School District of Philadelphia
|School District of Philadelphia|
|Type and location|
|Location||440 N. Broad St.
Philadelphia, PA 19130
|Superintendent||William R. Hite, Jr., Ed.D.|
|Asst. Superintendent||Paul Kihn, M.B.A. (Deputy Superintendent), Penny Nixon, M.Ed. (Chief Academic Officer)|
|Schools||237 (200 starting 2013-14)|
|Budget||$2.5 billion (FY2012–2013)|
|NCES District ID||4218990|
|Students and staff|
|Teachers||11,103.73 (on FTE (full-time equivalent) basis) (2010–2011)|
|Student-teacher ratio||14.92 to 1 (2010–2011)|
|School board||School Reform Commission|
|Teacher union(s)||Philadelphia Federation of Teachers (PFT)|
The School District of Philadelphia is a school district based in the School District of Philadelphia Education Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that includes all public schools in the city of Philadelphia. Established in 1818, it is the eighth largest school district in the nation.
The School Board was created in 1850 to oversee the schools of Philadelphia. The Act of Assembly of April 5, 1867, designated that the Controllers of the Public Schools of Philadelphia were to be appointed by the judges of the Court of Common Pleas. There was one Controller to be appointed from each ward. This was done to eliminate politics from the management of the schools.
Eventually, the management of the school district was given to a school board appointed by the mayor. This continued until 2001 when the district was taken over by the state, and the governor was given the power to appoint a majority of the five members of the new School Reform Commission.
The School District of Philadelphia operates 242 of the city's 326 public schools, including 163 elementary schools, 23 middle schools, and 56 high schools.
Enrollment in Philadelphia's district schools was 149,535 students as of December 2012.
Prior to August 2012, the district was organized into academic division (AD) offices, each with its own Assistant Superintendent. As a part of the Chief Academic Office Reorganization/Transition Proposal, the AD structure was abolished. Schools are organized into Principal Learning Teams (PLTs), each with its own peer-selected Coordinator and all schools now report to the Chief Academic Office through the Office of School Performance Management.
The School District of Philadelphia is governed by the five-member School Reform Commission. The commission was established in December 2001, when oversight of the district was taken over by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The Governor of Pennsylvania appoints three of the members, and the Mayor of Philadelphia appoints two members of the commission.
The following is the current district leadership.
- Chief Executive Officer & Superintendent - William R. Hite, JR., Ed.D.
- Deputy Chief Executive Officer & Deputy Superintendent - Paul Kihn, MBA
- Chief Academic Officer & Associate Superintendent of Schools - Penny Nixon, Ed.D.
- Chief Financial Officer - Matthew Stanski, MPA
- Chief Information Officer - Melanie Harris
- Chief Student Support Services Officer - Karyn Lynch, MPA
- Chief Family & Community Engagement Officer - Evelyn Sample-Oates (Interim)
- Chief Support Services Officer - Vacant
- Chief Human Resources Officer - Teresa Gavigan
School Reform Commission
- Pedro A. Ramos, Esq. - Chairman
- Sylvia P. Simms
- Joseph A. Dworetzky
- Feather Houstoun
- Wendell E. Pritchett, Ph.D.
In 1967, high school students demonstrated in front of the Board of Education building, demanding better treatment, especially for African-American students, and better funding. The demonstrators were met with force by the Philadelphia Police Department, and the resulting riot left 22 injured and 57 arrested.
Takeover by the state
The state takeover of the District had its roots in the chronic low test scores of district students and a history of inequitable financing which left the District with substantial and perpetual deficits. In 1975, Pennsylvania provided 55 percent of school funding statewide, in 2001 it provided less than 36 percent. An analysis determined that increased district spending was limited by a state system which relies heavily on property taxes for local school funding. As a result, wealthier school districts with proportionately more property owners and more expensive real estate have more funds for schools. The result is great disparities in school system expenditures per student. In 2000, the Philadelphia school district spent $6,969 a year per student. Seventy percent of Philadelphia’s students are at or near the poverty line. This contrasts with expenditures per student in wealthier suburban school districts: Jenkintown, $12,076; Radnor, $13,288; and Upper Merion, $13,139.
In February 1998, then-superintendent David Hornbeck threatened in February to close the city's schools if the state did not provide the funds needed to balance his proposed budget.
State lawmakers responded to the threat with fast moving legislation, Act 46, on April 21, approving a school funding package that included a takeover plan for the nation's sixth-largest school system. The legislature’s plan was a reaction to Hornbeck’s threatening to shut down the schools because of a financial crisis.
"Holding students and their parents and teachers hostage in an effort to gain additional funding is certainly bold but not very wise", commented Representative Dwight Evans, Democratic chair of the House Appropriations Committee and prime architect of the takeover bill.
Two lawsuits were filed by the city and the Philadelphia School District in 1997 and 1998 to address these inadequate funding levels. The first, filed by the school district, the city and community leaders, contended that Pennsylvania did not provide a "thorough and efficient" education; it was dismissed outright by the state court. The second case, a civil rights suit filed in Federal District Court, by the district, the city, and other interested parties, contended that the state's funding practices discriminate against school districts with large numbers of non-White students; The School District of Philadelphia was a key complainant in this case. The city agreed to put this case on hold when Mayor Street negotiated the "friendly" state takeover of the District, with the promise of additional funding from the state.
In June 2000, under increasing pressure to find a solution to the fiscal and academic problems facing the district, school superintendent, David W. Hornbeck, ended his six-year tenure. Hornbeck resigned saying he did not have the financial support of state and city officials to continue his school reform program (and a year later launched a statewide advocacy organization, Good Schools Pennsylvania, to mobilize citizens in support of improved state funding for public education). Merrow called improving public education "one of the great civil rights battles of this generation." The Board of Education then implemented a new management structure, replacing the superintendent's position with two new positions, a chief academic officer, Deidre Fambry, and a chief executive officer.
In 2001, the district had a projected deficit of $216.7 million in its current $1.7 billion budget. There was a crisis in making the school payroll and paying $30 million in vendor bills. In recognition of the assistance, Mayor Street agreed to postpone for three months a 1998 federal lawsuit brought by the city claiming racial discrimination in the way the state funds the Philadelphia school district. In a study released in July by the Harvard Civil Rights Project, Pennsylvania was ranked as having the sixth most segregated schools in the United States. Under the legislation enacted in 1998, in 2001 Governor Mark Schweiker took control of the schools. The state takeover of the fifth largest school district in the United States was seen as the most radical reform ever undertaken in a large urban school district. This move was opposed by Mayor John F. Street and many members of the city of Philadelphia. The negotiations dragged on because of the state’s insistence that the city pay its fair share, while the city fought to retain some control over the governance. Also at stake was the control of patronage jobs controlled by the mayor in the district’s central administration.
In the end, the city put up an additional $45 million for the schools instead of the $15 million initially offered and the state provided an additional $75 million. In return, the mayor gets to appoint two commission members rather than just one under the governor's initial plan.
The schools were clearly failing, but the state and the city could not agree on reform and local governance issues. As negotiation continued, a coalition of labor unions and community groups called the "Coalition to Keep Our Public Schools Public", filed a lawsuit to stop the state from signing a contract for Edison Schools to manage city schools. The state backed off on a hostile takeover and negotiated with the city. One of the chief concerns was the complete privatization of the school district.
The reform plan was opposed by the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers because of the loss of beneifits and rights they would suffer. Protestors like J. Whyatt Mondesire of the NAACP vowed "... to shut down the streets", in protest. Members of the NAACP and a group of black ministers blocked an intersection in front of City Hall during rush-hour traffic. The day before, several hundred students walked out of classes. And earlier a crowd consisting mostly of unionized district employees marched on City Hall, where they disrupted the Christmas tree-lighting ceremony and drowned out the choir with their chants.
On December 21, 2001, Secretary Charles Zogby of the Pennsylvania Department of Education signed a Declaration of Distress for the Philadelphia School District. This triggered the state takeover of the school district from the City of Philadelphia. The state of Pennsylvania formed the School Reform Commission to oversee the troubled public school system.
This action was the end result of a months long negotiation under the legislation enacted by the Pennsylvania General Assembly in April 1998. The takeover plan had six main elements: putting the district under the control of a School Reform Commission; hire a CEO; enable the CEO to reform the teaching staff by hiring non-certified staff, reconstitute troubled schools by reassigning or firing staff; allow the commission to hire for-profit firms to manage some schools; convert some schools to charter schools; and reallocate and redistribute school district resources.
At the time of the takeover, it was expected that Edison Schools, Inc. would be one of the prime beneficiaries of the partial privatization. It had been involved in developing the plan for privatization commissioned by then governor Tom Ridge. Edison was not given as many schools as it had hoped, primarily because of conflict of interest concerns Youth organizers from the Philadelphia Student Union staged protests, and engaged in civil disobedience to prevent the School District from handing over control of the central administration to Edison. Youth leaders were ultimately successful in preventing a takeover of the central office, and also prevented the take-over of any high schools by for-profit companies. As of 2007 the company had not delivered the promised improvements.
After the state takeover, the district adopted what is known as the “diverse provider” model, turning over the management of some of the lowest-achieving schools to for-profit and nonprofit organizations and two local universities and providing additional resources to the private managers. The most controversial of the 2001 reforms the partnership program saw "educational management organizations" (EMO) Edison Schools, Foundations Inc., Victory Schools, Universal Companies, Temple University, and University of Pennsylvania brought in to manage some of the District’s lowest-performing schools.
To date, the schools managed by private providers were doing neither better nor worse than district-wide achievement trends. District-managed schools given additional resources but no specific intervention were likewise doing about as well as other schools in the district. In contrast, district-managed schools given additional resources and a “restructuring” intervention showed larger achievement gains in mathematics.
Under the leadership of the former superintendent Arlene Ackerman and with approval from the School Reform Commission, the district implemented, at the end of 2008, a five-year strategic plan. The strategic plan, call 'Imagine 2014' outlined many measures to accelerate student's academic achievement. The plan seeks to achieve by 2014
- "a great city system of schools in which teachers, principals, parents, staff, policymakers, and the entire community collectively focus all energy, efforts, planning and development, resources, and initiatives on building a 21st–century culture of achievement … where children come first, excellence is the norm, talent is nurtured, opportunities are made equal, and success is measured by the steady improvement of teaching and learning in classrooms system-wide … resulting in accelerated student progress … a school system in which all students succeed, families have many quality choices, the staff is great, adults are accountable, and world-class operations support the entire enterprise.
The major components of the plan revolve around increasing accountability, restructuring schools and school support systems to provide more choices for parents, and augmenting parent and community engagement. The school district releases semi-annual report to gauge the progress of the plan.
The Philadelphia School District rates and categorizes schools based on performance. Vanguard schools are considered the leading performing schools within the district and requires special admission process for students. Non vanguard schools that make adequate yearly progress are considered traditional district schools. Empowerment schools are schools that are struggling. Traditionally failing schools are privatized and are called renaissance schools.
Staff Hiring and Performance Measure
Under the strategic plan, the district allows principals to hire teachers and staffs and create incentives for high performing teachers and schools, such as tenure. The district also created tracking tools, performance indicators, to gauge the progress of schools and how schools affect student achievement. The district increased the staffs and accessibility of its call centers to provide services and allow parents and community to report directly to the main headquarter.
Parent and Community Engagement
The district's many parent and community engagement policies are combined in a central office called the Office of Parent Family, Community, Engagement, and Faith-Based Partnerships. One such program, the Parent University of Philadelphia, offers a variety of free courses to parents, such as basic computer skills, lessons on legal rights of parents, English as a second language, and other evidence-based knowledge and skills enhancement courses. Parent University is funded heavily by Federal Stimulus grant. The district also set up city wide resource centers where parents can get resources seek help from the district on issues that could not be resolved at the school, such as bullying problems or complaints. The number of Parent Ombudsmen, school based staff who works directly with parent, were increased to serve 173 schools. Many of the programs have received local and national attentions for pioneering the field of parent engagement.
Art in the public schools
|This section requires expansion. (June 2008)|
The school district has an art collection with an estimated worth of between $5 million and $30 million.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to School District of Philadelphia.|
- School District of Philadelphia
- An Examination of Philadelphia 's School Desegregation Litigation
- A History of School Libraries in Philadelphia, 1874 to 1964
- Neighborhoods, Troubles, and Schooling: The Ecology of Philadelphia's Public Schools." The National Center on Education in the Inner Cities
- Imagine 2014 Strategic Plan
- School District of Philadelphia facilities map
- "Who Runs the School District of Philadelphia" Education Voters of Pennsylvania