|Classification and external resources|
Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
Schizophrenia (// or //) is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by impaired emotional responses. Common symptoms include delusions, such as paranoid beliefs; hallucinations; disorganized thinking; and negative symptoms, such as blunted affect and avolition. Schizophrenia causes significant social and vocational dysfunction. Symptom onset typically occurs in young adulthood, with a global lifetime prevalence of about 0.3–0.7%. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences.
Genetics, early environment, neurobiology, and psychological and social processes appear to be important contributory factors; some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Current research is focused on the role of neurobiology, although no single isolated organic cause has been found. The many possible combinations of symptoms have triggered debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes. Despite the origin of the term from the Greek roots skhizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-; "mind"), schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality", or "multiple personality disorder" (which is known these days as dissociative identity disorder)—a condition with which it is often confused in public perception. Rather, the term means a "splitting of mental functions", because of the symptomatic presentation of the illness.
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, which primarily suppresses dopamine (and sometimes serotonin) receptor activity. Psychotherapy and vocational and social rehabilitation are also important in treatment. In more serious cases—where there is risk to self and others—involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.
The disorder is thought mainly to affect cognition, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional (comorbid) conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders; the lifetime occurrence of substance use disorder is almost 50%. Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness are common. The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 12 to 15 years less than those without, the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).
- 1 Symptoms
- 2 Causes
- 3 Mechanisms
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Management
- 7 Prognosis
- 8 Epidemiology
- 9 History
- 10 Society and culture
- 11 Research directions
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Individuals with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (most reported are hearing voices), delusions (often bizarre or persecutory in nature), and disorganized thinking and speech. The latter may range from loss of train of thought, to sentences only loosely connected in meaning, to incoherence known as word salad in severe cases. Social withdrawal, sloppiness of dress and hygiene, and loss of motivation and judgment are all common in schizophrenia. There is often an observable pattern of emotional difficulty, for example lack of responsiveness. Impairment in social cognition is associated with schizophrenia, as are symptoms of paranoia; social isolation commonly occurs. Difficulties in working and long-term memory, attention, executive functioning, and speed of processing also commonly occur. In one uncommon subtype, the person may be largely mute, remain motionless in bizarre postures, or exhibit purposeless agitation, all signs of catatonia. About 30% to 50% of people with schizophrenia do not have insight; in other words, they do not accept their condition or its treatment. Treatment may have some effect on insight. People with schizophrenia often find facial emotion perception to be difficult.
Positive and negative
Schizophrenia is often described in terms of positive and negative (or deficit) symptoms. Positive symptoms are those that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia. They can include delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and tactile, auditory, visual, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis. Hallucinations are also typically related to the content of the delusional theme. Positive symptoms generally respond well to medication.
Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond less well to medication. They commonly include flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), lack of desire to form relationships (asociality), and lack of motivation (avolition). Research suggests that negative symptoms contribute more to poor quality of life, functional disability, and the burden on others than do positive symptoms. People with prominent negative symptoms often have a history of poor adjustment before the onset of illness, and response to medication is often limited.
Late adolescence and early adulthood are peak periods for the onset of schizophrenia, critical years in a young adult's social and vocational development. In 40% of men and 23% of women diagnosed with schizophrenia, the condition manifested itself before the age of 19. To minimize the developmental disruption associated with schizophrenia, much work has recently been done to identify and treat the prodromal (pre-onset) phase of the illness, which has been detected up to 30 months before the onset of symptoms. Those who go on to develop schizophrenia may experience transient or self-limiting psychotic symptoms and the non-specific symptoms of social withdrawal, irritability, dysphoria, and clumsiness during the prodromal phase.
A combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of schizophrenia. People with a family history of schizophrenia who have a transient psychosis have a 20–40% chance of being diagnosed one year later.
Estimates of heritability vary because of the difficulty in separating the effects of genetics and the environment; averages of 0.80 have been given. The greatest risk for developing schizophrenia is having a first-degree relative with the disease (risk is 6.5%); more than 40% of monozygotic twins of those with schizophrenia are also affected. If one parent is affected the risk is about 13% and if both are affected the risk is nearly 50%.
It is likely that many genes are involved, each of small effect and unknown transmission and expression. Many possible candidates have been proposed, including specific copy number variations, NOTCH4, and histone protein loci. A number of genome-wide associations such as zinc finger protein 804A have also been linked. There appears to be significant overlap in the genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Evidence is emerging that the genetic architecture of schizophrenia involved both common and rare risk variation.
Assuming a hereditary basis, one question from evolutionary psychology is why genes that increase the likelihood of psychosis evolved, assuming the condition would have been maladaptive from an evolutionary point of view. One idea is that genes are involved in the evolution of language and human nature, but to date such ideas remain little more than hypothetical in nature.
Environmental factors associated with the development of schizophrenia include the living environment, drug use and prenatal stressors. Parenting style seems to have no major effect, although people with supportive parents do better than those with critical or hostile parents. Living in an urban environment during childhood or as an adult has consistently been found to increase the risk of schizophrenia by a factor of two, even after taking into account drug use, ethnic group, and size of social group. Other factors that play an important role include social isolation and immigration related to social adversity, racial discrimination, family dysfunction, unemployment, and poor housing conditions.
Amphetamine, cocaine, and to a lesser extent alcohol, can result in psychosis that presents very similarly to schizophrenia. Although it is not generally believed to be a cause of the illness, people with schizophrenia use nicotine at much greater rates than the general population. About half of those with schizophrenia use drugs or alcohol excessively. Evidence supports a link between earlier onset of psychotic illness and cannabis use; alcohol use is not associated with an earlier onset of psychosis. Other drugs may be used only as coping mechanisms by individuals who have schizophrenia to deal with depression, anxiety, boredom, and loneliness. There is evidence that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can occasionally cause the development of a chronic substance induced psychotic disorder, i.e. schizophrenia. The more often cannabis is used, the more likely a person is to develop a psychotic illness, with frequent use being linked with twice the risk of psychosis and schizophrenia. This increased risk may require the presence of certain genes within an individual.
Factors such as hypoxia and infection, or stress and malnutrition in the mother during fetal development, may result in a slight increase in the risk of schizophrenia later in life. People diagnosed with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born in winter or spring (at least in the northern hemisphere), which may be a result of increased rates of viral exposures in utero. The increased risk is about 5 to 8%.
A number of attempts have been made to explain the link between altered brain function and schizophrenia. One of the most common is the dopamine hypothesis, which attributes psychosis to the mind's faulty interpretation of the misfiring of dopaminergic neurons.
Many psychological mechanisms have been implicated in the development and maintenance of schizophrenia. Cognitive biases have been identified in those with the diagnosis or those at risk, especially when under stress or in confusing situations. Some cognitive features may reflect global neurocognitive deficits such as memory loss, while others may be related to particular issues and experiences.
Despite a demonstrated appearance of blunted affect, recent findings indicate that many individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are emotionally responsive, particularly to stressful or negative stimuli, and that such sensitivity may cause vulnerability to symptoms or to the disorder. Some evidence suggests that the content of delusional beliefs and psychotic experiences can reflect emotional causes of the disorder, and that how a person interprets such experiences can influence symptomatology. The use of "safety behaviors" to avoid imagined threats may contribute to the chronicity of delusions. Further evidence for the role of psychological mechanisms comes from the effects of psychotherapies on symptoms of schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is associated with subtle differences in brain structures, found in 40 to 50% of cases, and in brain chemistry during acute psychotic states. Studies using neuropsychological tests and brain imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET to examine functional differences in brain activity have shown that differences seem to most commonly occur in the frontal lobes, hippocampus and temporal lobes. Reductions in brain volume, smaller than those found in Alzheimer's disease, have been reported in areas of the frontal cortex and temporal lobes. It is uncertain whether these volumetric changes are progressive or preexist prior to the onset of the disease. These differences have been linked to the neurocognitive deficits often associated with schizophrenia. Because neural circuits are altered, it has alternatively been suggested that schizophrenia should be thought of as a collection of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Particular attention has been paid to the function of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain. This focus largely resulted from the accidental finding that phenothiazine drugs, which block dopamine function, could reduce psychotic symptoms. It is also supported by the fact that amphetamines, which trigger the release of dopamine, may exacerbate the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The influential dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia proposed that excessive activation of D2 receptors was the cause of (the positive symptoms of) schizophrenia. Although postulated for about 20 years based on the D2 blockade effect common to all antipsychotics, it was not until the mid-1990s that PET and SPET imaging studies provided supporting evidence. The dopamine hypothesis is now thought to be simplistic, partly because newer antipsychotic medication (atypical antipsychotic medication) can be just as effective as older medication (typical antipsychotic medication), but also affects serotonin function and may have slightly less of a dopamine blocking effect.
Interest has also focused on the neurotransmitter glutamate and the reduced function of the NMDA glutamate receptor in schizophrenia, largely because of the abnormally low levels of glutamate receptors found in the postmortem brains of those diagnosed with schizophrenia, and the discovery that glutamate-blocking drugs such as phencyclidine and ketamine can mimic the symptoms and cognitive problems associated with the condition. Reduced glutamate function is linked to poor performance on tests requiring frontal lobe and hippocampal function, and glutamate can affect dopamine function, both of which have been implicated in schizophrenia, have suggested an important mediating (and possibly causal) role of glutamate pathways in the condition. But positive symptoms fail to respond to glutamatergic medication.
Schizophrenia is diagnosed based on criteria in either the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5), or the World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). These criteria use the self-reported experiences of the person and reported abnormalities in behavior, followed by a clinical assessment by a mental health professional. Symptoms associated with schizophrenia occur along a continuum in the population and must reach a certain severity before a diagnosis is made. As of 2013 there is no objective test.
In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association released the fifth edition of the DSM (DSM-5). The definition of schizophrenia remained essentially the same as that specified by the 2000 version of DSM (DSM-IV-TR), but DSM-5 makes a number of changes.
- Subtype classifications – such as catatonic and paranoid schizophrenia – are removed. These were retained in previous revisions largely for reasons of tradition, but had subsequently proved to be of little worth.
- Catatonia is no longer so strongly associated with schizophrenia.
- In describing a person's schizophrenia, it is recommended that a better distinction be made between the current state of the condition and its historical progress, to achieve a clearer overall characterization.
- Special treatment of Schneider's first-rank symptoms is no longer recommended.
- Schizoaffective disorder is better defined to demarcate it more cleanly from schizophrenia.
- An assessment covering eight domains of psychopathology – such as whether hallucination or mania is experienced – is recommended to help clinical decision-making.
In the older, fourth revised edition of the DSM (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, three diagnostic criteria had to be met. The first involved characteristic symptoms being present for some period of time. The second was a significant impact on social or occupational functioning. The third was that the symptoms had been present for a significant duration.
The ICD-10 criteria are typically used in European countries, while the DSM-IV-TR criteria are used in the United States and to varying degrees around the world, and are prevailing in research studies. The ICD-10 criteria put more emphasis on Schneiderian first-rank symptoms. In practice, agreement between the two systems is high.
If signs of disturbance are present for more than a month but less than six months, the diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder is applied. Psychotic symptoms lasting less than a month may be diagnosed as brief psychotic disorder, and various conditions may be classed as psychotic disorder not otherwise specified. Schizophrenia cannot be diagnosed if symptoms of mood disorder are substantially present (although schizoaffective disorder could be diagnosed), or if symptoms of pervasive developmental disorder are present unless prominent delusions or hallucinations are also present, or if the symptoms are the direct physiological result of a general medical condition or a substance, such as abuse of a drug or medication.
- Paranoid type: Delusions or auditory hallucinations are present, but thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or affective flattening are not. Delusions are persecutory and/or grandiose, but in addition to these, other themes such as jealousy, religiosity, or somatization may also be present. (DSM code 295.3/ICD code F20.0)
- Disorganized type: Named hebephrenic schizophrenia in the ICD. Where thought disorder and flat affect are present together. (DSM code 295.1/ICD code F20.1)
- Catatonic type: The subject may be almost immobile or exhibit agitated, purposeless movement. Symptoms can include catatonic stupor and waxy flexibility. (DSM code 295.2/ICD code F20.2)
- Undifferentiated type: Psychotic symptoms are present but the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic types have not been met. (DSM code 295.9/ICD code F20.3)
- Residual type: Where positive symptoms are present at a low intensity only. (DSM code 295.6/ICD code F20.5)
The ICD-10 defines two additional subtypes:
- Post-schizophrenic depression: A depressive episode arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness where some low-level schizophrenic symptoms may still be present. (ICD code F20.4)
- Simple schizophrenia: Insidious and progressive development of prominent negative symptoms with no history of psychotic episodes. (ICD code F20.6)
Psychotic symptoms may be present in several other mental disorders, including bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, drug intoxication and drug-induced psychosis. Delusions ("non-bizarre") are also present in delusional disorder, and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder, avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizotypal personality disorder has symptoms that are similar but less severe than those of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia occurs along with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) considerably more often than could be explained by chance, although it can be difficult to distinguish obsessions that occur in OCD from the delusions of schizophrenia. A small number of people withdrawing from benzodiazepines experience a severe protracted withdrawal syndrome which can resemble schizophrenia and be misdiagnosed as such.
A more general medical and neurological examination may be needed to rule out medical illnesses which may rarely produce psychotic schizophrenia-like symptoms, such as metabolic disturbance, systemic infection, syphilis, HIV infection, epilepsy, and brain lesions. Stroke, multiple sclerosis, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, frontotemporal dementia and Lewy Body dementia may also be associated with schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms. It may be necessary to rule out a delirium, which can be distinguished by visual hallucinations, acute onset and fluctuating level of consciousness, and indicates an underlying medical illness. Investigations are not generally repeated for relapse unless there is a specific medical indication or possible adverse effects from antipsychotic medication. In children hallucinations must be separated from normal childhood fantasies.
Prevention of schizophrenia is difficult as there are no reliable markers for the later development of the disease. The evidence for the effectiveness of early interventions to prevent schizophrenia is inconclusive. While there is some evidence that early intervention in those with a psychotic episode may improve short-term outcomes, there is little benefit from these measures after five years. Attempting to prevent schizophrenia in the prodrome phase is of uncertain benefit and therefore as of 2009 is not recommended. Cognitive behavioral therapy may reduce the risk of psychosis in those at high risk after a year. Another preventative measure is to avoid drugs that have been associated with development of the disorder, including cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines.
The primary treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic medications, often in combination with psychological and social supports. Hospitalization may occur for severe episodes either voluntarily or (if mental health legislation allows it) involuntarily. Long-term hospitalization is uncommon since deinstitutionalization beginning in the 1950s, although it still occurs. Community support services including drop-in centers, visits by members of a community mental health team, supported employment and support groups are common. Some evidence indicates that regular exercise has a positive effect on the physical and mental health of those with schizophrenia.
The first-line psychiatric treatment for schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication, which can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis in about 7–14 days. Antipsychotics, however, fail to significantly ameliorate the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. In those on antipsychotics, continued use decreases the risk of relapse. There is little evidence regarding consistent benefits from their use beyond two or three years.
The choice of which antipsychotic to use is based on benefits, risks, and costs. It is debatable whether, as a class, typical or atypical antipsychotics are better. Both have equal drop-out and symptom relapse rates when typicals are used at low to moderate dosages. There is a good response in 40–50%, a partial response in 30–40%, and treatment resistance (failure of symptoms to respond satisfactorily after six weeks to two or three different antipsychotics) in 20% of people. Clozapine is an effective treatment for those who respond poorly to other drugs ("treatment-resistant" or "refractory" schizophrenia), but it has the potentially serious side effect of agranulocytosis (lowered white blood cell count) in less than 4% of people.
With respect to side effects typical antipsychotics are associated with a higher rate of extrapyramidal side effects while atypicals are associated with considerable weight gain, diabetes and risk of metabolic syndrome. While atypicals have fewer extrapyramidal side effects these differences are modest. It remains unclear whether the newer antipsychotics reduce the chances of developing neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a rare but serious neurological disorder.
For people who are unwilling or unable to take medication regularly, long-acting depot preparations of antipsychotics may be used to achieve control. They reduce the risk of relapse to a greater degree than oral medications. When used in combination with psychosocial interventions they may improve long-term adherence to treatment. The American Psychiatric Association suggests considering stopping antipsychotics in some people if there are no symptoms for more than a year.
A number of psychosocial interventions may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenia including: family therapy, assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive remediation, skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), token economic interventions, and psychosocial interventions for substance use and weight management. Family therapy or education, which addresses the whole family system of an individual, may reduce relapses and hospitalizations. The evidence for CBT's effectiveness in either reducing symptoms or preventing relapse is minimal. Art or drama therapy have not been well-researched.
Schizophrenia has great human and economic costs. It results in a decreased life expectancy of 12–15 years, primarily because of its association with obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and smoking, with an increased rate of suicide playing a lesser role. These differences in life expectancy increased between the 1970s and 1990s.
Schizophrenia is a major cause of disability, with active psychosis ranked as the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness. Approximately three-fourths of people with schizophrenia have ongoing disability with relapses and 16.7 million people globally are deemed to have moderate or severe disability from the condition. Some people do recover completely and others function well in society. Most people with schizophrenia live independently with community support. In people with a first episode of psychosis a good long-term outcome occurs in 42%, an intermediate outcome in 35% and a poor outcome in 27%. Outcomes for schizophrenia appear better in the developing than the developed world. These conclusions, however, have been questioned.
There is a higher than average suicide rate associated with schizophrenia. This has been cited at 10%, but a more recent analysis revises the estimate to 4.9%, most often occurring in the period following onset or first hospital admission. Several times more (20 to 40%) attempt suicide at least once. There are a variety of risk factors, including male gender, depression, and a high intelligence quotient.
Schizophrenia and smoking have shown a strong association in studies world-wide. Use of cigarettes is especially high in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, with estimates ranging from 80% to 90% being regular smokers, as compared to 20% of the general population. Those who smoke tend to smoke heavily, and additionally smoke cigarettes with high nicotine content. Some evidence suggests that paranoid schizophrenia may have a better prospect than other types of schizophrenia for independent living and occupational functioning.
Schizophrenia affects around 0.3–0.7% of people at some point in their life, or 24 million people worldwide as of 2011. It occurs 1.4 times more frequently in males than females and typically appears earlier in men—the peak ages of onset are 20–28 years for males and 26–32 years for females. Onset in childhood is much rarer, as is onset in middle- or old age. Despite the received wisdom that schizophrenia occurs at similar rates worldwide, its frequency varies across the world, within countries, and at the local and neighborhood level. It causes approximately 1% of worldwide disability adjusted life years and resulted in 20,000 deaths in 2010. The rate of schizophrenia varies up to threefold depending on how it is defined.
In 2000, the World Health Organization found the prevalence and incidence of schizophrenia to be roughly similar around the world, with age-standardized prevalence per 100,000 ranging from 343 in Africa to 544 in Japan and Oceania for men and from 378 in Africa to 527 in Southeastern Europe for women.
In the early 20th century, the psychiatrist Kurt Schneider listed the forms of psychotic symptoms that he thought distinguished schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. These are called first-rank symptoms or Schneider's first-rank symptoms. They include delusions of being controlled by an external force; the belief that thoughts are being inserted into or withdrawn from one's conscious mind; the belief that one's thoughts are being broadcast to other people; and hearing hallucinatory voices that comment on one's thoughts or actions or that have a conversation with other hallucinated voices. Although they have significantly contributed to the current diagnostic criteria, the specificity of first-rank symptoms has been questioned. A review of the diagnostic studies conducted between 1970 and 2005 found that they allow neither a reconfirmation nor a rejection of Schneider's claims, and suggested that first-rank symptoms should be de-emphasized in future revisions of diagnostic systems.
The history of schizophrenia is complex and does not lend itself easily to a linear narrative. Accounts of a schizophrenia-like syndrome are thought to be rare in historical records before the 19th century, although reports of irrational, unintelligible, or uncontrolled behavior were common. A detailed case report in 1797 concerning James Tilly Matthews, and accounts by Phillipe Pinel published in 1809, are often regarded as the earliest cases of the illness in the medical and psychiatric literature. The Latinized term dementia praecox was first used by German alienist Heinrich Schule in 1886 and then in 1891 by Arnold Pick in a case report of a psychotic disorder (hebephrenia). In 1893 Emil Kraepelin borrowed the term from Schule and Pick and in 1899 introduced a broad new distinction in the classification of mental disorders between dementia praecox and mood disorder (termed manic depression and including both unipolar and bipolar depression). Kraepelin believed that dementia praecox was probably caused by a long-term, smouldering systemic or "whole body" disease process that affected many organs and peripheral nerves in the body but which affected the brain after puberty in a final decisive cascade. His use of the term dementia distinguished it from other forms of dementia such as Alzheimer's disease which typically occur later in life. It is sometimes argued that the use of the term démence précoce in 1852 by the French physician Bénédict Morel constitutes the medical discovery of schizophrenia. However this account ignores the fact that there is little to connect Morel's descriptive use of the term and the independent development of the dementia praecox disease concept at the end of the nineteenth-century.
The word schizophrenia—which translates roughly as "splitting of the mind" and comes from the Greek roots schizein (σχίζειν, "to split") and phrēn, phren- (φρήν, φρεν-, "mind")—was coined by Eugen Bleuler in 1908 and was intended to describe the separation of function between personality, thinking, memory, and perception. American and British interpretations of Beuler led to the claim that he described its main symptoms as 4 A's: flattened Affect, Autism, impaired Association of ideas and Ambivalence. Bleuler realized that the illness was not a dementia, as some of his patients improved rather than deteriorated, and thus proposed the term schizophrenia instead. Treatment was revolutionized in the mid-1950s with the development and introduction of chlorpromazine.
In the early 1970s, the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were the subject of a number of controversies which eventually led to the operational criteria used today. It became clear after the 1971 US-UK Diagnostic Study that schizophrenia was diagnosed to a far greater extent in America than in Europe. This was partly due to looser diagnostic criteria in the US, which used the DSM-II manual, contrasting with Europe and its ICD-9. David Rosenhan's 1972 study, published in the journal Science under the title "On being sane in insane places", concluded that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the US was often subjective and unreliable. These were some of the factors leading to the revision not only of the diagnosis of schizophrenia, but the revision of the whole DSM manual, resulting in the publication of the DSM-III in 1980. The term schizophrenia is commonly misunderstood to mean that affected persons have a "split personality". Although some people diagnosed with schizophrenia may hear voices and may experience the voices as distinct personalities, schizophrenia does not involve a person changing among distinct multiple personalities. The confusion arises in part due to the literal interpretation of Bleuler's term schizophrenia (Bleuler originally associated Schizophrenia with dissociation and included split personality in his category of Schizophrenia). Dissociative identity disorder (having a "split personality") was also often misdiagnosed as Schizophrenia based on the loose criteria in the DSM-II. The first known misuse of the term to mean "split personality" was in an article by the poet T. S. Eliot in 1933. Other scholars have traced earlier roots.
Society and culture
In 2002 the term for schizophrenia in Japan was changed from Seishin-Bunretsu-Byō 精神分裂病 (mind-split-disease) to Tōgō-shitchō-shō 統合失調症 (integration disorder) to reduce stigma. The new name was inspired by the biopsychosocial model; it increased the percentage of patients who were informed of the diagnosis from 37% to 70% over three years.
In the United States, the cost of schizophrenia—including direct costs (outpatient, inpatient, drugs, and long-term care) and non-health care costs (law enforcement, reduced workplace productivity, and unemployment)—was estimated to be $62.7 billion in 2002. The book and film A Beautiful Mind chronicles the life of John Forbes Nash, a Nobel Prize-winning mathematician who was diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Individuals with severe mental illness including schizophrenia are at a significantly greater risk of being victims of both violent and non-violent crime. Schizophrenia has been associated with a higher rate of violent acts, although this is primarily due to higher rates of drug use. Rates of homicide linked to psychosis are similar to those linked to substance misuse, and parallel the overall rate in a region. What role schizophrenia has on violence independent of drug misuse is controversial, but certain aspects of individual histories or mental states may be factors.
Media coverage relating to violent acts by schizophrenic individuals reinforces public perception of an association between schizophrenia and violence. In a large, representative sample from a 1999 study, 12.8% of Americans believed that individuals with schizophrenia were "very likely" to do something violent against others, and 48.1% said that they were "somewhat likely" to. Over 74% said that people with schizophrenia were either "not very able" or "not able at all" to make decisions concerning their treatment, and 70.2% said the same of money management decisions. The perception of individuals with psychosis as violent has more than doubled in prevalence since the 1950s, according to one meta-analysis.
Research has found a tentative benefit in using minocycline to treat schizophrenia. Nidotherapy or efforts to change the environment of people with schizophrenia to improve their ability to function, is also being studied; however, there is not enough evidence yet to make conclusions about its effectiveness.
- "Schizophrenia" Concise Medical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online, prepaid subscription.
- van Os J, Kapur S. Schizophrenia. Lancet. 2009;374(9690):635–45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60995-8. PMID 19700006.
- Picchioni MM, Murray RM. Schizophrenia. BMJ. 2007;335(7610):91–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.39227.616447.BE. PMID 17626963.
- Baucum, Don. Psychology. 2nd ed. H auppauge, N.Y.: Barron's; 2006. ISBN 9780764134210. p. 182.
- Becker T, Kilian R. Psychiatric services for people with severe mental illness across western Europe: what can be generalized from current knowledge about differences in provision, costs and outcomes of mental health care?. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplement. 2006;113(429):9–16. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00711.x. PMID 16445476.
- Buckley PF, Miller BJ, Lehrer DS, Castle DJ. Psychiatric comorbidities and schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2009;35(2):383–402. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn135. PMID 19011234.
- Hor K, Taylor M. Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2010 Nov;24(4 Suppl):81-90. PMID 20923923.
- Carson VB (2000). Mental health nursing: the nurse-patient journey W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-8053-8. p. 638.
- Schizophrenia. Wiley-Blackwell; 2003. ISBN 978-0-632-06388-8. p. 21.
- Brunet-Gouet E, Decety J. Social brain dysfunctions in schizophrenia: a review of neuroimaging studies. Psychiatry Res. 2006;148(2–3):75–92. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2006.05.001. PMID 17088049.
- Schizophrenia. Wiley-Blackwell; 2003. ISBN 978-0-632-06388-8. p. 481.
- Ungvari GS, Caroff SN, Gerevich J. The catatonia conundrum: evidence of psychomotor phenomena as a symptom dimension in psychotic disorders. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36(2):231–8. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp105. PMID 19776208.
- Baier M. Insight in schizophrenia: a review. Current psychiatry reports. 2010 Aug;12(4):356–61. doi:10.1007/s11920-010-0125-7. PMID 20526897.
- Pijnenborg GH, van Donkersgoed RJ, David AS, Aleman A. Changes in insight during treatment for psychotic disorders: a meta-analysis. Schizophrenia research. 2013 Mar;144(1–3):109–17. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2012.11.018. PMID 23305612.
- Kohler CG, Walker JB, Martin EA, Healey KM, Moberg PJ. Facial emotion perception in schizophrenia: a meta-analytic review. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36(5):1009–19. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn192. PMID 19329561. PMC 2930336.
- Sims A. Symptoms in the mind: an introduction to descriptive psychopathology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 2002. ISBN 0-7020-2627-1.
- Kneisl C. and Trigoboff E.(2009). Contemporary Psychiatric- Mental Health Nursing. 2nd edition. London: Pearson Prentice Ltd. p. 371
- American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6. p. 299
- Velligan DI and Alphs LD. Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: The Importance of Identification and Treatment. Psychiatric Times. March 1, 2008;25(3).
- Smith T, Weston C, Lieberman J. Schizophrenia (maintenance treatment). Am Fam Physician. 2010;82(4):338–9. PMID 20704164.
- Addington J, Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, et al.. North American prodrome longitudinal study: a collaborative multisite approach to prodromal schizophrenia research. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2007;33(3):665–72. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl075. PMID 17255119.
- Cullen KR, Kumra S, Regan J et al.. Atypical Antipsychotics for Treatment of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Psychiatric Times. 2008;25(3).
- Amminger GP, Leicester S, Yung AR, et al.. Early onset of symptoms predicts conversion to non-affective psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals. Schizophrenia Research. 2006;84(1):67–76. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.02.018. PMID 16677803.
- Parnas J, Jorgensen A. Pre-morbid psychopathology in schizophrenia spectrum. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1989;115:623–7. PMID 2611591.
- Coyle, Joseph. Chapter 54: The Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia. In: Siegal, George J et al. Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 7th ed. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2006. ISBN 0-12-088397-X. p. 876–78.
- Drake RJ, Lewis SW. Early detection of schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2005;18(2):147–50. doi:10.1097/00001504-200503000-00007. PMID 16639167.
- O'Donovan MC, Williams NM, Owen MJ. Recent advances in the genetics of schizophrenia. Hum. Mol. Genet.. 2003;12 Spec No 2:R125–33. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg302. PMID 12952866.
- Herson M (2011). "Etiological considerations". Adult psychopathology and diagnosis. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118138847.
- McLaren JA, Silins E, Hutchinson D, Mattick RP, Hall W. Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies. Int. J. Drug Policy. 2010;21(1):10–9. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.09.001. PMID 19783132.
- O'Donovan MC, Craddock NJ, Owen MJ. Genetics of psychosis; insights from views across the genome. Hum. Genet.. 2009;126(1):3–12. doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0703-0. PMID 19521722.
- Craddock N, Owen MJ. The Kraepelinian dichotomy - going, going... But still not gone. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2010;196:92–95. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.073429. PMID 20118450.
- Moore S, Kelleher E, Corvin A.. The shock of the new: progress in schizophrenia genomics. Current Genomics. 2011;12(7):516–24. doi:10.2174/138920211797904089. PMID 22547958.
- Crow TJ. The 'big bang' theory of the origin of psychosis and the faculty of language. Schizophrenia Research. 2008;102(1–3):31–52. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.03.010. PMID 18502103.
- Mueser KT, Jeste DV. Clinical Handbook of Schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Press; 2008. ISBN 1-59385-652-0. p. 22–23.
- Van Os J. Does the urban environment cause psychosis?. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2004;184(4):287–288. doi:10.1192/bjp.184.4.287. PMID 15056569.
- Selten JP, Cantor-Graae E, Kahn RS. Migration and schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2007;20(2):111–115. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e328017f68e. PMID 17278906.
- Larson, Michael (2006-03-30). "Alcohol-Related Psychosis". eMedicine. WebMD. Retrieved September 27, 2006.
- Sagud M, Mihaljević-Peles A, Mück-Seler D, et al.. Smoking and schizophrenia. Psychiatr Danub. 2009;21(3):371–5. PMID 19794359.
- Gregg L, Barrowclough C, Haddock G. Reasons for increased substance use in psychosis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2007;27(4):494–510. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.09.004. PMID 17240501.
- Large M, Sharma S, Compton MT, Slade T, Nielssen O. Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis: a systematic meta-analysis. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2011;68(6):555–61. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.5. PMID 21300939.
- Leweke FM, Koethe D. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders: it is not only addiction. Addict Biol. 2008;13(2):264–75. doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00106.x. PMID 18482435.
- Alcohol-Related Psychosis at eMedicine
- Moore THM, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes A et al.. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet. 2007;370(9584):319–328. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61162-3. PMID 17662880.
- Sewell RA, Ranganathan M, D'Souza DC. Cannabinoids and psychosis. International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 2009 Apr;21(2):152–62. doi:10.1080/09540260902782802. PMID 19367509.
- Chadwick B, Miller ML, Hurd YL. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness. Front Psychiatry. 2013;4:129. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00129. PMID 24133461.
- Yolken R.. Viruses and schizophrenia: a focus on herpes simplex virus.. Herpes. 2004;11(Suppl 2):83A–88A. PMID 15319094.
- Broome MR, Woolley JB, Tabraham P, et al.. What causes the onset of psychosis?. Schizophr. Res.. 2005;79(1):23–34. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.007. PMID 16198238.
- Bentall RP, Fernyhough C, Morrison AP, Lewis S, Corcoran R. Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. Br J Clin Psychol. 2007;46(Pt 2):155–73. doi:10.1348/014466506X123011. PMID 17524210.
- Kurtz MM. Neurocognitive impairment across the lifespan in schizophrenia: an update. Schizophrenia Research. 2005;74(1):15–26. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.07.005. PMID 15694750.
- Cohen AS, Docherty NM. Affective reactivity of speech and emotional experience in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. 2004;69(1):7–14. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00069-0. PMID 15145465.
- Horan WP, Blanchard JJ. Emotional responses to psychosocial stress in schizophrenia: the role of individual differences in affective traits and coping. Schizophrenia Research. 2003;60(2–3):271–83. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00227-X. PMID 12591589.
- Smith B, Fowler DG, Freeman D, et al.. Emotion and psychosis: links between depression, self-esteem, negative schematic beliefs and delusions and hallucinations. Schizophr. Res.. 2006;86(1–3):181–8. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.06.018. PMID 16857346.
- Beck, AT. A Cognitive Model of Schizophrenia. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy. 2004;18(3):281–88. doi:10.1891/jcop.18.3.281.65649.
- Bell V, Halligan PW, Ellis HD. Explaining delusions: a cognitive perspective. Trends in Cognitive Science. 2006;10(5):219–26. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.03.004. PMID 16600666.
- Freeman D, Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Bebbington PE, Dunn G. Acting on persecutory delusions: the importance of safety seeking. Behav Res Ther. 2007;45(1):89–99. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.01.014. PMID 16530161.
- Kuipers E, Garety P, Fowler D, Freeman D, Dunn G, Bebbington P. Cognitive, emotional, and social processes in psychosis: refining cognitive behavioral therapy for persistent positive symptoms. Schizophr Bull. 2006;32 Suppl 1:S24–31. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl014. PMID 16885206.
- Kircher, Tilo and Renate Thienel. The Boundaries of Consciousness. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2006. ISBN 0-444-52876-8. Functional brain imaging of symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia. p. 302.
- Green MF. Cognitive impairment and functional outcome in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2006;67(Suppl 9):3–8. PMID 16965182.
- Insel TR. Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature. 2010;468(7321):187–93. doi:10.1038/nature09552. PMID 21068826.
- Laruelle M, Abi-Dargham A, van Dyck CH, et al.. Single photon emission computerized tomography imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in drug-free schizophrenic subjects. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 1996;93(17):9235–40. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.17.9235. PMID 8799184.
- Jones HM, Pilowsky LS. Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2002;181:271–275. doi:10.1192/bjp.181.4.271. PMID 12356650.
- Konradi C, Heckers S. Molecular aspects of glutamate dysregulation: implications for schizophrenia and its treatment. Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2003;97(2):153–79. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(02)00328-5. PMID 12559388.
- Lahti AC, Weiler MA, Tamara Michaelidis BA, Parwani A, Tamminga CA. Effects of ketamine in normal and schizophrenic volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001;25(4):455–67. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(01)00243-3. PMID 11557159.
- Coyle JT, Tsai G, Goff D. Converging evidence of NMDA receptor hypofunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2003;1003:318–27. doi:10.1196/annals.1300.020. PMID 14684455.
- Tuominen HJ, Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K. Glutamatergic drugs for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research. 2005;72(2–3):225–34. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2004.05.005. PMID 15560967.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; ISBN 978-0890425558. p. 101-105.
- Tandon R, Gaebel W, Barch DM, et al.. Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5. Schizophr. Res.. 2013;150(1):3–10. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2013.05.028. PMID 23800613.
- As referenced from PMID 23800613, Heckers S, Tandon R, Bustillo J. Catatonia in the DSM--shall we move or not?. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36(2):205–7. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp136. PMID 19933711.
- Barch DM, Bustillo J, Gaebel W, et al.. Logic and justification for dimensional assessment of symptoms and related clinical phenomena in psychosis: relevance to DSM-5. Schizophr. Res.. 2013;150(1):15–20. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.027. PMID 23706415.
- American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.; 2000 [Retrieved 2008-07-04]. ISBN 0-89042-024-6. Schizophrenia.
- Jakobsen KD, Frederiksen JN, Hansen T, et al.. Reliability of clinical ICD-10 schizophrenia diagnoses. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. 2005;59(3):209–12. doi:10.1080/08039480510027698. PMID 16195122.
- American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Work Groups (2010) Proposed Revisions – Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
- "The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders" (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 26.
- Pope HG. Distinguishing bipolar disorder from schizophrenia in clinical practice: guidelines and case reports. Hospital and Community Psychiatry. 1983 [Retrieved 2008-02-24];34:322–28.
- McGlashan TH. Testing DSM-III symptom criteria for schizotypal and borderline personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1987;44(2):143–8. PMID 3813809.
- Bottas A. Comorbidity: Schizophrenia With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Psychiatric Times. April 15, 2009;26(4).
- Gabbard, Glen O.. Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders, Fourth Edition (Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders). American Psychiatric Publishing; 15 May 2007. ISBN 1-58562-216-8. p. 209–211.
- Murray ED, Buttner N, Price BH. Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice. In: Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J. Bradley's neurology in clinical practice. 6th ed. Vol. 1. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders; 2012. ISBN 1-4377-0434-4. p. 92–111.
- Cannon TD, Cornblatt B, McGorry P. The empirical status of the ultra high-risk (prodromal) research paradigm. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2007;33(3):661–4. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm031. PMID 17470445.
- Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006;(4):CD004718. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004718.pub2. PMID 17054213.
- de Koning MB, Bloemen OJ, van Amelsvoort TA, et al.. Early intervention in patients at ultra high risk of psychosis: benefits and risks. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;119(6):426–42. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01372.x. PMID 19392813.
- Stafford MR, Jackson H, Mayo-Wilson E, Morrison AP, Kendall T. Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2013 Jan 18;346:f185. doi:10.1136/bmj.f185. PMID 23335473.
- McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Feldman K, Wolfe R, Pascaris A. Cognitive training for supported employment: 2–3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;164(3):437–41. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.164.3.437. PMID 17329468.
- Gorczynski P, Faulkner G. Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;(5):CD004412. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004412.pub2. PMID 20464730.
- National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (2009-03-25). "Schizophrenia: Full national clinical guideline on core interventions in primary and secondary care" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-11-25.
- Tandon R, Keshavan MS, Nasrallah HA. Schizophrenia, "Just the Facts": what we know in 2008 part 1: overview. Schizophrenia Research. 2008;100(1–3):4–19. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2008.01.022. PMID 18291627.
- Leucht S, Tardy M, Komossa K, et al.. Antipsychotic drugs versus placebo for relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2012;379(9831):2063–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60239-6. PMID 22560607.
- Harrow M, Jobe TH. Does long-term treatment of dchizophrenia with antipsychotic medications facilitate recovery?. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2013 Mar 19;39(5):962–5. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbt034. PMID 23512950.
- Kane JM, Correll CU. Pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2010;12(3):345–57. PMID 20954430.
- Hartling L, Abou-Setta AM, Dursun S, et al. Antipsychotics in Adults With Schizophrenia: Comparative Effectiveness of First-generation versus second-generation medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2012 Aug 14. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-7-201210020-00525. PMID 22893011.
- Schultz SH, North SW, Shields CG. Schizophrenia: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75(12):1821–9. PMID 17619525.
- Taylor DM. Refractory schizophrenia and atypical antipsychotics. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14(4):409-418. doi:10.1177/026988110001400411.
- Essali A, Al-Haj Haasan N, Li C, Rathbone J. Clozapine versus typical neuroleptic medication for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009;(1):CD000059. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000059.pub2. PMID 19160174.
- Tandon R, Belmaker RH, Gattaz WF, et al.. World Psychiatric Association Pharmacopsychiatry Section statement on comparative effectiveness of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res.. 2008;100(1–3):20–38. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2007.11.033. PMID 18243663.
- Ananth J, Parameswaran S, Gunatilake S, Burgoyne K, Sidhom T. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2004;65(4):464–70. doi:10.4088/JCP.v65n0403. PMID 15119907.
- McEvoy JP. Risks versus benefits of different types of long-acting injectable antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 Suppl 5:15–8. PMID 16822092.
- Pharoah F, Mari J, Rathbone J, Wong W. Family intervention for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;12:CD000088. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000088.pub3. PMID 21154340.
- Medalia A, Choi J. Cognitive remediation in schizophrenia.. Neuropsychology Rev. 2009;19(3):353–364. doi:10.1007/s11065-009-9097-y. PMID 19444614.
- Dixon LB, Dickerson F, Bellack AS, et al.. The 2009 schizophrenia PORT psychosocial treatment recommendations and summary statements. Schizophr Bull. 2010;36(1):48–70. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp115. PMID 19955389.
- Lynch D, Laws KR, McKenna PJ. Cognitive behavioural therapy for major psychiatric disorder: does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials. Psychol Med. 2010;40(1):9–24. doi:10.1017/S003329170900590X. PMID 19476688.
- Jones C, Cormac I, Silveira da Mota Neto JI, Campbell C. Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004;(4):CD000524. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000524.pub2. PMID 15495000.
- Ruddy R, Milnes D. Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2005;(4):CD003728. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003728.pub2. PMID 16235338.
- Ruddy RA, Dent-Brown K. Drama therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007;(1):CD005378. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005378.pub2. PMID 17253555.
- Saha S, Chant D, McGrath J. A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time?. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2007;64(10):1123–31. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.10.1123. PMID 17909124.
- Ustun TB. Multiple-informant ranking of the disabling effects of different health conditions in 14 countries. The Lancet. 1999;354(9173):111–15. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07507-2. PMID 10408486.
- World Health Organization. The global burden of disease : 2004 update. [Online-Ausg.] ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008. ISBN 9789241563710. p. 35.
- Warner R. Recovery from schizophrenia and the recovery model. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 2009;22(4):374–80. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832c920b. PMID 19417668.
- Menezes NM, Arenovich T, Zipursky RB. A systematic review of longitudinal outcome studies of first-episode psychosis. Psychol Med. 2006;36(10):1349–62. doi:10.1017/S0033291706007951. PMID 16756689.
- Isaac M, Chand P, Murthy P. Schizophrenia outcome measures in the wider international community. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2007;50:s71–7. PMID 18019048.
- Cohen A, Patel V, Thara R, Gureje O. Questioning an axiom: better prognosis for schizophrenia in the developing world?. Schizophr Bull. 2008;34(2):229–44. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm105. PMID 17905787.
- Burns J. Dispelling a myth: developing world poverty, inequality, violence and social fragmentation are not good for outcome in schizophrenia. Afr J Psychiatry (Johannesbg). 2009;12(3):200–5. PMID 19894340.
- Palmer BA, Pankratz VS, Bostwick JM. The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a reexamination. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2005;62(3):247–53. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.3.247. PMID 15753237.
- Carlborg A, Winnerbäck K, Jönsson EG, Jokinen J, Nordström P. Suicide in schizophrenia. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010;10(7):1153–64. doi:10.1586/ern.10.82. PMID 20586695.
- De Leon J, Diaz FJ. A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors. Schizophrenia research. 2005;76(2-3):135–57. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.010. PMID 15949648.
- Keltner NL, Grant JS. Smoke, Smoke, Smoke That Cigarette. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 2006;42(4):256. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2006.00085.x. PMID 17107571.
- American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6. p. 304
- American Psychiatric Association. Task Force on DSM-IV. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 978-0-89042-025-6. p. 314
- "Schizophrenia". World Health Organization. 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
- Castle D, Wessely S, Der G, Murray RM. The incidence of operationally defined schizophrenia in Camberwell, 1965–84. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1991;159:790–4. doi:10.1192/bjp.159.6.790. PMID 1790446.
- Kumra S, Shaw M, Merka P, Nakayama E, Augustin R. Childhood-onset schizophrenia: research update. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;46(10):923–30. PMID 11816313.
- Hassett Anne, et al. (eds). Psychosis in the Elderly. London: Taylor and Francis.; 2005. ISBN 1-84184-394-6. p. 6.
- Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, et al.. Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement. 1992;20:1–97. doi:10.1017/S0264180100000904. PMID 1565705.
- Kirkbride JB, Fearon P, Morgan C, et al.. Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings from the 3-center AeSOP study. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2006;63(3):250–8. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.63.3.250. PMID 16520429.
- Kirkbride JB, Fearon P, Morgan C, et al.. Neighbourhood variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in Southeast London. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2007;42(6):438–45. doi:10.1007/s00127-007-0193-0. PMID 17473901.
- Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, et al.. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
- Ayuso-Mateos JL. "Global burden of schizophrenia in the year 2000". World Health Organization. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- Clinical Psychopathology. 5 ed. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1959.
- Nordgaard J, Arnfred SM, Handest P, Parnas J. The diagnostic status of first-rank symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2008;34(1):137–54. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm044. PMID 17562695.
- =Yuhas, Daisy. "Throughout History, Defining Schizophrenia Has Remained a Challenge". Scientific American Mind (March/April 2013). Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- Heinrichs RW. Historical origins of schizophrenia: two early madmen and their illness. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 2003;39(4):349–63. doi:10.1002/jhbs.10152. PMID 14601041.
- Noll, Richard. American madness: the rise and fall of dementia praecox. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2011. ISBN 978-0-674-04739-6.
- Noll R. Whole body madness. Psychiatric Times. 2012;29(12):13–14.
- Hansen RA, Atchison B. Conditions in occupational therapy: effect on occupational performance. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. ISBN 0-683-30417-8.
- Berrios G.E., Luque R, Villagran J. Schizophrenia: a conceptual history. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 2003;3(2):111–140.
- Kuhn R. Eugen Bleuler's concepts of psychopathology. History of Psychiatry. 2004;15(3):361–6. doi:10.1177/0957154X04044603. PMID 15386868.
- Stotz-Ingenlath G. Epistemological aspects of Eugen Bleuler's conception of schizophrenia in 1911 [PDF]. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. 2000;3(2):153–9. doi:10.1023/A:1009919309015. PMID 11079343.
- McNally K. Eugen Bleuler's "Four A's". History of Psychology. 2009;12(2):43–59. doi:10.1037/a0015934. PMID 19831234.
- Turner T. Unlocking psychosis. British Medical Journal. 2007;334(suppl):s7. doi:10.1136/bmj.39034.609074.94. PMID 17204765.
- Wing JK. International comparisons in the study of the functional psychoses. British Medical Bulletin. 1971;27(1):77–81. PMID 4926366.
- Rosenhan D. On being sane in insane places. Science. 1973;179(4070):250–8. doi:10.1126/science.179.4070.250. PMID 4683124.
- Wilson M. DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1993;150(3):399–410. PMID 8434655.
- Stotz-Ingenlath G: Epistemological aspects of Eugen Bleuler’s conception of schizophrenia in 1911. Med Health Care Philos 2000; 3:153—159
- Hayes, J. A., & Mitchell, J. C. (1994). Mental health professionals' skepticism about multiple personality disorder. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 410-415
- Putnam, Frank W. (1989). Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 351. ISBN 0-89862-177-1
- Berrios, G. E.; Porter, Roy. A history of clinical psychiatry: the origin and history of psychiatric disorders. London: Athlone Press; 1995. ISBN 0-485-24211-7.
- McNally K. Schizophrenia as split personality/Jekyll and Hyde: the origins of the informal usage in the English language. Journal of the history of the behavioral sciences. 2007 Winter;43(1):69–79. doi:10.1002/jhbs.20209. PMID 17205539.
- Kim Y, Berrios GE. Impact of the term schizophrenia on the culture of ideograph: the Japanese experience. Schizophr Bull. 2001;27(2):181–5. PMID 11354585.
- Sato M. Renaming schizophrenia: a Japanese perspective. World Psychiatry. 2004;5(1):53–55. PMID 16757998.
- Wu EQ. The economic burden of schizophrenia in the United States in 2002. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66(9):1122–9. PMID 16187769.
- Maniglio R. Severe mental illness and criminal victimization: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;119(3):180–91. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01300.x. PMID 19016668.
- Fazel S, Gulati G, Linsell L, Geddes JR, Grann M. Schizophrenia and violence: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med.. 2009;6(8):e1000120. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120. PMID 19668362.
- Large M, Smith G, Nielssen O. The relationship between the rate of homicide by those with schizophrenia and the overall homicide rate: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr. Res.. 2009;112(1-3):123–9. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2009.04.004. PMID 19457644.
- Bo S, Abu-Akel A, Kongerslev M, Haahr UH, Simonsen E. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31(5):711–26. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.03.002. PMID 21497585.
- Pescosolido BA, Monahan J, Link BG, Stueve A, Kikuzawa S. The public's view of the competence, dangerousness, and need for legal coercion of persons with mental health problems. American Journal of Public Health. 1999;89(9):1339–45. doi:10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1339. PMID 10474550.
- Phelan JC, Link BG, Stueve A, Pescosolido BA. Public Conceptions of Mental Illness in 1950 and 1996: What Is Mental Illness and Is It to be Feared?. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2000;41(2):188–207. doi:10.2307/2676305.
- Dean OM, Data-Franco J, Giorlando F, Berk M. Minocycline: therapeutic potential in psychiatry. CNS Drugs. 2012 May 1;26(5):391–401. doi:10.2165/11632000-000000000-00000. PMID 22486246.
- Chamberlain IJ, Sampson S. Nidotherapy for people with schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013 Mar 28;3:CD009929. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009929.pub2. PMID 23543583.
|Find more about Schizophrenia at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Database entry Q41112 on Wikidata|