Scarlet macaw

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Scarlet macaw
Ara macao -Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica-8.jpg
Belly feathers and under-plumage
Scarlet-Macaw-cr.jpg
back plumage
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Superfamily: Psittacoidea
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Arinae
Tribe: Arini
Genus: Ara
Species: A. macao
Binomial name
Ara macaoh
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Distribution Ara macao.svg
  Extant distribution of the scarlet macaw

The scarlet macaw (Ara macao) is a large, red, yellow and blue South American parrot, a member of a large group of Neotropical parrots called macaws. It is native to humid evergreen forests of tropical South America. Range extends from extreme south-eastern Mexico to Amazonian Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil in lowlands up to 500 m (1,640 ft) (at least formerly) up to 1,000 m (3,281 ft). It has suffered from local extinction through habitat destruction and capture for the parrot trade, but locally it remains fairly common. Formerly it ranged north to southern Tamaulipas. It can still be found on the island of Coiba. It is the national bird of Honduras.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The scarlet macaw (Ara macao Linnaeus 1758) is a member of the genus Ara (Lacepede, 1799), one of 6 genera of Central and South American macaws. Carolus Linnaeus described and named the scarlet macaw in his Systemae Naturae in 1758. Protonym: Psittacus macao.

Two subspecies present differing widths in their yellow wing band:

  • A. macao macao South American scarlet macaw, the nominate subspecies
  • A. macao cyanoptera (Wiedenfeld 1995) North Central American scarlet macaw

The Central American scarlet macaw is larger and has blue on its wings instead of green.

Description[edit]

It is about 81 centimetres (32 in) long, of which more than half is the pointed, graduated tail typical of all macaws, though the scarlet macaw has a larger percentage of tail than the other large macaws. The average weight is about 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). The plumage is mostly scarlet, but the rump and tail-covert feathers are light blue, the greater upper wing coverts are yellow, the upper sides of the flight feathers of the wings are dark blue as are the ends of the tail feathers, and the undersides of the wing and tail flight feathers are dark red with metallic gold iridescence. Some individuals may have green in the wings.

There is bare white skin around the eye and from there to the bill. Tiny white feathers are contained on the face patch. The upper mandible is mostly pale horn in color and the lower is black. Juveniles have dark eyes; adults have light yellow eyes.

It is frequently confused with the slightly larger green-winged macaw, which has more distinct red lines in the face and no yellow in the wing.

Scarlet macaws make very loud, high and sometimes low-pitched, throaty squawks, squeaks and screams designed to carry many miles to call for their groups.

The scarlet macaw can live up to 75 years in captivity, although a more typical lifespan is 40 to 50 years.[2]

Genetics[edit]

In May 2013 it was announced that a team of scientists, led by Dr. Christopher M. Seabury and Dr. Ian Tizard of Texas A&M University had sequenced the complete genome of the scarlet macaw.[3][4]

Behavior[edit]

A typical sighting is of a single bird or a pair flying above the forest canopy, though in some areas flocks can be seen. They may gather at clay licks.[5]

Ara macao feeding on Attalea fruits

Feeding[edit]

Scarlet macaws eat mostly fruits, nuts and seeds, including large, hard seeds.

Breeding[edit]

Scarlet macaws mate for life. The hen lays two or three white eggs in a tree cavity. The female incubates the eggs for about five weeks, and the chicks fledge from the nest about 90 days after hatching.[6] and leave their parents about a year later. Juveniles reach sexual maturity at five years of age.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The South American range is extensive and covers the Amazon basin; extending to Peru east of the Andes, to Bolivia, and Paraguay.[7]

Scarlet macaw in flight

In Central American the range extends from extreme eastern and southern Mexico and Panama through Guatemala and Belize, the island of Coiba and infrequently on the mainland of Panama, and two isolated regions on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica; the Carara National Park and Peninsula de Osa.

Scarlet macaws inhabit humid lowland subtropical rain forests, open woodlands, river edges, and savannas.

Conservation status[edit]

The habitat of scarlet macaws is considered to have the greatest latitudinal range for any bird in the genus Ara, as the estimated maximum territorial range covers 6,700,000 km2. Nevertheless, the scarlet macaw's habitat is fragmented, and the bird is mostly confined to tiny populations scattered throughout its original range in Middle America.[7] However, as they still occur in large numbers over most of their original range in South America, the species is classified by IUCN as least concern.[1]

A pair of scarlet macaws at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa, Florida.

It is listed on CITES Appendix 1 due to predation for the pet and cage bird trade.[8] Both subspecies are listed by USFWS as endangered.

Aviculture[edit]

The scarlet macaw is an early example of a parrot breeding in captivity. Captive breeding occurred in Northern Mexico at Paquime (also called Casas Grandes and very likely Southwest New Mexico in Mimbres Valley the 1000s CE. Breeding pens, perches, bones, and eggshell fragments have been uncovered. (See Casas Grandes article.) The straightforward nature of scarlet macaw breeding and the value of their plumes in trade created a market for trade wherein the animals were utilized in religious rights North to the Colorado Plateau region.

Today the scarlet macaw is found worldwide in captivity, but is best represented in captivity in the Americas. Captive techniques developed from the pet trade have positively impacted wild populations: In areas with low macaws populations, the "extra" babies that typically die in the nest may be reared by humans hands and released into the wild to bolster the population, as has been done by the Tambopata Macaw Project. Their captive diet, egg incubation, assisted hatching, hand rearing, co-parenting, parent-rearing, fledgling, maturation, and breeding are well understood within the avicultural community (AFA Watchbird magazine.)

The birds can hybridize with other members of Genus Ara in captivity, leading to lovely hybrids. In the US, hybrids scarlet macaws are created for their appearance and value in the bird trade. Hybrid scarlet macaws are also created because of fear of persecution, as birds breeders find themselves potentially liable for enormous fines and felonies (i.e., [[Lacey Act]]) as their captive-bred pets are added to the US Endangered Species List. As punishments are not given to those who sell or work with hybrid macaws, breeders are encouraged to mix genes to avoid punishment. In this way, law that have no effect on wild birds, because the birds occur only outside the US, create destruction of potentially important "captive arks" of genetic diversity.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Ara macao". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ "Animal Diversity Web — Scarlet Macaw". University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved May 29, 2008. 
  3. ^ Seabury, CM; Dowd SE; Seabury PM; Raudsepp T; Brightsmith DJ; et al. (8 May 2013). "A Multi-Platform Draft de novo Genome Assembly and Comparative Analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao)". PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062415. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Save the Parrots: Texas A&M Team Sequences Macaw Genome". Newswise.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  5. ^ Photo of Scarlet Macaws and several other parrots at clay-lick in Tambopata-Candamo - The Wonders of Peru with Boyd Norton "?". Retrieved 20 August 2010. 
  6. ^ Alderton, David (2003). The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Caged and Aviary Birds. London, England: Hermes House. p. 234. ISBN 1-84309-164-X. 
  7. ^ a b Juniper, T. and M. Parr. 1998. Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. Yale University Press.
  8. ^ "Scarlet Macaw". Species Database: CITES-Listed Species. UNEP-WCMC. Retrieved May 17, 2007. 

External links[edit]