Schadenfreude

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Schadenfreude (/ˈʃɑːdənfrɔɪdə/; German: [ˈʃaːdənˌfʁɔʏdə] ( )) is pleasure derived from the misfortunes of others.[1] This word is taken from German and literally means 'Harm-Joy'. It is the feeling of joy or pleasure when one sees another fail or suffer misfortune. It is also borrowed by some other languages.

Linguistic analysis[edit]

Spelling and etymology[edit]

Though normally not capitalized in English, the term schadenfreude is sometimes capitalized to mimic German-language convention as German nouns are always capitalized.

The corresponding German adjective is schadenfroh. The word derives from Schaden (damage, harm) and Freude (joy). Schaden derives from the Middle High German schade, from the Old High German scado, and is a cognate with English scathe. Freude comes from the Middle High German freude, from the Old High German frewida, and is a cognate with the (usually archaic) English word frith. A distinction exists between "secret schadenfreude" (a private feeling) and "open schadenfreude" (Hohn, a German word that roughly translates to scorn—outright public derision).

English equivalents[edit]

Little-used English words synonymous with schadenfreude derive from the Greek word, epichairekakia (ἐπιχαιρεκακία, first attested in Aristotle[2]).[3][4] Nathan Bailey's 18th-century Universal Etymological English Dictionary, for example, contains an entry for epicharikaky that gives its etymology as a compound of ἐπί epi (upon), χαρά chara (joy), and κακόν kakon (evil).[5][6] A popular modern collection of rare words, however, gives its spelling as epicaricacy.[7]

An English expression with a similar meaning is Roman holiday, a metaphor from the poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage by George Gordon, Lord Byron, where a gladiator in Ancient Rome expects to be "butchered to make a Roman holiday" while the audience would take pleasure from watching his suffering. The term suggests debauchery and disorder in addition to sadistic enjoyment.[8]

Another phrase with a meaning similar to Schadenfreude is "morose delectation" ("delectatio morosa" in Latin), meaning, "The habit of dwelling with enjoyment on evil thoughts".[9] The medieval church taught that morose delectation was a sin.[10][11] French writer Pierre Klossowski maintained that the appeal of sadism is morose delectation.[12][13]

An English word of similar meaning is gloating, where gloat means "to observe or think about something with triumphant and often malicious satisfaction, gratification, or delight" (gloat over an enemy's misfortune).[14] Gloating is differentiated from Schadenfreude in that it does not necessarily require malice (one may gloat to a friend about having defeated him in a game without ill intent) and that it describes an action rather than a state of mind (one typically gloats to the subject of the misfortune or to a third party).

Related words[edit]

The Buddhist concept of mudita, "sympathetic joy" or "happiness in another's good fortune", is cited as an example of the opposite of schadenfreude.[15][16] Alternatively, envy, which is unhappiness in another's good fortune, could be considered the counterpart of schadenfreude. Completing the quartet is "unhappiness at another's misfortune"—which can be called sympathy, pity, or compassion.

The transposed variant "freudenschade" has been invented in English to mean sorrow at another person's success.[17][18]

The term compersion, taking joy in the joy of loved ones, is generally considered an antonym of schadenfreude.

South African terminology in colloquial terms would be "lekker vir jou"

The Finnish language contains a word with a meaning similar to schadenfreude, "vahingonilo", which literally means "joy of misfortune". Likewise, Swedish also has a term equivalent to schadenfreude: "skadeglädje", which translates literally to "injury joy" (the joy of watching someone's injury—be it figurative or literal). The Dutch word "leedvermaak" (literally translatable as "suffer entertainment") is said to be a calque of the German "Schadenfreude".[19]

The Danish and Norwegian languages have similar terms in the forms skadefryd and skadefro (with the same meanings).

The Arabic language contains the term "shamaatah" which, according to the Arabic thesaurus means: to enjoy the calamity upon the enemy.

Neologisms and variants[edit]

Neologisms and portmanteau words were coined from the word as early as 1993, when Lincoln Caplan, in his book Skadden: Power, Money, and the Rise of a Legal Empire,[20] used the word Skaddenfreude to describe the delight that competitors of Skadden Arps took in its troubles of the early 1990s. Others include spitzenfreude, coined by The Economist to refer to the fall of Eliot Spitzer[21] and Schadenford, coined by Toronto Life in regards to Canadian politician Rob Ford.[22]

Literary usage and philosophical analysis[edit]

The Book of Proverbs mentions an emotion similar to schadenfreude: "Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, and let not thine heart be glad when he stumbleth: Lest the LORD see it, and it displease him, and he turn away his wrath from him." (Proverbs 24:17–18, King James Version).

In the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle used epikhairekakia (ἐπιχαιρεκακία in Greek) as part of a triad of terms, in which epikhairekakia stands as the opposite of phthonos (φθόνος), and nemesis (νέμεσις) occupies the mean. Nemesis is "a painful response to another's undeserved good fortune", while phthonos is a painful response to any good fortune, deserved or not. The epikhairekakos (ἐπιχαιρέκακος) person takes pleasure in another's ill fortune.[23][24]

Lucretius characterises the emotion in an extended simile in De rerum natura: Suave, mari magno turbantibus aequora ventis, e terra magnum alterius spectare laborem, "It is pleasant to watch from the land the great struggle of someone else in a sea rendered great by turbulent winds." The abbreviated Latin tag suave mare magno recalled the passage to generations familiar with the Latin classics.[25]

Caesarius of Heisterbach speaks of "delight in the adversity of a neighbour" as one of the "daughters of envy ... which follows anger" in his Dialogue on Miracles.[26]

During the 17th century, Robert Burton wrote in his work The Anatomy of Melancholy, "Out of these two [the concupiscible and irascible powers] arise those mixed affections and passions of anger, which is a desire of revenge; hatred, which is inveterate anger; zeal, which is offended with him who hurts that he loves; and ἐπιχαιρεκακία, a compound affection of joy and hate, when we rejoice at other men's mischief, and are grieved at their prosperity; pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, &c., of which elsewhere."[27]

The philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer mentioned schadenfreude as the most evil sin of human feeling, famously saying "To feel envy is human, to savor schadenfreude is diabolic."[28]

Rabbi Harold S. Kushner in his book When Bad Things Happen to Good People describes schadenfreude as a universal, even wholesome reaction that cannot be helped. "There is a German psychological term, Schadenfreude, which refers to the embarrassing reaction of relief we feel when something bad happens to someone else instead of to us." He gives examples and writes, "[People] don't wish their friends ill, but they can’t help feeling an embarrassing spasm of gratitude that [the bad thing] happened to someone else and not to them."[29]

Susan Sontag's book Regarding the Pain of Others, published in 2003, is a study of the issue of how the pain and misfortune of some affects others, namely whether war photography and war paintings may be helpful as anti-war tools or, whether they only serve some sense of schadenfreude in some viewers.

Philosopher and sociologist Theodor Adorno defined schadenfreude as "... largely unanticipated delight in the suffering of another, which is cognized as trivial and/or appropriate."[30]

Scientific studies[edit]

A New York Times article in 2002 cited a number of scientific studies of schadenfreude, which it defined as, "delighting in others' misfortune". Many such studies are based on social comparison theory, the idea that when people around us have bad luck, we look better to ourselves. Other researchers have found that people with low self-esteem are more likely to feel schadenfreude than are people who have high self-esteem.[31]

A 2003 study examined intergroup schadenfreude within the context of sports, specifically an international football (soccer) competition. The study focused on the German and Dutch football teams and their fans. The results of this study indicated that the emotion of schadenfreude is very sensitive to circumstances that make it more or less legitimate to feel such malicious pleasure towards a sports rival.[32]

A 2006 experiment about justice served suggests that men, but not women, enjoy seeing bad people suffer. The study was designed to measure empathy, by watching which brain centers are stimulated when subjects inside an fMRI observe someone experiencing physical pain. Researchers expected that the brain's empathy center of subjects would show more stimulation when those seen as good got an electric shock than would occur if the shock was given to someone the subject had reason to consider bad. This was indeed the case, but for male subjects, the brain's pleasure centers also lit up when someone got a shock that the male thought was well-deserved. This is however is not exactly a test about schadenfreude because it is not isolated examples of joy in other peoples suffering.[33]

Brain-scanning studies show that schadenfreude is correlated with envy in subjects. Strong feelings of envy activated physical pain nodes in the brain's dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; the brain's reward centers, such as the ventral striatum, were activated by news that the people envied had suffered misfortune. The magnitude of the brain's schadenfreude response could even be predicted from the strength of the previous envy response.[34][35]

A 2009 study indicates that the hormone oxytocin may be involved in the feeling of schadenfreude.[36] In that study, it was reported that when participants in a game of chance were pitted against a player they considered arrogant, inhaling oxytocin through the nose enhanced their feelings of schadenfreude when their opponent lost as well as their feelings of envy when their opponent won.

A study conducted in 2009 by Combs et al. provides evidence for people's capacity to feel schadenfreude in response to negative events in politics.[37] The study was designed to determine whether or not there was a possibility that events containing objective misfortunes might produce schadenfreude. It was reported in the study that the likelihood of experiencing feelings of schadenfreude depends upon whether an individual's own party or the opposing party is suffering harm. This study suggests that the domain of politics is prime territory for feelings of schadenfreude, especially for those who identify strongly with their political party.

In popular culture[edit]

The word schadenfreude became increasingly known in popular culture after it appeared in an episode of The Simpsons. Lisa asks Homer if he has ever heard of schadenfreude after he expresses delight that Ned's business is failing. Defining it for him, she says, "It's a German term for 'shameful joy', taking pleasure in the suffering of others."[38][39]

In the 2003 Tony Award-winning musical Avenue Q, the song "Schadenfreude" parodies the language instruction songs of Sesame Street.[40] The song, sung by characters Gary Coleman and Nicky, describes schadenfreude as "German for 'happiness at the misfortune of others'". In the song, schadenfreude is also described as "making me feel glad that I'm not you" and "people taking pleasure in your pain". The characters use examples like "D'ja ever clap when a waitress falls and drops a tray of glasses?" and "Don'tcha feel all warm and cozy, watching people out in the rain?" as being schadenfreude.[41]

A 2005 episode of the television drama Boston Legal carries the term as its title. In the episode attorney Alan Shore describes this condition to a jury in order to describe the only way they could possibly attain a guilty verdict against his client.

A 2005 episode of the television police drama Cold Case also carries the term as its title. The episode describes this condition as the media's mobile for the quickened prosecution of a doctor on his wife's murder and the re-opening of the case years later after new evidence comes to light.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary.
  2. ^ Liddell-Scott-Jones, A Greek–English Lexicon s.v.
  3. ^ Shipley, Joseph T. (1955). Dictionary of Early English. Philosophical Library. ISBN 978-0-8065-2926-4. 
  4. ^ Novobatzky, Peter; Shea , Ammon (1955). Depraved and Insulting English. Harvest Books. ISBN 978-0-15-601149-5. 
  5. ^ Bailey, Nathan (1737). Universal Etymological English Dictionary. London. 
  6. ^ Bailey, Nathan (1751). Dictionarium Britannicum. London. 
  7. ^ Byrne, Josefa H. (1984). Mrs. Byrne's Dictionary of Unusual, Obscure, and Preposterous Words. Pocket. ISBN 0-671-49782-0. 
  8. ^ "Roman holiday – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  9. ^ definition of morose delectation, Oxford English Dictionary
  10. ^ Prima Secundae Partis, Q. 74, The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Second and Revised Edition, 1920; Literally translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province, Online Edition Copyright © 2006 by Kevin Knight.
  11. ^ Chapter 6 Proposing the Story of the World, Richard John Neuhaus, Catholic Matters: Confusion, Controversy, and the Splendor of Truth, Basic Books, 2006.
  12. ^ Heterodox Religion and Post-Atheism: Bataille / Klossowski/ Foucault, Jones Irwin, ISSN 1393-614X Minerva – An Internet Journal of Philosophy Vol. 10 2006.
  13. ^ Klossowski, Pierre. 1991. Sade, My Neighbour, translated by Alphonso Lingis. Illinois. Northwestern University Press.
  14. ^ Dictionary definition of gloat'
  15. ^ The Upside of Shadenfreude, Joshua Zader, Mudita Journal, December 6, 2005.
  16. ^ Are you Schadenfreude or Mudita?, Sirtumble, One of Six Billion..., February 6, 2005.
  17. ^ "Yahoo Groups "worthless word for the day is ... freudenschade"". Groups.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  18. ^ Daily Stanford (2006) "Freudenschade" Archive
  19. ^ http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/leedvermaak
  20. ^ Latest activity 19 hours ago. "Skadden: Power, Money, and the Rise of a Legal Empire (9780374524241): Lincoln Caplan: Books". Amazon.com. ASIN 0374524246. 
  21. ^ "Premium content". Economist.com. 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  22. ^ Bartley Kives (26 May 2013). "When the Ford jokes stop". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  23. ^ Pedrick, Victoria; Oberhelman, Steven M. (2006). The Soul of Tragedy: Essays on Athenian Drama. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-65306-8. 
  24. ^ Nicomachean Ethics, 2.7.1108b1-10
  25. ^ Patrick O'Brian's usage of the tag in his Aubrey-Maturin historical novels is reflected in Dean King's companion lexicon A Sea of Words (3rd ed.2000).
  26. ^ Dialogus miraculorum, IV, 23.
  27. ^ Robert Burton (1621). The Anatomy of Melancholy. pp. t. 1, sect. 1, memb. 2, subsect. 8. 
  28. ^ Schopenhauer, Arthur. "The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer On Human Nature". On Human Nature. "But it is Schadenfreude, a mischievous delight in the misfortunes of others, which remains the worst trait in human nature. It is a feeling which is closely akin to cruelty, and differs from it, to say the truth, only as theory from practice." 
  29. ^ Harold S. Kushner (1981). When Bad Things Happen to Good People. first published by Schocken Books. p. 39. 
  30. ^ Cited in Portmann, John (2000). When bad things happen to other people. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92335-2. 
  31. ^ St. John, Warren (24 August 2002). "Sorrow So Sweet: A Guilty Pleasure in Another's Woe". The New York Times. 
  32. ^ Leach, C.,; Spears, R.; Branscombe, N. R.; Doosje, B. (2003). "Malicious pleasure: Schadenfreude at the suffering of another group". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84 (5): 932–943. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.5.932. 
  33. ^ Singer T, Seymour B, O'Doherty JP, Stephan KE, Dolan RJ, Frith CD (January 2006). "Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others". Nature 439 (7075): 466–9. doi:10.1038/nature04271. PMC 2636868. PMID 16421576.  Lay-summary
  34. ^ Takahashi, H.; Kato, M.; Matsuura, M.; Mobbs, D.; Suhara, T.; Okubo, Y. (2009-02-13). "When Your Gain Is My Pain and Your Pain Is My Gain: Neural Correlates of Envy and Schadenfreude". Science 323 (5916): 937–9. doi:10.1126/science.1165604. PMID 19213918. 
  35. ^ Angier, Natalie (17 February 2009). "In Pain and Joy of Envy, the Brain May Play a Role". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ Simone G. Shamay-Tsoorya, et al. (1 November 2009). "Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin Increases Envy and Schadenfreude (Gloating)". Biological Psychiatry 66 (9): 864–870. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.009. PMID 19640508. 
  37. ^ Combs, D. J. Y.; Powell, C. A. J.; Schurtz, D. R.; Smith, R. H. (2009). "Politics, schadenfreude, and ingroup identification: The sometimes happy things about a poor economy and death.". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45: 635–646. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.009. 
  38. ^ Houghton, Des (October 25, 2008). "Greed's end gives birth to joy". The Courier-Mail. p. 056. 
  39. ^ "Sports Local". Bucks County Courier Times. September 28, 2006. p. D12. 
  40. ^ Akerman, Anna. "APS Observer – Sesame Street for Adults: A Review of Avenue Q". Psychologicalscience.org. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  41. ^ "Avenue Q – Wikiquote". En.wikiquote.org. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 

Further reading[edit]

  • The Joy of Pain: Schadenfreude and the Dark Side of Human Nature. Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0-19-973454-2