Alberto the Shadow, and Geno Silva as The Skull, Sosa's henchmen; Dennis Holahan as Jerry, Tony's banker and money launderer; Michael Alldredge as George Sheffield; Ted Beniades as Seidelbaum; and Richard Belzer as the comic at the Babylon Club.

Development[edit]

Oliver Stone in 2010. He wrote the script for Scarface while struggling with his own addiction to cocaine.

Scarface began development after Pacino saw the 1932 film of the same name at the Tiffany Theater while in Los Angeles. He later called his manager, producer Martin Bregman and informed him of his belief in the potential for a remake of that film.[2] Pacino originally wanted to retain the period piece aspect, but realized that because of its melodramatic nature it would be difficult to accomplish.[3] Sidney Lumet became attached as the director, developing the idea for Montana to be Cuban arriving in America during the Mariel boatlift.[2][4]

Bregman and Lumet's creative differences saw Lumet drop out of the project. Lumet had wanted to make a more political story that focused on blaming the current Presidential administration for the influx of cocaine into the United States, and Bregman disagreed with Lumet's views.[5][3] Bregman replaced him with Brian De Palma, and hired writer Oliver Stone, later stating that it took only four phone calls to secure their involvement.[4] Stone researched the script while battling his own cocaine addiction.[6] He and Bregman performed their own research, travelling to Miami, Florida where they were given access to records from the U.S. Attorney's Office and the Organized Crime Bureau.[5] Stone moved to Paris to write the script, believing he could not break his addiction while in America, stating in a 2003 interview that he was completely off drugs at the time "because I don't think cocaine helps writing. It's very destructive to the brain cells."[3][7] Although Pacino insisted he take the lead role as Tony Montana, Robert De Niro was offered and turned down the role.[2][8] Pacino worked with experts in knife combat, trainers, and boxer Roberto Duran to attain the body type he wanted for the role. Duran also helped inspire the character, whom Pacino thought had "a certain lion in him", and the work of Meryl Streep on Sophie's Choice (1982), where she also played an immigrant character. Bauer and a dialect coach helped him learn aspects of the Cuban Spanish language and pronunciation.[3]

Pfeiffer was an unknown actress at the time, and both Pacino and De Palma had argued against her casting, but Bregman fought for her inclusion.[2] Glenn Close was the original choice for the role, while others including Geena Davis, Carrie Fisher, Kelly McGillis, Sharon Stone, and Sigourney Weaver were also considered.[9] Bauer however got his role without even auditioning. During the audition process, casting director Alixe Gordin saw Bauer and instantly noted that he was right for the role of Manny, a judgment both De Palma and Bregman agreed with; he was the only actual Cuban in the principal cast. John Travolta was considered for the role.[2][8][10]

During rehearsals for a gunfight, Pacino was injured after he grabbed the barrel of a prop gun which had just been used to fire several dummy bullets. His hand stuck to the hot barrel and he was unable to remove it immediately; the injury sidelined him for 2 weeks. The gunfight scene also includes a single shot directed by Steven Spielberg who was visiting the set at the time.[11] During filming, some Cuban-Americans objected to the film's Cuban-American characters being portrayed as criminals by non-Cuban-American actors. To counter this, the film features a disclaimer during its credits stating that the film characters were not representative of the Cuban-American community.[10] The entertainment industry initially hated the film, with actress Liza Minnelli—who at the time had not seen the film—asking Pacino what he had done to render the insiders like statues at a post-screening meal. However, during the meal, actor Eddie Murphy told Pacino he loved the film.[2]

Despite its Miami setting, much of the film was actually shot in Los Angeles as the Miami Tourist board was afraid that the film's depiction of the state, as a haven for drugs and gangsters, would deter tourism.[12] Tony's opulent Miami mansion was portrayed by El Fureidis, a Roman-styled mansion in Santa Barbara, California.[13]

Scarface was given an X rating in North America three times for extreme violence, frequent strong language and hard drug usage. The restrictive rating, more associated at the time with pornography, both limited the number of cinemas willing to screen such a film, and restricted promotional advertising, which would potentially adversely affect any box office takings. In particular, an early scene where Montana's associate Angel is dismembered with a chainsaw off screen, was singled out as the cause of the X rating. De Palma made edits to the scene and resubmitted it to the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), but was again given an X rating. He made further edits and resubmitted it between 3 to 5 times before refusing to further edit the film, telling Universal Pictures to either release it in its current form or fire and replace him with someone who would edit it. Universal opted to appeal the MPAA's decision. Then-studio president Robert Rehme attended the hearing which was presided over by his friend, and MPAA President Jack Valenti. Among those speaking on behalf of the film during the appeal were film critic Roger Ebert, the head of Florida's Broward County organized crime division, and the head of a major theater chain, Alan Friedberg. MPAA member Richard Heffner would later admit that he could have fought harder to retain the X rating, but he believed that Valenti did not support the decision, as he did not want to alienate the big film studios. The decision was overwhelmingly in favor of releasing the film with a less restrictive R rating.

In response, De Palma argued that if the latest version of the film was now considered an R, then his original version would also be one, rationalizing that the edits he made were minor. The MPAA told De Palma that only his latest edit would be certified as an R. De Palma however believed that the changes were so slight that no one would notice if he released his original version anyway, which he ultimately did.[14][15]

Release[edit]

Scarface premiered on December 1, 1983 in New York City, where it was initially greeted with mixed to positive reaction. The film's two stars, Al Pacino and Steven Bauer, were joined in attendance by Burt and Diane Lane, Melanie Griffith, Raquel Welch, Joan Collins, her then-boyfriend Peter Holm and Eddie Murphy among others.[16] The limited, 20th anniversary theatrical re-release in 2003 boasted a remastered soundtrack with enhanced sound effects and music.

Reception[edit]

The initial release of Scarface was met with a negative critical response,[2] and drew controversy regarding the violence and graphic language in the film.[17] The New York Magazine had called it empty, bullying and overblown B movie.[18]

According to AMC's "DVD TV: Much More Movie" airing, Cher loved it, Lucille Ball, who came with her family, hated it because of the graphic violence and language, and Dustin Hoffman was said to have fallen asleep[citation needed]. Writers Kurt Vonnegut and John Irving were among those who allegedly walked out in disgust after the notorious chainsaw scene[citation needed]. At the middle of the film, Martin Scorsese turned to Steven Bauer and told him, "You guys are great – but be prepared, because they're going to hate it in Hollywood... because it's about them."[19]

Roger Ebert rated it four stars out of four in his 1983 review and he later added it to his "Great Movies" list.[20] Ebert wrote "DePalma and his writer, Oliver Stone, have created a gallery of specific individuals, and one of the fascinations of the movie is that we aren't watching crime-movie clichés, we're watching people who are criminals."[21] Vincent Canby praised the film in the New York Times: "The dominant mood of the film is... bleak and futile: what goes up must always come down. When it comes down in Scarface, the crash is as terrifying as it is vivid and arresting."[22]

Leonard Maltin was among those critics who held a negative opinion of Scarface. He gave the film 1½ stars out of four, stating that "...[Scarface] wallows in excess and unpleasantness for nearly three hours, and offers no new insights except that crime doesn't pay. At least the 1932 movie moved." In later editions of his annual movie guide, Maltin included an addendum to his review stating his surprise with the film's newfound popularity as a cult-classic.[23]

In his review for Newsweek, David Ansen wrote, "If Scarface makes you shudder, it's from what you think you see and from the accumulated tension of this feral landscape. It's a grand, shallow, decadent entertainment, which like all good Hollywood gangster movies delivers the punch and counterpunch of glamour and disgust".[24] Jay Scott, in his review for the Globe and Mail, writes, "For a while, Al Pacino is hypnotic as Montana. But the effort expended on the flawless Cuban accent and the attempts to flesh out a character cut from inch-thick cardboard are hopeless."[25] In his review for the Washington Post, Gary Arnold wrote, "A movie that appeared intent on revealing an alarmingly contemporary criminal subculture gradually reverts to underworld cliche, covering its derivative tracks with outrageous decor and an apocalyptic, production number finale, ingeniously choreographed to leave the antihero floating face down in a literal bloodbath."[26]

Review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes offers a contemporary interpretation of the film's reception, providing an 88% approval rating from 59 critics – an average rating of 7.4 out of 10 – with the following consensus: "director Brian De Palma and star Al Pacino take it to the limit in this stylized, ultra-violent and eminently quotable gangster epic that walks a thin white line between moral drama and celebratory excess."[27] Metacritic gives it an average score of 65/100.

Pacino earned a nomination for Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Motion Picture – Drama and Steven Bauer was nominated for Best Supporting Actor as well. DePalma was nominated for, but did not win, a Razzie Award for Worst Director.

Box office[edit]

Scarface was released theatrically in North America on December 9, 1983. During its opening weekend, the film earned $4.5 million from 996 theaters—an average of $4,616 per theater—ranking as the second highest grossing film of the weekend behind Sudden Impact ($9.6 million)—debuting the same weekend. It went on to earn $45.4 million in North America, and $20.4 million from other markets, for a total of $65.8 million. This figure made Scarface the 16th highest grossing film of 1983, and seventh highest grossing R-rated film in North America for 1983.[1][28]

Home media[edit]

Scarface was initially released by MCA Home Video on VHS, CED Videodisc, Laserdisc, and Beta in the summer of 1984 – a two-tape set in 1.33:1 pan and scan ratio – and quickly became a bestseller, preluding its cult status.[29] A 2.35:1 Widescreen VHS would follow years later in 1998 to coincide with the special edition DVD release. The last VHS release was in 2003 to counterpart the 20th anniversary edition DVD.

The TV version of Scarface premiered on ABC on January 7, 1989.[30] 32 minutes of violence, profanity and sex were edited out, and much of the dialog, including the constant use of the word "fuck", which was muted after the beginning of "f-" or replaced with less offensive alternatives.[31]

The film received a North American DVD release on the film's 15th anniversary in 1998 featuring a non-anamorphic widescreen transfer, a "Making of" documentary, outtakes, production notes and cast and crew biographies. This release was not successful, and many fans and reviewers complained about its unwatchable video transfer and muddled sound, describing it as "one of the worst big studio releases out there".[32] In 2003, a 20th anniversary re-release, featured two documentaries — including a new interview with Steven Bauer and another produced by Def Jam Recordings featuring interviews with various rappers on the film's cult status in the hip hop world.[citation needed]

Scarface was released on Blu-ray disc on September 6, 2011 in a two-disc, limited edition, steelbox package.[33] The set contains a remastered, 1080p widescreen transfer of the film in 7.1 DTS-HD Master Audio surround sound, as well as a digital copy. Disc two is a DVD of the 1932 Scarface, featuring a TMC-produced introduction by Robert Osborne and an alternate ending. Bonus features include The Making of Scarface documentary, and a new retrospective documentary: The Scarface Phenomenon.[34]

A special gift set, limited to 1,000 copies, features the Blu-ray set housed in a cigar humidor, designed by world-renowned humidor craftsman Daniel Marshall. The humidor box set retailed at $999.99.[35]

Universal also launched a "National Fan Art Contest" via Facebook. The top 25 submissions selected by Universal were entered in a poll where fans voted on their 10 favorite works to be featured as art cards in the Blu-ray set. The Grand-Prize winner had their artwork featured on a billboard in a major US city in order to promote the release. To celebrate the release of Scarface on Blu-ray, Universal Studios and Fathom Events teamed up to make a Scarface Special Event. The event included Scarface coming back to select theaters nationwide for one night only on Wednesday, August 31, 2011. A twenty-minute documentary on how the film impacted the world today also featured.

Music[edit]

The music in Scarface was produced by Academy Award-winning Italian record producer Giorgio Moroder. Reflecting Moroder's style, the soundtrack consists mostly of synthesized new wave, electronic music. De Palma says that he has repeatedly denied Universal's requests to release the film with a "rap score" because he feels Moroder's score is already perfect.[36]

Legacy[edit]

While Pacino was already an established successful actor, Scarface helped launch Pfeiffer's and Mastrantonio's careers, both of whom were relatively unknown beforehand and who would go on to individual successes.[10] In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten Top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Scarface was acknowledged as the tenth best in the gangster film genre.[37] The line "Say hello to my little friend!" (spoken by Montana) took 61st place on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes list, and Tony Montana was nominated as a villain on AFI's list of the 100 Heroes & Villains.[38] Entertainment Weekly ranked the film #8 on their list of "The Top 50 Cult Films,"[39] and Empire Magazine placed it among the top 500 films of all time, at #284.[40] In 2010, VH1 rated the movie at number 5 in its list of 100 greatest movies of all time.[citation needed] In 2009, Total Film listed at number 9 on their list of the 30 Greatest Gangster movies.[41] Scarface was the first film in which the expletive "fuck" is used 226 times in total.[42] The company set up by former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein to launder money was named Montana Management after Pacino's character.[43]

During the time of the high profile feud with Jay-Z, Nas, on his track "Last Real Nigga Alive" from his album God's Son, compared himself to Tony Montana, and Jay-Z to Manny respectively from Scarface.[44]

Dark Horse Comics' imprint DH Press released a novel called Scarface: The Beginning by L. A. Banks.[45][46] IDW publishing released a limited series called Scarface: Scarred For Life. It starts with corrupt police officers finding Tony has survived the final mansion showdown. Similar to the game The World Is Yours, Tony works at rebuilding his criminal empire.[47]

In 2001, plans were made for hip hop artist Cuban Link to write and star in a sequel to Scarface, titled Son of Tony.[48] The plans drew both praise and criticism, and after several years Cuban Link indicated that he may no longer be involved with the project as the result of movie rights issues and creative control.[49] Universal announced in 2011 that the studio is developing a new version of Scarface. The studio claims that the new film is neither a sequel nor a remake, but will take elements from both this version and its 1932 predecessor, including the basic premise: a man who becomes a kingpin in his quest for the American Dream. Martin Bregman, who produced the 1983 remake, will produce this version,[50] with a screenplay by David Ayer[51] and David Yates in talks to direct the film.[52] On March 24, 2014, The Wrap has reported that Pablo Larraín is in negotiations to direct the film along with Paul Attanasio writing the film's script. The film's update will be an original story set in modern day Los Angeles that follows a Mexican immigrant's rise in the criminal underworld as he strives for the American Dream.[53]

Among other films, Scarface served as a major inspiration for the 2002 award-winning video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, which took place in a representation of 1980s Miami and featured music from the film's soundtrack, as well as a recreation of Montana's mansion.[54][55][56] Scarface would get its own direct tie-in with the 2006 video games Scarface: The World Is Yours and Scarface: Money. Power. Respect..

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ a b Chapman, Matt (August 24, 2011). "Al Pacino and the cast and crew talk Scarface". Total Film. Archived from the original on 2014-01-05. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
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  8. ^ a b "15 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Scarface". ShortList. Archived from the original on 2013-10-27. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
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  10. ^ a b c Susman, Gary (December 9, 2013). "'Scarface': 25 Things You Didn't Know About Al Pacino's Classic Crime Drama". Moviefone. Retrieved January 4, 2013. 
  11. ^ "15 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Scarface". ShortList. Archived from the original on 2013-10-27. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  12. ^ "15 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Scarface". ShortList. Archived from the original on 2013-10-27. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  13. ^ Willet, Megan (October 30, 2012). "Go Inside The 'Scarface' Mansion That's Available for $30,000 A Month". Business Insider. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  14. ^ Cronin, Brian (July 17, 2013). "Movie Legends Revealed - The Strange Tale of How ‘Scarface’ Beat the X Rating". SpinOff. Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  15. ^ 1983 Article about the rating of the film.
  16. ^ "Wireimage Listings: Scarface Premiere: Dec 1, 1983". Wireimage. December 1, 1983. Archived from the original on 2011-12-06. Retrieved July 20, 2007. 
  17. ^ Emmis Communications (1984). Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications. pp. 136–. ISSN 01487736. 
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  22. ^ Canby, Vincent (December 9, 1983). "Al Pacino Stars in Scarface". New York Times. Retrieved October 8, 2008. 
  23. ^ Maltin, Leonard (August 5, 2008). "Leonard Maltin's 2009 Movie Guide". Signet Books. p. 1202. 
  24. ^ Ansen, David (December 12, 1983). "Gunning Their Way to Glory". Newsweek. 
  25. ^ Scott, Jay (December 9, 1983). "A Castro cast-off cut from cardboard Scarface: the scuzziest of them all". Globe and Mail. 
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  29. ^ "Fonda Still Working Out (best-selling VHS and Beta tapes of the week)". The Miami Herald. June 16, 1984. Retrieved March 16, 2007. [better source needed]
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  43. ^ "15 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Scarface". ShortList. Archived from the original on 2013-10-27. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  44. ^ [1]
  45. ^ Dark Horse Comics > Profile > Scarface Vol. 1: The Beginning
  46. ^ DH Press Books: Current Titles Archived March 31, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ IDW Publishing; 'Scarface: Scarred For Life' Archived May 23, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "Son of Tony". Ozone Magazine. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved January 2, 2007. 
  49. ^ "Cuban Link Starts His Chain Reaction". Latin Rapper. Archived from the original on 2014-04-02. Retrieved January 2, 2007. 
  50. ^ Fleming, M. "Universal Preps New ‘Scarface’ Movie." Deadline.com (September 21, 2011) Archived November 5, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Fleming, M. "David Ayer To Script Updated ‘Scarface’." Deadline.com (November 29, 2011) Archived April 7, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ David Yates In Final Talks For ‘Scarface’ Helm Now Universal “Very High” On Script Archived April 7, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: Spider-Man 4 Circling John Malkovich, Anne Hathaway". The Wrap. March 24, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-04-21. Retrieved March 24, 2014. 
  54. ^ Welch, Hanuman (September 19, 2013). "The "Grand Theft Auto" Protagonists and Their Real Life Counterparts". Complex. Archived from the original on 2014-03-20. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  55. ^ "A Totally Rad Roundup of 80s Flicks in Honor of Vice City". Rockstar Games. January 9, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  56. ^

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]