Schering-Plough

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Schering-Plough Corporation
Former type Subsidiary of Merck & Co.
Industry Pharmaceuticals
Founded 1971 (by merger with Plough, Inc.)
Defunct 2009
Headquarters Kenilworth, New Jersey
Key people Fred Hassan
Final CEO & Chairman
Revenue US$ 18.502 billion (2008)
Net income US$ 1.903 billion (2008)
Website www.schering-plough.com

Schering-Plough Corporation was a United States-based pharmaceutical company. It was founded in 1851 by Ernst Christian Friedrich Schering as Schering AG in Germany. In 1971, the Schering Corporation merged with Plough (founded by Memphis area entrepreneur Abe Plough in 1908)[1] to form Schering-Plough. On November 4, 2009 Merck & Co. merged with Schering-Plough with the new company taking the name of Merck & Co.

Schering-Plough manufactured several pharmaceutical drugs, the most well-known of which were the allergy drugs Claritin and Clarinex, an anti-cholesterol drug Vytorin, and a brain tumor drug Temodar. These are now available from Merck & Co.[2]

Schering Plough also owned and operated the major foot care brand name Dr. Scholl's and the skin care line Coppertone. These also became a part of the new company.[3]

As of June 2005, Schering-Plough had 1.4% market share in the U.S., placing it seventeenth in the top twenty pharmaceutical corporations by sales compiled by IMS Health.

Schering-Plough was a full member of the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA),[4] a membership which is also maintained by the new Merck.[5]

History[edit]

Pharmaceuticals and consumer products[edit]

Schering was founded in 1851 by Ernst Christian Friedrich Schering as Schering AG in Germany.[citation needed]

Following the entry of the United States into World War II in 1941, U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered Schering AG's U.S. assets be seized. These became the Schering Corporation. The company was placed under a government administratorship until 1952, when it was released and its assets sold to the private sector.[citation needed]

In 1957, Schering acquired White Laboratories.[6]

Plough, Incorporated was founded by the Memphis, Tennessee area entrepreneur Abe Plough (1892–1984) in 1908 [1]. He borrowed $125 from his father to start the business at age sixteen. As a one man business, he mixed "Plough's Antiseptic Healing Oil," a "sure cure for any ill of man or beast," and sold it off a horse-drawn buggy.[1] He grew the company through sound management and innovative strategies, with marketing genius.[citation needed]

Plough's acquisitions included St Joseph's Aspirin for children,[1] Maybelline cosmetics, and Coppertone skin care products. Plough also had a broadcasting division, operating radio stations in Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; and Memphis, Tennessee.[7]

In 1971, the Schering Corporation merged with Plough, Inc. At the time of the merger, Abe Plough became Chairman of the combined company.[8]

In 2000, Schering Plough bought a new campus in Summit, New Jersey from Novartis. The company planned to make this location its second-largest corporate complex in the world after completion of its current $20 million renovation.[citation needed]

Schering-Plough was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 and 2005 by Working Mothers magazine.[citation needed]

On March 9, 2009 it was announced that Schering-Plough and Merck were to merge. On November 4, 2009 Schering-Plough merged with Merck & Co. and through a reverse merger Merck became a subsidiary of Schering-Plough, which renamed itself Merck.[9][10][11][12]

Animal health[edit]

Coopers Animal Health[edit]

One of Schering-Plough's plants, in Upper Hutt, New Zealand was the largest single site for the production of veterinary vaccines in the world.[citation needed] This was primarily because New Zealand's isolation has formed a natural quarantine, leaving the country free of rabies, foot and mouth, scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and many other livestock diseases. It formerly had echinococcosis, but this has been eradicated. The site was known locally as Coopers Animal Health, a trademark which was still in use by Schering-Plough in Australia, but not elsewhere.[citation needed]

Intervet[edit]

On 12 March 2007, Schering-Plough Corp. purchased Organon International, the drug unit of Netherlands-based Akzo Nobel, for $14.4 billion, giving the US pharmaceutical company an array of women's health products and numerous late-stage pipelines of experimental medicines.[13]

Organon itself was founded in 1923 by Dr. Saal van Zwanenberg, the president of Zwanenberg’s Slachterijen en Fabrieken. The company is housed at Zwanenberg’s premises in Oss, the Netherlands..[14] By August 21, 2008, Famvir (famciclovir) was marketed by Schering-Plough; formerly it was marketed by Novartis.[citation needed]

As a result of the acquisition of Organon BioSciences, Schering-Plough bolstered its animal health business with the Akzo Nobel subsidiary Intervet, obtained control of the active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturer, Diosynth and gained access to human vaccine production through the subsidiary Nobilon. The three companies comprising Organon BioSciences were--Organon, Diosynth, and Intervet.[13] HomeAgain continues to use the Intervet name owned by Merck.

Merck Animal Health, MSD Animal Health[edit]

After the merger of Schering-Plough with Merck the animal health division was still known as Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health.[15] A merger of Merial and Intervet/Schering-Plough was planned in 2010, but was abandoned in March 2011.[16] On June 29, 2011, the company announced that the animal health division would now be known as Merck Animal Health in the United States and Canada; it is now called MSD Animal Health elsewhere in the world.[17]

Chief executives[edit]

Name Tenure
Willibald H. Cozen 1971 – 1979
Richard J. Bennett 1979 – January 31, 1982
Robert P. Luciano February 1, 1982 – December 31, 1995
Richard J. Kogan January 1, 1996 – April 2003
Fred Hassan April 2003 – November 3, 2009

Medical products[edit]

Prescription products[edit]

Over-the-counter products[edit]

Veterinary products[edit]

Exercise drug[edit]

Schering-Plough also received much publicity for a drug AICAR which mimics the effects of exercise, having especially potent effects when used alongside another drug GW1516 developed by GlaxoSmithKline.[citation needed]

Collaborative research[edit]

In addition to internal research and development activities Schering-Plough was also involved in publicly funded collaborative research projects, with other industrial and academic partners. One example in the area of non-clinical safety assessment was the InnoMed PredTox.[29][30]

Controversy[edit]

In 2004, Schering-Plough was accused of marketing gimmicks and payoffs to doctors for prescribing the company's pharmaceutical products.[31]

Schering-Plough entered into a Consent Decree with the FDA on March 6, 2002 due to manufacturing issues with its albuterol inhaler. It was ordered to pay $500 Million US dollars to the US Treasury.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Abe Plough (1892-1984)," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, online.
  2. ^ "Merck US Prescription Products". Merck.com. Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Merck Consumer Products". Merck.com. Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  4. ^ "The Pharmaceutical Industry in Figures - 2008 Edition". European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA). p. 49. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  5. ^ "Trade Association Memberships". Merck.com. Retrieved November 8, 2010. 
  6. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Schering-Plough_Corp.aspx
  7. ^ Toledo Blade September 15, 1984-Abe Plough (Obituary)
  8. ^ Hoover's Profile: Schering-Plough Corporation
  9. ^ Singer, Natasha (March 10, 2009). "Merck to Buy Schering-Plough for $41.1 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  10. ^ "Merck and Schering-Plough to Complete Merger Today" (Press release). Merck & Co. November 3, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  11. ^ "New Merck Begins Operations" (Press release). Merck & Co. November 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  12. ^ Merck & Company, Inc. (November 12, 2009). "Notice of Reorganization Event" (PDF). Posted on Thomson Reuters web site. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  13. ^ a b "Schering-Plough Acquires Organon BioSciences". Medical Net News. 20 November 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  14. ^ "Organon History 1920's". Organon. Archived from the original on 9 December 2006. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  15. ^ "Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health". Intervet.com. Retrieved November 10, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Merial, Intervet/Schering-Plough Call Off Merger". DVM Newsmagazine. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  17. ^ "Merck Announces New Name for Its Animal Health Division". Merck Animal Health. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  18. ^ Gupta SK, Ellinwood EH; Ellinwood (June 1988). "Liquid chromatographic assay and pharmacokinetics of quazepam and its metabolites following sublingual administration of quazepam" (PDF). Pharm. Res. 5 (6): 365–8. doi:10.1023/A:1015907611170. PMID 3244647. 
  19. ^ "Zubrin". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  20. ^ "Mometamax". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  21. ^ "Feline Products". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  22. ^ "Canine Products". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  23. ^ "Optimmune". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  24. ^ "Orbax". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  25. ^ "Otomax". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  26. ^ "Bantamine Paste". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  27. ^ "Estrumate Prostaglandin". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  28. ^ "Nuflor". Intervet USA. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  29. ^ Mattes, William B. (2008). "Public Consortium Efforts in Toxicogenomics". In Mendrick, Donna L.; Mattes, William B. Essential Concepts in Toxicogenomics. Methods in Molecular Biology 460. pp. 221–238. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-048-9_11. ISBN 978-1-58829-638-2. PMID 18449490.  edit
  30. ^ "InnoMed PredTox Member Organizations". Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  31. ^ Gardiner Harris, "As Doctors Write Prescriptions, Drug Company Writes a Check", New York Times (June 27, 2004)

External links[edit]