Chinese scholar's rocks
Chinese scholars' rocks (Chinese: 供石; pinyin: gōngshí), also known as scholar stones or viewing stones, are small naturally occurring or shaped rocks which are traditionally appreciated by Chinese scholars.
Scholars rocks can be any color; and contrasting colors are not uncommon. The size of the stone can also be quite varied: scholars rocks can weigh either hundreds of pounds or less than one pound. The term also identifies stones which are placed in traditional Chinese gardens.
The origin of the stone is a notable feature.
The evaluation of a scholar's rock identifies subtlety of color, shape, markings, surface, and sound. The overall array of qualities which are prized include
- awkwardness or overhanging asymmetry
- resonance or ringing when struck
- representation or resemblance to landscape or figure
- moistness or glossy surface
- Chinese garden
- Floral Arrangement
- Lake Tai - source of many Chinese scholar's rocks
- Metropolitan Museum of Art, "The World of Scholars' Rocks Gardens, Studios, and Paintings"; retrieved 2012-12-20.
- Harvard Shanghai Center, "Scholar Stone"; retrieved 2012-12-20.
- Brokaw, Charles. (2011). The Temple Mount Code, p. 73.
- Cousins, Craig. (2006). Bonsai Master Class, p. 246.
- Cousins, p. 247.
- Mendelson, John. "Chinese scholars' rocks simultaneously original and simulacrum" at ArtNet.com, 1996; retrieved 2012-12-20>
- Harvard Museums, "Scholar's rock", 1993 painting; Linrothe, Robert N. (2004). Paradise and Plumage: Chinese Connections in Tibetan Arhat Painting, p. 24; retrieved 2012-12-20.
- Little, Stephen, Spirit stones of China, the Ian and Susan Wilson collection of Chinese stones, paintings, and related scholars' objects, Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, 1999, ISBN 0-86559-173-3
Media related to Scholar's rocks at Wikimedia Commons
- Visuals and examples of scholar rocks
- Galleries of scholar rocks
- Books on scholars' rocks
- Chinese scholar's rock history, an introductory historical background
- Classification of Chinese scholar's rocks
- Scholar's rock at Metropolitan Museum of Art
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