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Schiavone (singular; plural Schiavoni) is an Italian ethnonym literally meaning "Slavs" in Old Italian: originally, this term indicated origins in the Slavic lands of Dalmatia and Istria (in present-day Croatia), when under the rule of the Republic of Venice. Today it is an Italian surname.
The importance of Schiavoni's role in the Venetian Republic is best shown by the name of one of the main streets in Venice, Riva degli Schiavoni, just in front of the Doge Palace and San Marco Square.
A number of artists who worked in Italy who were of Dalmatian Slavic descent were nicknamed Schiavone by their origin: most famous among them are Giulio Clovio (Julije Klović), Francesco Laurana (Frane Vranjanin) and Luciano Laurana (Lucijan Vranjanin). Andrea Meldolla (Andrija Medulić) was an example of a person from Dalmatia who wasn't of any known Slavic descent, but was still called Schiavone. Also, referring to artists from Dalmatia by using their place of origin as a surname was common in Italy at the time, for example in cases of Giovanni Dalmata (Ivan Duknović) or Giorgio da Sebenico (Juraj Dalmatinac).
In Italy, the surname Schiavone (Italian pronunciation: [skjaˈvone]) mostly occurs in the southern regions of the mainland, namely Campania and Puglia, but it is also common in Rome, Turin, Milan, and Syracuse. Branches of the Schiavone family can also be found in Argentina, Malta, Uruguay, United Kingdom, the Philippines and the United States.
- Ginestra degli Schiavoni, a village in Campania, Italy
- Riva degli Schiavoni, a promenade in Venice, Italy
- San Giacomo degli Schiavoni, a village in Molise, Italy
- Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, a historical building in Venice, Italy
- Villa Schiavoni near Nepezzano, Teramo, Abruzzo, Italy
- Andrea Schiavone, Venetian artist
- Assunta De Rossi (born 1983), Philippine actress, real name Assunta Schiavone
- Alessandra De Rossi (born 1984), Philippine actress, real name Alessandra Schiavone, younger sister of Assunta de Rossi
- Dave Schiavone, American jazz saxophonist
- Francesca Schiavone, (born 1980), Italian tennis player
- Francesco Schiavone, (born 1953), member of the Camorra crime syndicate
- Giorgio Schiavone (Juraj Ćulinović, 1433-1504) Dalmatian painter, active in Padua, Italy
- Joe Schiavoni, American politician
- Joseph J. Schiavone, (born 1955), Arbitrationist
- Luigi Schiavone, Italian guitarist
- Louise Schiavone, American journalist
- Patricio Schiavone, (born 1985), Argentine actor
- Patrick Schiavone, American Ford F-150 designer
- Tony Schiavone (born 1964), American professional wrestling announcer
- David Schiavone, Scottish sports journalist
- Gretta Schiavone, of the singing group The Laurie Sisters
- Phyllis Schiavone, of the singing group The Laurie Sisters
- Carolyn Schiavone, of the singing group The Laurie Sisters
- Michael Schiavone, Italian-American Casting Director.