School counselor

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A school counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in elementary, middle, and high schools to provide academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social competencies to all K-12 students through a school counseling program. The four main school counseling program interventions used include: school counseling core curriculum classroom lessons and annual academic, career/college readiness, and personal/social planning for every student; and group and individual counseling for some students.[1] School counseling is an integral part of the education system in large numbers of countries and in others it is emerging as a critical support for elementary, middle, and high school learning and/or student health concerns.[2]

An outdated term for the profession was guidance counselor; school counselor is preferred due to school counselors' role in advocating for every child's academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social success in every elementary, middle, and high school.[3] In the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Pacific, some countries with no formal school counseling programs use teachers or psychologists to do school counseling with a primary emphasis on career development.[4]

Countries vary in how a school counseling program and services are provided based on economics (funding for schools and school counseling programs), social capital (independent versus public schools), and school counselor certification and credentialing movements in education departments, professional associations, and national and local legislation.[4] In 2013, school counseling is established in 62 countries and emerging in another seven.[2]

An international scoping project on school-based counseling showed school counseling is mandatory in 39 countries, 32 USA states, one Australian state, 3 German states, 2 countries in the United Kingdom, and three provinces in Canada.[2] The largest accreditation body for Counselor Education/School Counseling programs is the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP).[5] International Counselor Education programs are accredited through a CACREP affiliate, the International Registry of Counselor Education Programs (IRCEP).

In some countries, school counseling is provided by school counseling specialists (for example, Botswana, China, Finland, Israel, Malta, Nigeria, Romania, Taiwan, Turkey, United States). In other cases, school counseling is provided by classroom teachers who either have such duties added to their typical teaching load or teach only a limited load that also includes school counseling activities (for example- India, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Zambia).[4] The IAEVG focuses primarily on career development with some international school counseling articles and conference presentations.[4]

Both the IAEVG and the Vanguard of Counsellors have promoted school counseling internationally.[4]

Contents

History, mandates, and school counselor to student ratios[edit]

Some school counselors use bibliotherapy, i.e., books and other media, to help students in individual and group counseling and classroom counseling lessons

Armenia[edit]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the post-Soviet Psychologists of Armenia together with the Government started developing the institution of School Counselor within Armenian Schools.

Australia[edit]

While the national policy is supportive of school counseling, only one Australian state requires it. The school counselor to student ratio ranges from 1: 850 in the Australian Capitol Territory to 1:18,000 in the state of Tasmania.[2]

Austria[edit]

Austria mandates school counseling at the high school level.[2]

Bahamas[edit]

The Bahamas mandate school counseling.[2]

Belgium[edit]

Although not mandated, there is some school counseling done in schools and in community centers in the three regions of the country.[2]

Botswana[edit]

Botswana mandates school counseling.[2]

Canada[edit]

In Canada, most provinces[6] have adapted K-12 comprehensive school counseling programs similar to those initiated by[7] and adapted in the ASCA National Model.[8] School counselors reported in 2004 at a conference in Winnipeg on issues such as budget cuts, lack of clarity about school counselor roles, high student to school counselor ratios, especially in elementary schools, and how using a comprehensive school counseling model helped to clarify school counselor roles with teachers and administrators and strengthen the profession.[9] In 2009, The Canadian Counselling Association (CCA) became the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association (CCPA).[10] Three Canadian provinces require school counseling.[2]

CCPA established a page dedicated to the specific needs of Parenting, Children, and the Classroom called Counselling Connect located at http://www.ccpa-accp.ca/blog/?cat=9 [11][12]

China[edit]

China has put substantial financial resources into school counseling with strong growth in urban areas but less than 1% of rural students receiving it; China does not mandate school counseling.[2]

In China,[13] discussed the main influences on school counseling as being Chinese philosophers Confucius and Lao-Tsu, who provided early models of child and adult development[14] that later influenced the work of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.[15] China also developed mental testing over 3,000 years ago, which was used for civil service examinations initially and eventually adopted by the British in the mid-19th century[16] and later in the USA.

Only 15% of high school students are admitted to college in China, so the entrance exams are fiercely competitive and those who do enter university graduate at a rate of 99%.[17] Much pressure is put on children and adolescents to study and be able to attend college and this pressure is a central school counseling focus in China. An additional stressor is that there are not enough places for students to attend college, and over 1/3 of college graduates cannot find jobs,[18] so career and employment counseling and development are central in school counseling.

There is a stigma related to personal or emotional problems and even though most universities and many schools now have counselors, there is a reluctance by many students to seek counseling for issues such as anxiety and depression. There is no national system of certifying school counselors. Most are trained in Western-developed cognitive methods including REBT, Rogerian, Family Systems, Behavior Modification, and Object Relations[19] and also recommend Chinese methods such as qi-gong (deep breathing), acupuncture, and music therapy.[13][20] shared that Chinese school counselors always work within a traditional Chinese world view of a community and family-based system that lessens the primacy of focus on the individual. In Hong Kong, Hui (2000) discussed work on moving toward comprehensive whole-school counseling programs and away from a remediation-style model.[21]

Middle school students are the priority for school counseling services in China.[2]

Costa Rica[edit]

Costa Rica mandates school counseling.[2]

Croatia[edit]

School counseling is only available in certain schools.[2]

Cyprus[edit]

In 1991 Cyprus mandated school counseling with a goal of 60 students to every school counselor and one full-time school counselor for every high school although neither of these goals has been accomplished fully.[2]

Czech Republic[edit]

The Czech Republic mandates school counseling.[2]

Denmark[edit]

Denmark mandates school counseling.[2]

Egypt[edit]

School counseling services are delivered by school psychologists with a ratio of 1 school psychologist to every 3,080 students.[2]

Estonia[edit]

School counseling is only available in certain schools.[2]

Finland[edit]

In Finland, legislation has been passed in terms of the school counseling system. The Basic Education Act of 1998 states that every student must receive school counseling services.[2] All Finnish school counselors must have a teaching certificate as well as master's degree in a specific subject and a specialized certificate in school counseling.[citation needed] Finland ahs a school counselor to student ratio of 1:245.[2]

France[edit]

France mandates school counseling in high schools.[2]

Gambia[edit]

Gambia mandates school counseling.[2]

Georgia[edit]

The school counselor to student ratio in Georgia is 1:615.[2]

Germany[edit]

One German state requires school counseling at all levels but high school counseling is established in all states.[2]

Ghana[edit]

Ghana mandates school counseling [2]

Greece[edit]

There are provisions for academic and career counseling in middle and high schools but school counseling is not mandated and emotional/mental health counseling is done in community agencies.[2]

THE HISTORY – NATIONAL GUIDANCE RESOURCES CENTRE - GREECE

This was first established by a team of researchers at the Athens University of Economics & Business (ASOEE) in 1993, under the leadership of Professor Emmanuel J. Yannakoudakis, Professor of Computer Science). The team received funding under the European Union (PETRA II Programme): The establishment of a national occupational guidance resources centre, 1993-1994. The team of Professor Yannakoudakis also organised a series of seminars and lectures to train the first occupational guidance counsellors in Greece between 1993 – 1994.

Further research projects at the Athens University of Economics & Business were carried as part of the European Union (LEONARDO Programme): a) A pilot project on the use of multimedia for career analysis, 1995-1999, b) Guidance towards the future, 1995-1999, c) On the move guidance system, 1996-2001 (this project was praised as «one of 200 outstanding projects from the first three years of the Leonardo da Vinci projects»), d) Eurostage for guidance systems, 1996-1999.

Netherlands[edit]

School counseling exists at the high school level.[2]

Hong Kong[edit]

Hong Kong mandates school counseling.[2]

Iceland[edit]

Iceland mandates school counseling.[2]

India[edit]

In India, Central Board of Secondary Education guidelines expect one school counselor will be appointed for every affiliated school,[22] but this is less than 3% of all Indian students attending public schools.[23]

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesia mandates school counseling only in middle and high school.[2]

Iran[edit]

Middle school students are the priority for school counseling in Iran and it is mandated in high schools but there are not enough school counselors particularly in rural areas.[2]

Ireland[edit]

In Ireland, school counseling began in County Dublin in the 1960s and went countrywide in the 1970s. However, legislation in the early 1980s severely curtailed the movement due to budget constraints. The main organization for school counseling profession is the IGC or Institute of Guidance Counsellors, which has a code of ethics.[24]

Israel[edit]

In Israel, a 2005 study by Erhard & Harel of 600 elementary, middle, and high school counselors found that a third of school counselors were delivering primarily traditional individual counseling services, about a third were delivering preventive classroom counseling curriculum lessons, and a third were delivering both individual counseling services and school counseling curriculum lessons in a more balanced or comprehensive developmental school counseling program; school counselor roles varied due to three elements: the school counselor's personal preferences, school level, and the principal's expectations.[25] Erhard & Harel stated that the profession in Israel, like many other countries, is transforming from various marginal and ancillary services to a comprehensive school counseling approach integral in the total school's education program.[25] in 2011-12, Israel had a school counselor to student ratio of 1:570 [2]

Italy[edit]

School counseling is not well developed in Italy.[2]

Japan[edit]

In Japan, school counseling is a very recent phenomenon with school counselors being introduced only in the mid-1990s and then often only part-time with a strong emphasis on assisting with behavioral issues.[26] Middle school students are the priority for school counseling in Japan and it is mandated.[2]

Jordan[edit]

Jordan mandates school counseling having 1,950 school counselors working in 2011-12.[2]

Latvia[edit]

School counseling was introduced in Latvia in 1929 but disappeared in World War II.[2]

Lebanon[edit]

In Lebanon, the government sponsored the first training of school counselors for public elementary and middle schools in 1996. There are now school counselors in about 1/5 of the elementary and middle schools in Lebanon and none in the high schools.[27] They have been trained in delivering preventive, developmental, and remedial services. Private schools have some school counselors serving all grade levels but the focus is exclusively individual counseling and primarily remedial.[28] Challenges include regular violence and wartime strife and not enough resources and a lack of a professional school counseling organization, assignment of school counselors to cover more than one school at a time, and only two school counseling graduate programs in the country. Last, for persons trained in Western models of school counseling there are dangers of overlooking unique cultural and family aspects of Lebanese society.[29]

Lithuania[edit]

School counseling was introduced in 1931 but disappeared during World War II.[2]

Macau[edit]

Macau mandates school counseling.[2]

Malaysia[edit]

Malaysia mandates school counseling only in middle/high school.[2]

Malta[edit]

In Malta, school counseling services began in 1968 in the Department of Education based on recommendations from a UNESCO consultant and used these titles: Education Officer, School Counsellor, and Guidance Teacher. Through the 1990s they included school counselor positions in primary and trade schools in addition to secondary schools. Guidance teachers are mandated at a 1:300 teacher to student ratio.[citation needed] Malta mandates school counseling.[2]

Nepal[edit]

Nepal mandates school counseling.[2]

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand mandates school counseling but since 1988 when education was decentralized, there has been a perceived decline in the prevalence of school counselors and the quality and service delivery of school counseling.[2]

Nigeria[edit]

In Nigeria, school counseling began in 1959 and exists in some high schools. It rarely exists at the elementary school level. Where there are federally funded secondary schools, there are some professionally trained school counselors. However, in many cases, there are only teachers who function as career masters/mistresses. School counselors often have teaching and other responsibilities that take time away from their school counseling tasks. The Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) was formed in 1976 to promote the profession, but there is no code of ethics. However, a certification/licensure board has been formed. Aluede, Adomeh, & Afen-Akpaida (2004) discussed the overreliance on textbooks from the USA and the need for school counselors in Nigeria to take a whole-school approach and lessen the focus on individual approaches and honor the traditional African world view that values the family and community's roles in decision-making as paramount for effective decision-making in schools.[30]

Norway[edit]

Norway mandates school counseling.[2]

Oman[edit]

There is some evidence of school counseling services at the high school level.[2]

Philippines[edit]

The Philippines mandates school counseling in middle and high school.[2] The Congress of the Philippines passed the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004, with a specific focus on Professional Practice, Ethics, National Certification, and the creation of a Regulatory Body, and specialists in school counseling are subject to this law.[31]

Poland[edit]

School counseling was introduced in 1918 but disappeared during World War II.[2]

Portugal[edit]

Portugal mandates school counseling at the high school level.[2]

Romania[edit]

Romania mandates school counseling.[2]

Rwanda[edit]

School counseling has focused primarily on trauma-based counseling [2]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

School counseling is developing in Saudi Arabia. In 2010, 90% of high schools had some type of school counseling service.[2]

Serbia[edit]

School counseling is available only in certain schools.[2]

Singapore[edit]

Singapore mandates school counseling.[2]

Slovakia[edit]

Slovakia mandates school counseling.[2]

South Korea[edit]

In South Korea, school counselors must teach a subject besides counseling, and not all school counselors are appointed to counseling positions, even though Korean law requires school counselors in all middle and high schools.[2][32]

Spain[edit]

Spain provides school counseling at the high school level although it is unclear if it is mandated.[2]

St. Kitts[edit]

St. Kitts mandates school counseling.[2]

Sweden[edit]

Sweden mandates school counseling.[2]

Switzerland[edit]

School counseling is found at the high school level.[2]

Syria[edit]

School counseling has focused primarily on trauma-based counseling of students that prior to the war was done in schools but is now found in either in a school club or refugee camp sponsored and staffed by UNICEF.[2]

Taiwan[edit]

In Taiwan, school counseling traditionally was done by "guidance teachers." Recent advocacy by the Chinese Guidance and Counseling Association pushed for licensure for school counselors in Taiwan's public schools. Prior to this time, the focus had been primarily individual and group counseling, play therapy,[33] career counseling and development,[34] and stress related to national university examinations.

Tanzania[edit]

Tanzania mandates school counseling [2]

Thailand[edit]

The Thai government has put substantial funding into school counseling but does not mandate it.[2]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago mandate school counseling.[2]

Turkey[edit]

Turkey mandates school counseling and is well-established in all schools.[2]

Uganda[edit]

Uganda mandates school counseling.[2]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

There is some evidence of school counseling at the high school level in the United Arab Emirates.[2]

United Kingdom[edit]

School counseling originated in the UK to support underachieving students and involved specialist training for teachers.[2] Two UK countries require school counseling.[2]

United States[edit]

In the United States, the school counseling profession began with the vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century now known as career development. Jesse B. Davis was the first to provide a systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became the principal of a high school and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and avoid behavioral problems. Many others during this time also focused on what is now called career development. For example, in 1908, Frank Parsons, "Father of Vocational Guidance" established the Bureau of Vocational Guidance to assist young people in making the transition from school to work.

From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the Great Depression, led to a decline in school counseling. In the 1940s, psychologists and counselors selected, recruited, and trained military personnel. This propelled the school counseling movement in schools by providing ways to test students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly. Also, Carl Rogers' emphasis on helping relationships and a move away from directive "guidance" to nondirective or person-centered "counseling" influenced the profession of school counseling.

In the 1950s the government established the Guidance and Personnel Services Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I. Out of concern that the Russians were winning the space race and that there were not enough scientists and mathematicians, the government passed the National Defense Education Act, spurring growth in vocational counseling through larger funding. In the 1960s, new legislation and professional developments refined the school counseling profession (Schmidt,[35] 2003).

The 1960s was also a time of great federal funding for land grant colleges and universities in establishing Counselor Education programs.[36] School counseling shifted from an exclusive focus on career development and added personal and social issues paralleling the rise of social justice and civil rights movements. In the early 1970s, Dr. Norm Gysbers began shifting the profession from school counselors as solitary professionals into having a comprehensive developmental school counseling program for all students K-12.[37] He and his colleagues' research evidenced strong correlations between fully implemented school counseling programs and student academic success; a critical part of the evidence base for the profession based on their work in the state of Missouri.[38] Dr. Chris Sink & associates showed similar evidence-based success for school counseling programs at the elementary and middle school levels in Washington State.

But school counseling in the 1980s and early 1990s was absent from educational reform efforts.[39] The profession was facing irrelevance as the standards-based educational movement gained strength with little evidence of systemic effectiveness for school counselors. In response,[40] consulted with elementary, middle, and high school counselors and created the ASCA Student Standards with three core domains (Academic, Career, Personal/Social), nine standards, and specific competencies and indicators for K-12 students.[41] A year later, the first systemic meta-analysis of school counseling was published focused on outcome research in academic, career, and personal/social domains.[42]

In the late 1990s, a former mathematics teacher, school counselor, and administrator, Pat Martin, was hired by The Education Trust[43] to focus the school counseling profession on closing the achievement gap that harmed children and adolescents of color, poor and working class children and adolescents, bilingual children and adolescents and children and adolescents with disabilities. Martin developed focus groups of K-12 students, parents, guardians, teachers, building leaders, and superintendents, and interviewed professors of School Counselor Education. She hired a school counselor educator from Oregon State University, Dr. Reese House, and they co-created what emerged in 2003 as the National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC).[44]

The NCTSC focused on both changing school counselor education at the graduate level and changing school counselor practice in local districts to teach school counselors how to prevent, intervene with, and close achievement and opportunity gaps. In the focus groups, they found what Hart & Jacobi[45] had indicated—-too many school counselors were gatekeepers for the status quo instead of advocates for the academic success of every child and adolescent. Too many school counselors used inequitable practices, supported inequitable school policies, and were unwilling to change.

This professional behavior kept many students from non-dominant backgrounds (i.e., students of color, poor and working class students, students with disabilities, and bilingual students) from getting the rigorous coursework and academic, career, and college access skills needed to successfully graduate from high school and pursue post-secondary options including college. They funded six $500,000 grants for six Counselor Education/School Counseling programs, with a special focus on rural and urban settings, to transform their school counseling programs to include a focus on teaching school counselor candidates advocacy, leadership, teaming and collaboration, equity assessment using data, and culturally competent program counseling and coordination in 1998 (Indiana State University, University of Georgia, University of West Georgia, University of California-Northridge, University of North Florida, and Ohio State University) and then over 25 other Counselor Education/School Counseling programs joined as companion institutions in the following decade.[43] By 2008, NCTSC consultants had worked in over 100 school districts and major cities and rural areas to transform the work of school counselors.

In 2002, the American School Counselor Association released the first edition of the ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, written by Dr. Trish Hatch and Dr. Judy Bowers (2003),[46] comprising key school counseling components: the work of Drs. Norm Gysbers, Curly & Sharon Johnson, Robert Myrick, Carol Dahir & Cheri Campbell's ASCA National Standards, and the skill-based focus for closing achievement and opportunity gaps from the Education Trust's Pat Martin and Dr. Reese House into one document. In 2003, the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation (CSCORE)[47] was developed as a clearinghouse for evidence-based practice with regular research briefs disseminated and original research projects developed and implemented with founding director Dr. Jay Carey. One of the research fellows, Dr. Tim Poynton, developed the EZAnalyze[48] software program for all school counselors to use as free-ware to assist in using data-based interventions and decision-making.

In 2004, the ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors was revised to focus on issues of equity, closing achievement and opportunity gaps, and ensuring all K-12 students received access to a school counseling program.[49] Also in 2004, Pat Martin moved to the College Board and hired School Counselor Educator Dr. Vivian Lee. They developed an equity-focused entity on school counselors' role in college readiness and admission counseling, the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA).[50] NOSCA developed research scholarships for research on college counseling by K-12 school counselors and how it is taught in School Counselor Education programs.

On January 1, 2006, the USA Congress declared the first week of February National School Counseling Week, which grew out of advocacy from ASCA members.

In 2008, the first NOSCA study was released by Dr. Jay Carey and colleagues focused on innovations in selected College Board "Inspiration Award" schools where school counselors collaborated inside and outside their schools for high college-going rates and strong college-going cultures in schools with large numbers of students of non-dominant backgrounds.[51] In 2008, ASCA released School Counseling Competencies focused on assisting school counseling programs to effectively implement the ASCA Model.[49][52]

Also in 2008, in support of the ASCA Model and new vision[53] school counseling, Dr. Rita Schellenberg introduced standards blending as a cross-walking approach to align school counseling with the academic achievement mission of schools as well as two data-based reporting systems, SCORE and SCOPE.[54][55][56]

In 2009, NOSCA released a national study under the leadership of Dr. Vicki Brooks-McNamara addressing the school counselor/principal connection with specific recommendations for best practices in collaborative leadership in school counseling.

In 2010, the Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership (CESCAL) co-sponsored the first school counselor and educator conference devoted to the needs of lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered students in San Diego, California.[57]

In 2011, Counseling at the Crossroads: The perspectives and promise of school counselors in American education, the largest survey of high school and middle school counselors in the United States (over 5,300 interviews), was released by the College Board's National Office for School Counselor Advocacy, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, and the American School Counselor Association. The study shared school counselors' views on educational policies, practices, and reform, and how many of them, especially in urban and rural school settings, are not given the chance to focus on what they were trained to do, especially career and college access counseling and readiness for all students, in part due to high caseloads and inappropriate tasks that take up too much of their time. School counselors made strong suggestions about their crucial role in accountability and success for all students and how school systems need to change so that school counselors can be key players in student success. Implications for public policy and district and school-wide change are addressed.[58] The National Center for Transforming School Counseling at The Education Trust released a brief, Poised to Lead: How School Counselors Can Drive Career and College Readiness, challenging all schools to utilize school counselors for equity and access for rigorous courses for all students and ensuring college and career access skills and competencies be a major focus of the work of school counselors K-12.[59]

In 2012, the CSCORE assisted in evaluating and publishing six statewide research studies assessing the effectiveness of school counseling programs based on statewide systemic use of school counseling programs such as the ASCA National Model and their outcomes in Professional School Counseling.[60] Research indicated strong correlational evidence between lower school counseling ratios and better student success academically, in terms of career and college access/readiness/admission, and for various personal/social issues including school safety, reduced disciplinary issues, and better attendance in schools with fully implemented school counseling programs.[60]

Also in 2012, the American School Counselor Association released the third edition of the ASCA National Model.[61] Also, the National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) created a School Counselor Educator Coalition to further transform graduate School Counselor Education programs in the new vision of school counseling for K-12 school counselors. Twenty universities were represented and four School Counselor Educator faculty mentors were named: Dr. Carolyn Stone, University of North Florida, Dr. Trish Hatch, San Diego State University, Dr. Stuart Chen-Hayes, City University of New York/Lehman College, and Dr. Erin Mason, DePaul University.

In 2013, Northern Kentucky University and the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation (CSCORE) launched an annual Evidence-Based School Counseling Conference with specific strands for school counselors, building and district leaders, and school counselor educators [62]

Venezuela[edit]

School counseling is mandated in Venezuela and it has focused on cultural competency.[2]

Vietnam[edit]

School counseling is mandated in Vietnam.[2]

Roles, school counseling programs, associations, and ethics[edit]

Professional school counselors ideally implement a school counseling program that promotes and enhances student achievement (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012).[63] A framework for appropriate and inappropriate school counselor responsibilities and roles is outlined in the ASCA National Model (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012).[8] School counselors, in most USA states, usually have a Master's degree in school counseling from a Counselor Education graduate program. In Canada, they must be licensed teachers with additional school counseling training and focus on academic, career, and personal/social issues. China requires at least three years of college experience. In Japan, school counselors were added in the mid-1990s, part-time, primarily focused on behavioral issues. In Taiwan, they are often teachers with recent legislation requiring school counseling licensure focused on individual and group counseling for academic, career, and personal issues. In Korea, school counselors are mandated in middle and high schools.

School counselors are employed in elementary, middle, and high schools, and in district supervisory settings and in counselor education faculty positions (usually with an earned Ph.D. in Counselor Education in the USA or related graduate doctorates abroad), and post-secondary settings doing academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social counseling, consultation, and program coordination. Their work includes a focus on developmental stages of student growth, including the needs, tasks, and student interests related to those stages(Schmidt,[35] 2003).

Professional school counselors meet the needs of student in three basic domains: academic development, career development, and personal/social development (Dahir & Campbell, 1997; Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012) with an increased emphasis on college access.[64] Knowledge, understanding and skill in these domains are developed through classroom instruction, appraisal, consultation, counseling, coordination, and collaboration. For example, in appraisal, school counselors may use a variety of personality and career assessment methods (such as the[65] or[66] (based on the[67]) to help students explore career and college needs and interests.

School counselor interventions include individual and group counseling for some students. For example, if a student's behavior is interfering with his or her achievement, the school counselor may observe that student in a class, provide consultation to teachers and other stakeholders to develop (with the student) a plan to address the behavioral issue(s), and then collaborate to implement and evaluate the plan. They also provide consultation services to family members such as college access, career development, parenting skills, study skills, child and adolescent development, and help with school-home transitions.

School counselor interventions for all students include annual academic/career/college access planning K-12 and leading classroom developmental lessons on academic, career/college, and personal/social topics. The topics of character education, diversity and multiculturalism (Portman, 2009), and school safety are important areas of focus for school counselors. Often school counselors will coordinate outside groups that wish to help with student needs such as academics, or coordinate a program that teaches about child abuse or drugs, through on-stage drama (Schmidt,[35] 2003).

School counselors develop, implement, and evaluate school counseling programs that deliver academic, career, college access, and personal/social competencies to all students in their schools. For example, the ASCA National Model (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012)[63] includes the following four main areas:

  • Foundation - a school counseling program mission statement, a beliefs/vision statement, SMART Goals; ASCA Student Standards & ASCA Code of Ethics;
  • Delivery System - how school counseling core curriculum lessons, planning for every student, and individual and group counseling are delivered in direct and indirect services to students (80% of school counselor time);
  • Management System - calendars; use of data tool; use of time tool; administrator-school counselor agreement; advisory council; small group, school counseling core curriculum, and closing the gap action plans; and
  • Accountability System - school counseling program assessment; small group, school counseling core curriculum, and closing-the-gap results reports; and school counselor performance evaluations based on school counselor competencies.

The model (ASCA, 2012) is implemented using key skills from the Education Trust's Transforming School Counseling Initiative: Advocacy, Leadership, Teaming and Collaboration, and Systemic Change.[43]

School Counselors around the world are affiliated with national and regional school counseling associations including: Asociacion Argentina de Counselors (AAC-Argentina), American Counseling Association (ACA-USA), African Counseling Association (AfCA), American School Counselor Association (ASCA-USA), Associacao Portuguesa de Psicoterapia centrada na Pessoa e de Counselling (APPCPC-Portugal), Australian Guidance and Counselling Association (AGCA), British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP-UK), Canadian Counseling Association (CCA)/Association Canadienne de Counseling (ACC), Center for Excellence in School Counseling and Leadership(CESCaL) (USA), Center for School Counseling Outcome Research (CSCOR-USA) Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP-USA and international), Counselling Children and Young People (BACP affiliate, UK), Counseling & Psychotherapy in Scotland (COSCA), Cypriot Association of School Guidance Counsellors (OELMEK), European Counseling Association (ECA), France Ministry of Education, Federacion Espanola de Orientacion y Psicopedagogia (FEOP-Spain), Department of Education-Malta, Hellenic Society of Counselling and Guidance (HESCOG-Greece), Hong Kong Association of Guidance Masters and Career Masters (HKAGMCM), Institute of Guidance Counselors (IGC) (Ireland), International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG)/Association Internationale d'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle (AIOSP)/ Internationale Vereinigung für Schul- und Berufsberatung (IVSBB)/Asociación Internacional para la Orientación Educativa y Profesional(AIOEP), International Baccalaureate (IB), International Vanguard of Counsellors (IVC), Kenya Association of Professional Counselors (KAPC), National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC, USA), National Center for Transforming School Counseling (NCTSC) at The Education Trust (USA), National Office for School Counselor Advocacy (NOSCA) at The College Board (USA), New Zealand Association of Counsellors/Te Roopu Kaiwhiriwhiri o Aotearoa (NZAC), Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), Philippine Guidance and Counseling Association (PGCA), Overseas Association of College Admissions Counselors (OACAC, an affiliate of National Association of College Admissions Counselors-USA), Singapore Association for Counseling (SAC), and the Taiwan Guidance and Counseling Association (TGCA).[68]

School Counselors are expected to follow a professional code of ethics in many countries. For example, In the USA, they are the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) School Counselor Ethical Code,[49] the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics.,[69] and the National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC) Statement of Principles of Good Practice (SPGP).[70]

Elementary school counseling[edit]

Elementary school counselors provide[39] academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies and planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of young children K-6.[71] Transitions from pre-school to elementary school and from elementary school to middle school are an important focus for elementary school counselors. Increased emphasis is placed on accountability for closing achievement and opportunity gaps at the elementary level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results.[72]

School counseling programs that deliver specific competencies to all students help to close achievement and opportunity gaps.[73] To facilitate individual and group school counseling interventions, school counselors use developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural,[74] narrative, and play therapy theories and techniques.[75][76] released a research study showing the effectiveness of elementary school counseling programs in Washington state.

Middle school counseling[edit]

Middle school counselors provide school counseling curriculum lessons[39] on academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies, advising and academic/career/college access planning to all students and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the needs of older children/early adolescents in grades 7 and 8.[8]

Middle School College Access curricula have been developed by The College Board to assist students and their families well before reaching high school. To facilitate the school counseling process, school counselors use theories and techniques including developmental, cognitive-behavioral, person-centered (Rogerian) listening and influencing skills, systemic, family, multicultural,[74] narrative, and play therapy. Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to high school are a key area including career exploration and assessment with seventh and eighth grade students.[77] Sink, Akos, Turnbull, & Mvududu released a study in 2008 confirming the effectiveness of middle school comprehensive school counseling programs in Washington state.[78]

High school counseling[edit]

High school counselors provide[39] academic, career, college access, and personal and social competencies with developmental classroom lessons and planning to all students, and individual and group counseling for some students and their families to meet the developmental needs of adolescents (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005, 2012).[52] Emphasis is on college access counseling at the early high school level as more school counseling programs move to evidence-based work with data and specific results[72] that show how school counseling programs help to close achievement, opportunity, and attainment gaps ensuring all students have access to school counseling programs and early college access activities.[79] The breadth of demands high school counselors face, from educational attainment (high school graduation and some students' preparation for careers and college) to student social and mental health, has led to ambiguous role definition.[80] Summarizing a 2011 national survey of more than 5,300 middle school and high school counselors, researchers argued: "Despite the aspirations of counselors to effectively help students succeed in school and fulfill their dreams, the mission and roles of counselors in the education system must be more clearly defined; schools must create measures of accountability to track their effectiveness; and policymakers and key stakeholders must integrate counselors into reform efforts to maximize their impact in schools across America".[81]

Transitional issues to ensure successful transitions to college, other post-secondary educational options, and careers are a key area.[82] The high school counselor helps students and their families prepare for post-secondary education including college and careers (e.g. college, careers) by engaging students and their families in accessing and evaluating accurate information on what the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy calls the 8 essential elements of college and career counseling: (1) College Aspirations, (2) Academic Planning for Career and College Readiness, (3) Enrichment and Extracurricular Engagement, (4) College and Career Exploration and Selection Processes, (5) College and Career Assessments, (6) College Affordability Planning, (7) College and Career Admission Processes, and (8) Transition from High School Graduation to College Enrollment.[83] Some students turn to private college admissions advisors but there is no research evidence that private college admissions advisors have any effectiveness in assisting students attain selective college admissions.

Lapan, Gysbers & Sun showed correlational evidence of the effectiveness of fully implemented school counseling programs on high school students' academic success.[84] Carey et al.'s 2008 study showed specific best practices from high school counselors raising college-going rates within a strong college-going environment in multiple USA-based high schools with large numbers of students of nondominant cultural identities.

Education credentials and certification[edit]

The education of school counselors (school counsellors) around the world varies based on the laws and cultures of countries and the historical influences of their educational and credentialing systems and professional identities related to who delivers academic, career, college readiness, and personal/social information, advising, curriculum, and counseling and related services.[4]

In Canada, school counselors must be certified teachers with additional school counseling training.

In China, there is no national certification or licensure system for school counselors.

Korea requires school counselors in all middle and high schools.[85]

In the Philippines, school counselors must be licensed with a master's degree in counseling.[86]

Taiwan instituted school counselor licensure for public schools (2006) through advocacy from the[87]

In the USA, a school counselor is a certified educator with a master's degree in school counseling (usually from a Counselor Education graduate program) with school counseling graduate training including qualifications and skills to address all students’ academic, career, college access and personal/social needs.

About half of all Counselor Education programs that offer school counseling are accredited by the Council on the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) and all are in the USA with one in Canada. In 2010 one was under review in Mexico. CACREP maintains a current list of accredited programs and programs in the accreditation process on their website.[88] CACREP desires to accredit more international counseling university programs.[88]

According to CACREP, an accredited school counseling program offers coursework in Professional Identity and Ethics, Human Development, Counseling Theories, Group Work, Career Counseling, Multicultural Counseling, Assessment, Research and Program Evaluation, and Clinical Coursework—a 100-hour practicum and a 600-hour internship under supervision of a school counseling faculty member and a certified school counselor site supervisor (CACREP,[89] 2001).

When CACREP released the 2009 Standards, the accreditation process became performance-based including evidence of school counselor candidate learning outcomes. In addition, CACREP tightened the school counseling standards with specific evidence needed for how school counseling students receive education in foundations; counseling prevention and intervention; diversity and advocacy; assessment; research and evaluation; academic development; collaboration and consultation; and leadership in K-12 school counseling contexts.[90]

Certification practices for school counselors vary around the world. School counselors in the USA may opt for national certification through two different boards. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) requires a two-to-three year process of performance based assessment, and demonstrate (in writing) content knowledge in human growth/development, diverse populations, school counseling programs, theories, data, and change and collaboration.[91] In February 2005, 30 states offered financial incentives for this certification.

Also in the USA, The National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) requires passing the National Certified School Counselor Examination (NCSC), including 40 multiple choice questions and seven simulated cases assessing school counselors' abilities to make critical decisions. Additionally, a master's degree and three years of supervised experience are required. NBPTS also requires three years of experience, however state certification is required (41 of 50 states require a master's degree). At least four states offer financial incentives for the NCSC certification.[92][93][94][95][96]

Job growth and earnings[edit]

The rate of job growth and earnings for school counselors depends on the country that one is employed in and how the school is funded—public or independent. School counselors working in international schools or "American" schools globally may find similar work environments and expectations to the USA. School counselor pay varies based on school counselor roles, identity, expectations, and legal and certification requirements and expectations of each country. According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook (OOH), the median salary for school counselors in the USA in 2010 was (USD) $53,380 or $25.67 hourly. The USA has 267,000 employees in titles such as School Counselor or related titles in education and advising and college and career counseling. The projected growth for school counselors is 14-19% or faster than average than other occupations in the USA with a predicted 94,000 job openings from 2008-2018.[97][98] " In Australia, a survey by the Australian Guidance and Counseling Association found that school counselor salary ranged from (AUD) the high 50,000s to the mid 80,000s.

Among all counseling specialty areas, public elementary, middle and high school counselors are (2009) paid the highest salary on average of all counselors. Budget cuts, however, have affected placement of public school counselors in Canada, Ireland, the United States, and other countries due to the global recession in recent years. In the United States, rural areas and urban areas traditionally have been under-served by school counselors in public schools due to both funding shortages and often a lack of best practice models. With the advent of No Child Left Behind legislation in the USA and a mandate for school counselors to be working with data and showing evidence-based practice, school counselors able to show and share results in assisting to close gaps are in the best position to argue for increased school counseling resources and positions for their programs (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012).[63]

Notable school counselors[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chen-Hayes, Ockerman, & Mason, 2014
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq Dr. Belinda Harris, International school-based counselling scoping report http://counsellingminded.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/harris_MindEd_report.pdf#!
  3. ^ Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012; Chen-Hayes, Ockerman, & Mason, 2014; Hatch, 2014
  4. ^ a b c d e f http://www.iaevg.org; www.vanguardofcounsellors.org; Dr. Belinda Harris, International school-based counselling scoping report http://counsellingminded.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/harris_MindEd_report.pdf#!
  5. ^ "Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs - Welcome to CACREP". Cacrep.org. 2012-10-17. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  6. ^ (Alberta Education, Special Education Branch, 1995; Nova Scotia Department of Education, 2002)
  7. ^ Gysbers et al
  8. ^ a b c (Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005; ASCA, 2012)
  9. ^ <http://archive.is/20120708113842/http://local.nstu.ca/web/NSSCA?service=file/307>
  10. ^ CCPA
  11. ^ "Parenting, Children and the Classroom – Counselling Connect". Ccpa-accp.ca. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  12. ^ http://www.ccpa-accp.ca/blog/?cat=9, Counselling Connect ~ CCPA
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  17. ^ (Jiang, 2007)
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  21. ^ Hui,2000
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  32. ^ Kim, Kay-Hyon, 2006
  33. ^ (Shen & Herr, 2003)
  34. ^ (Chang, 2002)
  35. ^ a b c Schmidt, J.J. (2003) Counseling in schools: Essential services and comprehensive programs. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
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  37. ^ Hatch & Bowers, 2003; ASCA, 2012"
  38. ^ (Lapan, Gysbers, & Sun, 1997)
  39. ^ a b c d (Stone & Dahir, 2006)
  40. ^ Campbell & Dahir (1997)
  41. ^ Hatch & Bowers, 2003, 2005, 2012
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  47. ^ (Dimmitt, Carey, & Hatch, 2007)
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  49. ^ a b c (www.schoolcounselor.org)
  50. ^ <http://professionals.collegeboard.com/policy-advocacy/educators/nosca>
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  52. ^ a b Hatch & Bowers, 2003; ASCA, 2012
  53. ^ Schellenberg. "Home". Thenewschoolcounselor.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  54. ^ Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education.
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  56. ^ Schellenberg, R. (2007). Standards blending: Aligning school counseling programs with school academic achievement missions. Virginia Counselors Journal, 29, 13-20.
  57. ^ "CESCaL". CESCaL. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
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  59. ^ "School counselors underutilized on secondary campuses | Education Trust". Edtrust.org. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
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  61. ^ ASCA, 2012, "The ASCA National Model -- New Edition Released" Retrieved August 20, 2012.
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  65. ^ Self-Directed Search (SDS)
  66. ^ Career Key
  67. ^ Holland Codes
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  73. ^ (Bryan, Holcomb-McCoy, Moore-Thomas, & Day-Vines, 2009; College Board, 2008; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007)
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Evidence- and research-based school counseling articles, books, DVDs[edit]

Abilities, Disabilities, Gifts, Talents, and Special Education in School Counseling[edit]

  • Bauman, S. S. M. (2010). School counselors and survivors of childhood cancer: Reconceptualizing and advancing the cure. Professional School Counseling, 14, 156-164.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Erford, B. T., Erford, B. M., Lattanzi, G., Weller, J., Schein, H., Wolf, E., Hughes, M., Darrow, J., Savin-Murphy, J., & Peacock, E. (2011). Counseling outcomes from 1990 to 2008 for school-age youth with depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 439-458.
  • Hamlet, H. S., Gergar, P. G., & Shaefer, B. A. (2011). Students living with chronic illness: The school counselor's role. Professional school counseling, 14, 202-210
  • Krell, M., & Perusse, R. (2012). Providing college readiness counseling for students with Autism spectrum disorders: A Delphi study to guide school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 16, 29-39.
  • Marshak, L. E., Dandeneau, C. J., Prezant, F. P., & L'Amoreaux, N. A. (2009). The school counselor's guide to helping students with disabilities. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Milsom, A. (2007). Interventions to assist students with disabilities through school transitions. Professional School Counseling, 10, 273-278.
  • Milsom, A. (2006). Creating positive school experiences for students with disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 10, 66-72.
  • Milsom, A., & Dietz, L. (2009). Defining college readiness for students with learning disabilities: A Delphi study. Professional School Counseling, 12, 315-323.
  • Peterson, J. S. (2006). Addressing counseling needs of gifted students. Professional School Counseling, 10, 43-51.
  • Trolley, B. C., Haas, H. S., & Patti, D. C. (2009). The school counselor's guide to special education. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Wood, S. M. (2010). Best practices in counseling the gifted in schools: What's really happening. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54, 42-58.
  • Wood, S. M. (2010). Nurturing a garden: A qualitative investigation into school counselors' experiences with gifted students. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 34, 261-302.
  • Wood, S. M. (2009). Counseling concerns of gifted and talented adolescents: Implications for school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 7(1).
  • Wood, S. M., Portman, T., Cigrand, D. L., & Colangelo, N. (2010). School counselors’ perceptions and experience with acceleration as a program option for gifted and talented students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54, 168-178.

Academic Interventions, Closing Achievement Gaps[edit]

  • Blanco, P. J., & Ray, D. C. (2011). Play therapy in elementary schools: A best practice for improving academic achievement. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 235-243.
  • Bodenhorn, N., Wolfe, E. W., & Airen, O. E. (2010). School counselor program choice and self-efficacy: Relationship to achievement gap and equity. Professional School Counseling, 13, 165-174.
  • Brigman, G. A., & Campbell, C. (2003). Helping students improve academic achievement and school success behavior. Professional School Counseling, 7, 91-98.
  • Brigman, G. A., Webb, L. D., & Campbell, C. (2007). Building skills for school success: Improving the academic and social competence of students. Professional School Counseling, 10, 279-288.
  • Bruce, A. M., Getch, Y. Q., & Ziomek-Daigle, J. (2009). Closing the gap: A group counseling approach to improve test performance of African-American students. Professional School Counseling, 12, 450-457.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Cholewa, B., & West-Olatunji, C. (2008). Exploring the relationship among cultural discontinuity, psychological distress, and academic achievement outcomes for low-income, culturally diverse students. "Professional School Counseling, 12," 54-61.
  • Hatch, T. (2014). "The use of data in school counseling: Hatching results for students programs, and the profession." Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). School counseling to close the achievement gap: A social justice framework for success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). Transitioning to high school: Issues and challenges for African American students. Professional School Counseling, 10, 253-260.
  • Jeynes, W. (2007). "The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: A meta-analysis. "Urban Education, 42," 82-110.
  • Johnson, R. S. (2002). Using data to close the achievement gap: How to measure equity in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Mason, E. C. M., Ockerman, M. S., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) model: A framework for school counselor identity. Journal of School Counseling, 11(4). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n4.pdf
  • Miranda, A., Webb, L., Brigman, G., & Peluso, P. (2007). Student success skills: A promising program to close the academic achievement gaps of African American and Latino Students. Professional School Counseling, 10, 490-497.
  • Newman, B. M., Lohman B. J., Myers, M. C., & Newman P. R. (2000). Experiences of urban youth navigating the transition to ninth grade. "Journal of Youth and Society, 31," 387-416.
  • Newman, B. M., Myers, M.C., Newman, P. R., Lohman, B. J., & Smith, V. L. (2000). The transition to high school for academically promising, urban, low-income African American youth. "Adolescence, 35," 45-66.
  • Poynton, T. A., Carlson, M. W., Hopper, J. A., & Carey, J. C. (2006). Evaluating the impact of an innovative approach to integrate conflict resolution into the academic curriculum on middle school students' academic achievement. Professional School Counseling, 9, 190-196.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2011). Using culturally competent responsive services to improve student achievement and behavior. Professional School Counseling, 14, 222-230.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling, 12, 440-449.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield Education.
  • Sciarra, D. T. (2010). Predictive factors in intensive math course-taking in high school. "Professional School Counseling, 13," 196-207.
  • Squier, K. L., Nailor, P., & Carey, J. C. (2014). Achieving excellence in school counseling through motivation, self-direction, self-knowledge, and relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Suh, S., Suh, J., & Houston, I. (2007). Predictors of categorical at–risk high school dropouts. Journal of Counseling and Development, 85, 196-203.
  • Suh, S., & Suh, J. (2007). Risk factors and levels of risk for high school dropouts, Professional School Counseling, 10, 297-306.
  • Trusty, J., Mellin, E. A., & Herbert, J. T. (2008). Closing achievement gaps: Roles and tasks of elementary school counselors. Elementary School Journal, 108, 407-421
  • Tucker, C., Dixon, A., & Griddine, K. (2010). Academically successful African American male urban high school students' experiencing of mattering to others at school. Professional School Counseling, 14, 135-145.
  • Villalba, J. A., Akos, P., Keeter, K., & Ames, A. (2007). Promoting Latino student achievement and development through the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling, 12, 272-279.
  • Webb, L. D., & Brigman, G. A. (2006). Student success skills: Tools and strategies for improved academic and social outcomes. Professional School Counseling, 10, 112-120.
  • Weinbaum, A. T., Allen, D., Blythe, T., Simon, K., Seidel, S., & Rubin, C. (2004). Teaching as inquiry: Asking hard questions to improve student achievement. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • West-Olatunji, C., Shure, L, Pringle, R., Adams, T., Lewis, D., & Cholewa, B. (2010). Exploring how school counselors position low-income African American girls as mathematics and science learners. "Professional School Counseling, 13," 184-195.

Accountability; Evidence- and Data-Based School Counseling Program Curricula, Evaluation, and Practices[edit]

  • Astramovich, R. L., Hoskins, W. J., & Coker, J. K. (2008). The Accountability Bridge: A model for evaluating school counseling programs. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.
  • Brigman, G., Lemberger, M., & Moor, M. (2012). Striving to evince educational excellence: Measures for Adlerian counselors to demonstrate impact on student achievement and behavior. Journal of Individual Psychology.
  • Brigman, G., Villares, E., & Webb, L. (2013). The efficacy of individual psychology approaches for improving student achievement and behavior. Journal of Individual Psychology.
  • Brigman, G. & Webb, L. (2008). Education: An Individual Psychology approach to school consultation. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64, 506-515.
  • Camizzi, E., Clark, M. A., Yacco, S., & Goodman, W. (2009). Becoming "difference makers": School-university collaboration to create, implement, and evaluate data-driven counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling, 12, 471-479.
  • Carey, J., & Dimmitt, C. (2012). School counseling and student outcomes: Summary of six statewide studies. "Professional School Counseling 16," 146-153.
  • Carey, J. C., Dimmitt, C., Hatch, T. A., Lapan, R. T., & Whiston, S. C. (2008). Report of the national panel for evidence-based school counseling: Outcome research coding protocol and evaluation of student success skills and second step. Professional School Counseling, 11, 197-206.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2007). The ACCESS Questionnaire: Assessing K-12 school counseling programs and interventions to ensure equity and success for every student. Counseling and Human Development 39, 1-10.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Dahir, C. A., & Stone, C. B. (2009). School counselor accountability: The path to social justice and systemic change. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 12-20.
  • Dimmitt, C. (2009). Why evaluation matters: Determining effective school counseling practices. Professional School Counseling, 12, 395-399.
  • Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., & Hatch, T. (2007). Evidence-based school counseling: Making a difference with data-driven practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Gruman, D. H., & Hoelzen, B. (2011). Determining responsiveness to school counseling interventions using behavioral observations. Professional School Counseling, 14, 183-90.
  • Hatch, T. (2014). "The use of data in school counseling: Hatching results for students programs, and the profession." Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Hayes, R. L., Nelson, J.-L., Tabin, M., Pearson, G., & Worthy, C. (2002). Using school-wide data to advocate for student success. Professional School Counseling, 6, 86-95.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., Gonzalez, I., & Johnston, G. (2009). School counselor dispositions as predictors of data usage. Professional School Counseling, 12, 343-351
  • Isaacs, M. L. (2003). Data-driven decision-making: The engine of accountability. Professional School Counseling, 6," 288-295.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Lemberger, M. E., Brigman, G., Webb., L., & Moore, M. M. (2013). Student Success Skills: An evidence-based cognitive and social change theory for student achievement. Journal of Education, 192, 89-100.
  • Leon, A., Villares, E., Brigman, G., Webb, L., & Peluso, P.(2011). Closing the achievement gap of Hispanic students: A school counseling response. Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, 2, 73-86. doi 10.1177/2150137811400731
  • Mariani, M., Webb, L., Villares, E., & Brigman, G. (2012). Effects of participation in student success skills on pro-social and bullying behavior.
  • Martin, I., & Carey, J. C. (2012). Evaluation capacity within state-level school counseling programs: A cross-case analysis. "Professional School Counseling, 15," 132-143.
  • Poynton, T. A. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of a professional development workshop to increase school counselors' use of data: The role of technology. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 1, 29-48.
  • Poynton, T. A., & Carey, J. C. (2006). An integrated model of data-based decision making for school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 10, 121-130.
  • Scarborough, J. L., & Culbreth, J. R. (2008). Examining discrepancies between actual and preferred practice of school counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 446-459.
  • Scarborough, J. L. (2005). The school counselor activity rating scale: An instrument for gathering process data. Professional School Counseling, 8, 274-283.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling, 12, 440-449.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2007). Standards blending: Aligning school counseling programs with school academic achievement missions. Virginia Counselors Journal, 29, 13-20.
  • Sink, C. A. (2009). School counselors as accountability leaders: Another call for action. Professional School Counseling, 13, 68-74.
  • Sink, C. A., & Spencer, L. R. (2005). My Class Inventory-Short Form as an accountability tool for elementary school counselors to measure classroom climate. Professional School Counseling, 9, 37-48.
  • Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2011). School counselor accountability: A MEASURE of student success (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Studer, J. R., Oberman, A. H., & Womack, R. H. (2006). Producing evidence to show counseling effectiveness in schools. Professional School Counseling, 9, 385-391.
  • Villares, E., Brigman, G., & Maier, A. (2010). Student Success Skills: Building quality worlds and advocating for school counseling programs. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy, 1.
  • Villares, E., Brigman, G., & Peluso, P. (2008). Ready to Learn: An evidence-based Individual Psychology-linked curriculum for prekindergarten through first grade. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64, 386-402.
  • Villares, E., Frain, M., Brigman, G., Webb, L., & Peluso, P. (2012). The impact of Student Success Skills on standardized test scores: A meta-analysis Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation,doi 2150137811434041
  • Villares, E., Lemberger, M., & Brigman, G. (2011). Student Success Skills: An evidence-based school counseling program grounded in humanistic theory. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 50, 1.
  • Webb, L., Lemberger, M., & Brigman, G. (2008). Student Success Skills: A review of a research-based school counselor intervention influenced by Individual Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64, 339-352.
  • Whiston, S. C., & Aricak, T. (2008). Development and initial investigation of the School Counseling Program Evaluation Scale. Professional School Counseling, 11, 253-261.
  • Young, A., & Kaffenberger, C. J. (2011). The beliefs and practices of school counselors who use data to implement comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling, 15, 67-76.
  • Young, A., & Kaffenberger, C. (2009). Making data work (2nd ed.) Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

Advocacy, Empowerment, Equity, Social Justice[edit]

  • Akos, P., Lambie, G. W., Milsom, A., & Gilbert, K. (2007). Early adolescents' aspirations and academic tracking: An exploratory investigation. Professional School Counseling, 11," 57-64
  • Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C.-Y. (2005). Advocacy as a critical role for urban school counselors: Working toward equity and social justice. Professional School Counseling, 8, 196-202.
  • Bryan, J., Moore-Thomas, C., Day-Vines, N. L., Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Mitchell, N. (2009). Characteristics of students who receive school counseling services: Implications for practice and research. Journal of School Counseling, 7,.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Clemens, E. V., Shipp, A., & Kimbel, T. (2011). Investigating the psychometric properties of School Counselor Self-Advocacy Questionnaire. Professional School Counseling, 15, 34-44.
  • Cox, A. A., & Lee, C. C. (2007). Challenging educational inequities: School counselors as agents of social justice. In C. C. Lee, (Ed.)., Counseling for social justice, 2nd ed. (pp. 3-14). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Griffin, D., & Steen, S. (2011). A social justice approach to school counseling. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 3, 74-85.
  • Hipolito-Delgado, C. P., & Lee, C. C. (2007). Empowerment theory for the professional school counselor: A manifesto for what really matters. Professional School Counseling, 10, 327-332.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Mason, E. C. M., Ockerman, M. S., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) model: A framework for school counselor identity. Journal of School Counseling, 11(4). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n4.pdf
  • Ockerman, M. S., Mason, E. C. M., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). School counseling supervision in challenging times: The CAFE supervisor model. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 5(2), Article 4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7729/51.0024 http://repository.wcsu.edu/jcps/vol5/iss2/4/
  • Ratts, M., DeKruyf, L., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). The ACA Advocacy Competencies: A social justice advocacy framework for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11, 90-97.
  • Singh, A. A., Urbano, A., Haston, M., & McMahon, E. (2010). School counselors' strategies for social justice change: A grounded theory of what works in the real world. "Professional School Counseling, 13," 135-145.
  • Smith, L., Davis, K., & Bhowmik, M. (2010). Youth participatory action research groups as school counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling, 14, 174-182.
  • Studer, J. R. (2005). The professional school counselor: An advocate for students. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

ASCA Model/Standards, School Counseling Programs, Closing Gaps[edit]

  • Alberta Education, Special Education Branch (1995). From position to program: Building a comprehensive school guidance and counselling program: Planning and resource guide. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Author.
  • American School Counselor Association/Hatch, T. & Bowers, J. (2012). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs, (3rd ed.) Alexandria, VA: Author.
  • Barna, J. S., & Brott, P. E. (2011). How important is personal-social development to academic achievement? The elementary school counselor's perspective. Professional School Counseling, 14, 242-249.
  • Burkhard, A. W., Gillen, M., Martinez, M. J., & Skytte, S. (2012). Implementation challenges and training needs for comprehensive school counseling programs in Wisconsin high schools. "Professional School Counseling 16," 136-145.
  • Campbell, C. A., & Dahir, C. A. (1997). Sharing the vision: The national standards for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
  • Carey, J., & Dimmitt, C. (2012). School counseling and student outcomes: Summary of six statewide studies. "Professional School Counseling 16," 146-153.
  • Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Hoffman, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA National Model school counseling programs in rural and suburban Nebraska high schools, Professional School Counseling 16, 100-107.
  • Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Stevenson, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA National Model school counseling programs in Utah high schools, Professional School Counseling 16, 89-99.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2007). The ACCESS Questionnaire: Assessing K-12 school counseling programs and interventions to ensure equity and success for every student. Counseling and Human Development, 39, 1-10.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Clemens, E. V., Carey, J. C., Harrington, K. M. (2010). The School Counseling Program Implementation Survey: Initial instrument development and exploratory factor analysis. Professional School Counseling, 14, 125-134.
  • Corbin, D. S., & McNaughton, K. (2004). Perceived needs of educational administrators for student services offices in a Chinese context: School counselling programs addressing the needs of children and teachers. School Psychology International, 25, 373-382.
  • Dahir, C. A., Burnham, J. J., & Stone, C. (2009). Listen to the voices: School counselors and comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling, 12, 182-192.
  • De Leon, Angela P., 2011. "A Model Prekindergarten through 4th Year of College (P-16) Individual Graduation Plan Proposal." Applied Research Projects, Texas State University-San Marcos. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/364
  • Dimmitt, C., & Carey, J. (2007). Using the ASCA National Model to facilitate school transitions. Professional School Counseling, 10, 227-232.
  • Dimmit, C., & Wilkerson, B. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling in Rhode Island: Access to services and student outcomes. "Professional School Counseling 16," 125-135.
  • Fezler, B., & Brown, C. (2011). The international model for school counseling programs. Pembroke Pines, FL: Association of American Schools in South America (AASSA). http://www.aassa.com/page.cfm?p=356
  • Fitch, T. J., & Marshall, J. L. (2004). What counselors do in high-achieving schools: A study on the role of the school counselor. Professional School Counseling, 7, 172-177.
  • Hartline, J., & Cobia, D. (2012). School counselors: Closing achievement gaps and writing results reports. Professional School Counseling, 16, 71-79.
  • Hatch, T. (2008). Professional challenges in school counseling: Organizational, institutional and political. Journal of School Counseling, 6(22). Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v6n22.pdf.
  • Hatch, T. (2014). The use of data in school counseling: Hatching results for students, programs and the professions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Hatch, T., & Bowers, J. (2003, 2005, 2012). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.
  • Hatch, T., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2008). School counselor beliefs about ASCA National Model school counseling program components using the SCPCS. Professional School Counseling, 12, 34-42.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Mitchell, N. (2005). A descriptive study of urban school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling, 8, 203-209.
  • Johnson, S., & Johnson, C. D. (2003). Results-based guidance: A systems approach to student support programs. Professional School Counseling, 6, 180-185.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Stevenson, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA National Model school counseling programs in Utah high schools, Professional School Counseling 16, 89-99.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2001). Results-based comprehensive guidance and counseling programs: A framework for planning and evaluation. Professional School Counseling, 4.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Petroski, G. F. (2001). Helping seventh graders be safe and successful in school: A statewide study of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79, 320-330.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., & Sun, Y. (1997). The impact of more fully implemented guidance programs on the school experiences of high school students: A statewide evaluation study. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75, 292-302.
  • Lee, V. V., & Goodnough, G. E. (2011). Systemic, data-driven school counseling practice and programming for equity. In B. T. Erford, (Ed.)., "Transforming the school counseling profession." (pp. 129–153). Boston: Pearson.
  • MacDonald, G., & Sink, C. A. (1999). A qualitative developmental analysis of comprehensive guidance program in schools in the United States. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 27, 415-430.
  • Martin, I., & Carey, J. C. (2012). Evaluation capacity within state-level school counseling programs: A cross-case analysis. "Professional School Counseling, 15," 132-143.
  • Martin, I., Carey, J., & DeCoster, K. (2009). A national study of the current status of state school counseling models. Professional School Counseling, 12, 378-386.
  • Mason, E. C. M., Ockerman, M. S., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) model: A framework for school counselor identity. Journal of School Counseling, 11(4). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n4.pdf
  • Nova Scotia Department of Education. (2002). Comprehensive guidance and counselling program. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: Author.
  • Paisley, P. O. (2001). Maintaining and enhancing the developmental focus in school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling, 4, 271-277.
  • Perusse, R., & Goodnough, G. D. (2001). A comparison of existing school counselor program content with the Education Trust initiatives. Counselor Education and Supervision, 41, 100-110.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. E., & Noel, C. J. (2001). Use of the national standards for school counseling programs in preparing school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 5, 49-56.
  • Poynton, T. A., Schumacher, R. A., & Wilczenski, F. L. (2008). School counselors' attitudes regarding statewide comprehensive developmental guidance model implementation. Professional School Counseling, 11, 417-422.
  • Pyne, J. R. (2011). Comprehensive school counseling programs, job satisfaction, and the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling, 15, 88-97.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling, 12, 440-449.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2007). Standards blending: Aligning school counseling programs with school academic achievement missions. Virginia Counselors Journal, 29, 13-20.
  • Schwallie-Giddis, P., ter Maat, M., & Pak, M. (2003). Initiating leadership by introducing and implementing the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling, 6, 170-17 .
  • Sink, C. A., & Stroh, H. R. (2003). Raising achievement test scores of early elementary school students through comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling, 6, 352-364.
  • Sink, C. A., Akos, P., Turnbull, R. J., & Mvududu, N. (2008). An investigation of comprehensive school counseling programs and academic achievement in Washington State middle schools. Professional School Counseling, 12, 43-53.
  • Stevens, H., & Wilkerson, K. (2010). The developmental assets and ASCA's National Standards: A crosswalk review. "Professional School Counseling, 13," 227-233.
  • Promoting Latino student achievement and development through the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling, 10, 464-474.
  • Walsh, M. E., Barrett, J. G., DePaul, J. (2007). Day-to-day activities of school counselors: Alignment with new directions in the field and the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling, 10, 370-378.
  • Young, A., & Kaffenberger, C. J. (2011). The beliefs and practices of school counselors who use data to implement comprehensive school counseling programs. Professional School Counseling, 15, 67-76.

Bilingual School Counseling[edit]

  • Aydin, G., Bryan, J., & Duys, D. K. (2012). School counselors' partnerships working with linguistically diverse families: An exploratory study. The School Community Journal, 22, 145-166.
  • Bruhn, R. A., Irby, B. J., Lou, M., Thweatt, W. T. III, & Lara-Alecio, R. (2005). A model for training bilingual school counselors. In J. Tinajero and V. Gonzales (Eds.), Review of research and practice, (pp. 145–161). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Seo, M., Sink, C. A., Cho, H.-I. (2011). Korean version of the Life Perspectives Inventory: Psychometric properties and implications for high school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 15, 15-33.
  • Shi, Q., & Steen, S. (2012). Using the Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) Group Model to promote self-esteem and academic achievement for English as a Second Language (ESL) students. Professional School Counseling, 16, 63-70.
  • Smith-Adcock, S., Daniels, M. H., Lee, S. M., Villalba, J. A., & Indelicato, N. A. (2006). Culturally responsive school counseling for Hispanic/Latino students and families: The need for bilingual school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 10, 92-101.

Career and College Access/Admission/Readiness; Closing Opportunity/Attainment Gaps[edit]

  • Auerbach, S. (2002). Why do they give the good classes to some and not to others? Latino parent narratives of struggle in a college access program. Teachers College Record, 104, 1369-1392.
  • Bryan, J., Holcomb-McCoy, C., Moore-Thomas, C, and Day-Vines, N. L. (2009). Who sees the school counselor for college information? A national study. Professional School Counseling, 12, 280-291.
  • Bryan, J., Moore-Thomas, C., Day-Vines, N. L., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2011). School counselors as social capital: The effects of high school college counseling on college application rates. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 190-199.
  • Ceja, M. (2004). Chicana college aspirations and the role of parents: Developing educational resilience. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 3, 338-362.
  • Chang, D. H. F. (2002). The past, present, and future of career counseling in Taiwan. Career Development Quarterly, 50, 218-225.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Saud Maxwell, K., & Bailey, D. F. (2009). Equity-based school counseling: Ensuring career and college readiness for every student. DVD. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.
  • The College Board. (2008). Inspiration & innovation: Ten effective counseling practices from the College Board's Inspiration Award schools. Washington, D.C.: Author.
  • The College Board. (2010). The college counseling sourcebook: Advice and strategies from experienced school counselors. (7th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Collins, D. E., Weinbaum, A. T., Ramon, G., & Vaughan, D. (2009). Laying the groundwork: The constant gardening for postsecondary access and success. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 8, 394-417.
  • De Leon, Angela P., 2011. A Model Prekindergarten Through 4th Year of College (P-16) Individual Graduation Plan Proposal. Applied Research Projects, Texas State University-San Marcos. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/364
  • Fallon, M. A. C. (2011). Enrollment management's sleeping giant: The net price calculator mandate. Journal of College Admissions, Spring, 6-13.
  • Fitzpatrick, C., & Costantini, K. (2011). Counseling 21st Century students for optimal college and career readiness: A 9th-12th grade curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Gibbons, M. M., Borders, L. D., Wiles, M. E., Stephan, J. B., & Davis, P. E. (2006). Career and college planning needs of ninth graders—as reported by ninth graders. Professional School Counseling, 10, 168-178.
  • Gibbons, M. M., & Borders, L. D. (2010). A measure of college-going self-efficacy for middle school students. Professional School Counseling, 13, 234-243.
  • Hatch, T., & Bardwell, R. (2012). School counselors using data. In National Association for College Admission Counseling (Ed.), NACAC's Fundamentals of College Admission Counseling (3rd ed.). Arlington, VA: Counseling.
  • Hatch, T. (2012). School counselors: Creating a college-going culture in K-12 schools. In National Association for College Admission Counseling (Ed.), NACAC's Fundamentals of College Admission Counseling (3rd ed.). Arlington, VA: National Association for College Admission Counseling.
  • Horn, L., & Berktold, J. (1999). Students with disabilities in postsecondary education: A profile of preparation, participation, and outcomes. (National Center for Education Statistics No. 187). Washington, D. C.: United States Department of Education.
  • Hossler, D., Schmidt, J., & Vesper, N. (1998). Going to college: How social, economic, and educational factors influence the decisions students make. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Krell, M., & Perusse, R. (2012). Providing college readiness counseling for students with Autism spectrum disorders: A Delphi study to guide school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 16, 29-39.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Lapan, R. T., Whitcomb, S. A., & Aleman, N. M. (2012). Connecticut professional school counselors: College and career counseling services and smaller ratios benefit students. Professional School Counseling 16, 117-124.
  • Lee, S. M., Daniels, M. H., Puig, A., Newgent, R. A., & Nam, S. K. (2008). A data-based model to predict postsecondary educational attainment of low-socioeconomic-status students. Professional School Counseling, 11, 306-316.
  • Marisco, M., & Getch, Y. Q. (2009). Transitioning Hispanic seniors from high school to college. Professional School Counseling, 12, 458-462.
  • Mason, E. C. M., Ockerman, M. S., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) model: A framework for school counselor identity. Journal of School Counseling, 11(4). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n4.pdf
  • McKillip, M. E. M., Rawls, A., & Barry, C. (2012). Improving college access: A review of research on the role of high school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 16, 49-58.
  • Muhammad, C. G. (2008). African American student and college choice: A consideration of the role of school counselors. NASSP Bulletin, 92, 81-94.
  • National Association of College Admission Counseling. (2008). Fundamentals of college admission counseling (2d ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall-Hunt.
  • Ohrt, J. H., Lambie, G. W., & Ieva, K. P. (2009). Supporting Latino and African-American students in Advanced Placement courses: A school counseling program's approach. Professional School Counseling, 13," 59-63.
  • Oliva, M. (2004). Reluctant partners, problem definition, and legislative intent: P-20 policy for Latino college success. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 3, 209-230.
  • Perna, L., Rowan-Kenyon, H., Thomas, S., Bell, A., Anderson, R., & Li, C. (2008). The role of college counseling in shaping college opportunity: Variations across high schools. Review of Higher Education, 31, 131-159.
  • Perna, L, & Titus, M. A. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: An examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76, 485-518.
  • Sciarra, D. T., & Ambrosino, K. E. (2011). Post-secondary expectations and educational attainment. Professional School Counseling, 14, 231-241.
  • Sciarra, D. T., & Whitson, M. L. (2007). Predictive factors in postsecondary educational attainment among Latinos. Professional School Counseling, 10, 307-316.
  • Smith, W. L., & Zhang, P. (2009). Students' perceptions and experiences with key factors during the transition from high school to college. College Student Journal, 43, 643-657.
  • Stage, F., & Hossler, D. (1989). Differences in family influences on college attendance plans for male and female ninth graders. Research in Higher Education, 30, 301-314.
  • Tang, M., Pan, W., & Newmeyer, M. (2008). Factors influencing high school students' career aspirations. Professional School Counseling, 11, 285-295.
  • Torrez, N. (2004). Developing parent information frameworks that support college preparation for Latino students. The High School Journal, 87, 54-59.
  • Trusty, J., & Niles, S. G. (2004). Realized potential or lost talent: High school variables and bachelor's degree completion. Career Development Quarterly, 53, 2-15.
  • Trusty, J., & Niles, S. G. (2003). High-school math courses and completion of the bachelor's degree. Professional School Counseling, 7, 99-107.
  • Turner, S. L., & Ziebell, J. L. C. (2011). The career beliefs of inner-city adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 15, 1-14.

Caseloads, Collaboration, Resources, Schedule Changes, School Counselor/Student Ratios[edit]

  • Akos, P., Schuldt, H., & Walendin, M. (2009). School counselor assignment in secondary schools. Professional School Counseling, 13, 23-29.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Griffin, D., & Farris, A. (2010). School counselors and collaboration: Finding resources through community asset mapping. Professional School Counseling, 13, 248-256.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling, 16, 84-88.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., Bragg, S., & Pierce, M. E. (2012). Missouri professional school counselors: Ratios matter, especially in high-poverty schools. Professional School Counseling, 16, 117-124.
  • Lapan, R. T., Whitcomb, S. A., & Aleman, N. M. (2012). Connecticut professional school counselors: College and career counseling services and smaller ratios benefit students. Professional School Counseling, 16, 117-124.
  • McCarthy, C., Kerne, V. V. H., Calfa, N. A., Lambert, R. G., & Guzman, M. (2010). An exploration of school counselors' demands and resources: Relationship to stress, biographic, and caseload characteristics. Professional School Counseling, 13, 146-158.
  • Portman, T., Wood, S. M., & Viviani, A. (2011). Secondary student schedule changes: Accountability issues in school counseling program management. Journal of Counseling Research and Practice, 2, 20-25.

Counseling Theories in Schools[edit]

  • Henderson, D. A. & Thompson, C. L. (2010). Counseling children. New York: Brooks/Cole/Cengage.
  • Lemberger, M. E. & Nash, E. R. (2008). School counselors and the influence of Adler: Individual psychology since the advent of the ASCA National Model. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64, 386-402.
  • Lemberger, M. E. (2010). Advocating student-within-environment: A humanistic theory for school counseling. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 49, 131-146.
  • Perusse, R., and Goodnough, G. E., (Eds.). (2004). Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Cengage.
  • Shen, Y., & Herr, E. L. (2003). Perceptions of play therapy in Taiwan: The voices of school counselors and school counselor educators. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 25, 27-41.
  • Sklare, G. B. (2014). Brief counseling that works: A solution-focused therapy approach for school counselors and other mental health professionals (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Winslade, J. M., & Monk G. D. (2007). Narrative counseling in schools: Powerful and brief (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Credentialing Exams for School Counselors[edit]

  • Schellenberg, R. (2012). The school counselor’s study guide for credentialing exams. New York: Routledge.

Cultural Competence, Ethnic/Racial Identity Development in Schools[edit]

  • Buser, J. K. (2010). American Indian adolescents and disordered eating. Professional School Counseling, 14, 146-155.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Day-Vines, N. L., & Day-Hairston, B. O. (2005). Culturally congruent strategies for addressing the behavioral needs of urban African-American male adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 8, 236-243.
  • Day-Vines, N., Patton, J., & Baytops, J. (2003). African American adolescents: The impact of race and middle class status on the counseling process. Professional School Counseling, 7, 40-51.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2011). Culturally competent school counselors: Affirming diversity by challenging oppression. In B. T. Erford, (Ed). Transforming the school counseling profession. (3rd ed). (pp. 90–109). Boston: Pearson.
  • Malott, K. M., Alessandria, K. P., Kirkpatrick, M., & Carandang, J. (2009). Ethnic labeling in Mexican-origin youth: A qualitative assessment. Professional School Counseling, 12, 352-364.
  • Maxwell, M. J., & Henriksen, R. C. (2012). Counseling multiple heritage adolescents: A phenomenological study of experiences and practices of middle school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 16, 18-28.
  • Portman, T. A. A. (2009). Faces of the future: School counselors as cultural mediators. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 21-27.
  • Schellenberg, R., & Grothaus, T. (2009). Promoting cultural responsiveness and closing the achievement gap with standards blending. Professional School Counseling, 12, 440-449.
  • Shen, Y.-J., & Lowing, R. J. (2007). School counselors' self-perceived Asian American counseling competence. Professional School Counseling, 11, 69-71.
  • Shin, R. Q., Daly, B. P., & Vera, E. M. (2007). The relationships of peer norms, ethnic identity, and peer support to school engagement in urban youth. Professional School Counseling, 10, 379-388.
  • Suh, S., & Satcher, J. (2005). Understanding at-risk Korean American youth, Professional School Counseling, 8, 428-435.
  • Trusty, J. (2002). African Americans' educational expectations: Longitudinal causal models for women and men. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80, 332-345.
  • Turner, S. L., Conkel, J. L., Reich, A. N., Trotter, M. J., & Slewart, J. J. Social skills efficacy and proactivity among Native American adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 10, 189-194
  • Vera, E. M., Vacek, K., Coyle, L. D., Stinson, J., Mull, M., Buchheit, C., Gorman, C., Hewitt, A., Keene, C., Blackmon, S., & Langrehr, K. J. (2011). An examination of culturally relevant stressors, coping, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being in urban ethnic minority adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 15, 55-66.
  • Wyatt, S. (2009). The brotherhood: Empowering adolescent African-American males toward excellence. Professional School Counseling, 12, 463-470.

Counseling Core Curriculum, Lesson Plans, Classroom Management[edit]

  • Fitzpatrick, C., & Costantini, K. (2011). Counseling 21st Century students for optimal college and career readiness: A 9th-12th grade curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Geltner, J. A., & Clark, M. A. (2005). Engaging students in classroom guidance: Management strategies for middle school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9, 164-166.
  • Geltner, J. A., Cunningham, T. J., & Caldwell, C. D. (2011). Identifying curriculum components for classroom management training for school counselors: A Delphi study. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 3, 82-94.
  • Goodnough, G. E., Perusse, R., & Erford, B. T. (2011). Developmental classroom guidance. In B. T. Erford, (Ed.)., Transforming the school counseling profession (3rd ed.). (pp. 154–177). Boston: Pearson.
  • Perusse, R., & Goodnough, G. E., (Eds.). (2004). Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Villares, E., Brigman, G., & Maier, A. (2010). Student Success Skills: Building quality worlds and advocating for school counseling programs. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Therapy, 1.
  • Villares, E., Brigman, G., & Peluso, P. (2008). Ready to Learn: An evidence-based Individual Psychology-linked curriculum for prekindergarten through first grade. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64, 386-402.
  • Villares, E., Frain, M., Brigman, G., Webb, L., & Peluso, P. (2012). The impact of Student Success Skills on standardized test scores: A meta-analysis Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation,doi 2150137811434041
  • Villares, E., Lemberger, M., & Brigman, G. (2011). Student Success Skills: An evidence-based school counseling program grounded in humanistic theory. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 50, 1.
  • Webb, L., Lemberger, M., & Brigman, G. (2008). Student Success Skills: A review of a research-based school counselor intervention influenced by Individual Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 64, 339-352.

Ethics and Law in School Counseling[edit]

  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Moyer, M. S., Sullivan, J. R., & Growcock, D. (2012). When is it ethical to inform administrators about student risk-taking behaviors? Perceptions of school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 15, 98-109.
  • Moyer, M. S., & Sullivan, J. R. (2008). Student risk-taking behaviors: When do school counselors break confidentiality? Professional School Counseling, 11, 236-245.
  • Stone, C. B., & Zirkel, P. A. (2010). School counselor advocacy: When law and ethics may collide. Professional School Counseling, 13, 244-247.
  • Stone, C. B. (2005). School counseling principles: Ethics and law. Alexandria, VA: American School Counselor Association.

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender School Counseling[edit]

  • Bidell, M. P. (2005). The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Assessing attitudes, skills, and knowledge of counselors working with lesbian/gay/bisexual clients. Counselor Education and Supervision, 44, 267–279.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2012). Counseling and advocacy with a gay father, a straight mom, and a transgender adolescent. In S. H. Dworkin & M. Pope, (Eds.)., Casebook for counseling lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons and their families (pp. 45–52). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2001). Counseling and advocacy with transgendered and gender-variant persons in schools and families. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development, 40, 34-48.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., & Haley-Banez, L. (2000). Lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgendered counseling in schools and families (1, 2). DVDs. Hanover, MA: Microtraining Associates.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Depaul, J., Walsh, M., E., & Dam, U. C. (2009). The role of school counselors in addressing sexual orientation in schools. Professional School Counseling, 12, 300-308.
  • Fisher, E. S., & Komosa-Hawkins, K., (Eds.). (2013). Creating safe and supportive learning environments: A guide for working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth and families. New York: Routledge.
  • Goodrich, K. M., & Luke, M. (2011). The LGBTQ Responsive Model for Group Supervision of Group Work. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 36(1), 22-39.
  • Goodrich, K. M., & Luke, M. (2010). The experiences of school counselors-in-training in group work with LGBTQ adolescents. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 35(2), 143-159.
  • Goodrich, K. M., & Luke, M. (2009). LGBTQ responsive school counseling. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 3, 113-127.
  • Luke, M., Goodrich, K. M., & Scarborough, J. L. (2011). Integration of K-12 LGBTQI student population into school counselor education curricula: The current state of affairs. The Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 5(2), 80-101. doi:10.1080/15538605.2011.574530.
  • McFarland, W. P. (2001). The legal duty to protect gay and lesbian students from violence in school. Professional School Counseling, 4, 171-179.
  • Ryan, C., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Educating and empowering families of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning students. In E. S. Fisher & K. Komosa-Hawkins, (Eds.)., Creating safe and supportive learning environments: A guide for working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth and families (pp. 209-229). New York: Routledge.
  • Satcher, J., & Leggett, M. (2007). Homonegativity among professional school counselors: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling, 11, 10-16.
  • Satcher, J., & Leggett, M. (2005). What to say when your student may be gay? A primer for school counselors. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 31, 44-52.
  • Smith, S. D., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2004). Leadership and advocacy strategies for lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgendered, and questioning (LBGTQ) students: Academic, career, and interpersonal success. In R. Perusse and G. E. Goodnough (Eds.), Leadership, advocacy, and direct service strategies for professional school counselors (pp. 187–221). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole/Cengage.
  • Varjas, K., Graybill, E., Mahan, W., Dew, B., Marshall, M., & Singh, A. (2007). Urban service providers' perspectives on school responses to gay, lesbian, and questioning students: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling, 11, 113-119.
  • Whitman, J. S., Horn, S. S., & Boyd, C. J. (2007). Activism in the schools: Providing LGBTQ affirmative training to school counselors. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 11, 143-154.

Group Counseling in Schools[edit]

  • Brigman, G., & Early, B. (2001). Group counseling for school counselors: A practical guide. Portland, ME: Walch.
  • Paisley, P., & Milsom, A. (2007). Group work as an essential contribution to transforming school counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 32, 9-17.
  • Steen, S., Bauman, S., & Smith, J. (2007). Professional school counselors and the practice of group work. Professional School Counseling, 11, 72-80.
  • Steen, S., & Kaffenberger, C. J. (2007). Integrating academic interventions into small group counseling in elementary school. Professional School Counseling, 10, 516-519.

International School Counseling[edit]

  • Aluede, O. O., Adomeh, I. O. C., & Afen-Akpaida, J. E. (2004). Some thoughts about the future of guidance and counseling in Nigeria. Education Winter, 2004.
  • Ayyash-Abdo, H., Alamuddin, R., & Mukallid, S. (2010). School counseling in Lebanon: Past, present, and future. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 13-17.
  • Carson, D. K., Jain, S., & Ramirez, S. (2009). Counseling and family therapy in India: Evolving professions in a rapidly developing nation. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 31 45-56. doi: 10.1007/s10447-008-9067-8
  • Dogan, S. (2002). The historical development of counseling in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 22, 57-67.
  • Erhard, R., & Harel, Y. (2005). International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 27, 87-98.
  • Harris, B. (2013). International school-based counselling scoping report. http://counsellingminded.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/harris_MindEd_report.pdf#!
  • Hosenshil, T. H., Amundson, N. E., & Niles, S. G. (2013). Counseling around the world: An international handbook. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Hui, E. K. P. (2000). Guidance as a whole school approach in Hong Kong: From remediation to student development. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 22, 69-82.
  • Fezler, B., & Brown, C. (2011). The international model for school counseling programs. Pembroke Pines, FL: Association of American Schools in South America (AASSA). http://www.aassa.com/page.cfm?p=356
  • Iwuama, B. C. (1998). School counseling in Nigeria: Today and tomorrow. Journal of Educational Systems Research and Development, 1, 8-18.
  • Jiang, G. R. (2007). The development of school counseling in the Chinese mainland. Journal of Basic Education, 14" 65-82.
  • Lee, S. M., Oh, I., & Suh, S. (2007). Comparison study of Korean and

American school counseling for developing a Korean school counseling model. Korean Journal of Counseling Psychology, 19, 539-567.

  • Lim, S.-L., Lim, B. K. H., Michael, R., Cai, R., & Schock, C. K. (2010). The trajectory of counseling in China: Past, present, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 4-8.
  • Maree, J. G., & van der Westhuizen, C. N. (2011). Professional counseling in South Africa: A landscape under construction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 105-111.
  • See, C. M., & Ng, K-M. (2010). Counseling in Malaysia: History, current status, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 18-22.
  • Sinha, V. K. (2006). Counseling in schools. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry, 22, 82-83.
  • Stockton, R., & Guneri, O. Y. (2011). Counseling in Turkey: An evolving field. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 98-104.
  • Stockton, R., Nitza, A., & Bhusumane, D.-B. (2010). The development of professional counseling in Botswana. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 9-12.
  • Szilagyi, S., & Paredes, D. M. (2010). Professional counseling in Romania: An introduction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 23-27.
  • Thomason, T. C., & Qiong, X. (2007). School counseling in China Today. Journal of School Counseling, Downloaded from [2] June 19, 2009.

Leadership, Systemic Change, Principal Perceptions of School Counseling[edit]

  • Amatea, E., & Clark, M. (2005). Changing schools, changing counselors: A qualitative study of school administrators' conceptions of the school counselor role. Professional School Counseling, 9, 16-27.
  • Beesley, D., & Frey, L. L. (2001). Principals' perceptions of school counselor roles and satisfaction with school counseling services. Journal of School Counseling, 4, 1-27.
  • Bemak, F. (2000). Transforming the role of the counselor to provide leadership in educational reform through collaboration. Professional School Counseling, 3, 323-331.
  • Chata, C. C., & Loesch, L. C. (2007). Future school principals' views of the role of professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11, 35-41.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Miller, E. M., Bailey, D. F., Getch, Y. Q., & Erford, B. T. (2011). Leadership and achievement advocacy for every student. In B. T. Erford, (Ed)., Transforming the school counseling profession (3rd ed.) (pp. 110–128). Boston, MA: Pearson.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Clark, M., & Stone, C. (2001). School counselors and principals: Partners in support of academic achievement. National Association of Secondary Principals Bulletin, 85, 46-53.
  • Clemens, E. V., Milsom, A., & Cashwell, C. S. (2009). Using leader-member exchange theory to examine principal-school counselor relationships, school counselors' roles, job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Professional School Counseling, 13, 75-85.
  • Curry, J. R., & Bickmore, D. (2012). School counselor induction and the importance of mattering. Professional School Counseling, 15, 110-122.
  • Curry, J. R., & DeVoss, J. A. (2009). Introduction to special issue: The school counselor as leader. Professional School Counseling, 13, 64-67.
  • Dahir, C. (2004). Supporting a nation of learners: The role of school counseling in educational reform. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 344-364.
  • Devoss, J. A., & Andrews, M. F. (2006). School counselors as educational leaders. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.
  • Dollarhide, C. T., Gibson, D. M., & Saginak, K. A. (2008). New counselors' leadership efforts in school counseling: Themes from a year-long qualitative study. Professional School Counseling 11, 262-271.
  • Dollarhide, C. T., Smith, A. T., & Lemberger, M. E. (2007). Critical incidents in the development of supportive principals: Facilitating school counselor-principal relationships. Professional School Counseling, 10, 360-369.
  • Dodson, T. (2009). Advocacy and impact: A comparison of administrators' perceptions of the high school counselor role. Professional School Counseling, 12, 480-487.
  • Ford, A., & Nelson, J. (2007). Secondary school counselors as educational leaders: Shifting perceptions of leadership. Journal of School Counseling, 5, 1-27.
  • Gysbers, N. C. (2006). Improving school guidance and counseling practices through effective and sustained state leadership: A response to Miller. Professional School Counseling, 9, 245-247.
  • Hatch, T. (2008). Professional challenges in school counseling: Organizational, institutional and political. Journal of School Counseling, 6(22). Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v6n22.pdf.
  • Herr, E. L. (2001). The impact of national policies, economics, and school reform on comprehensive guidance programs. Professional School Counseling, 4, 236-245.
  • Janson, C. (2009). High school counselors' views of their leadership behaviors: A Q methodology study. Professional School Counseling, 13, 86-97.
  • Janson, C., Militello, M., & Kosine, N. (2008). Four views of the professional school counselor and principal relationship: A Q methodology study. Professional School Counseling, 11, 353-361.
  • Janson, C., Stone, C., & Clark, M. A. (2009). Stretching leadership: A distributed perspective for school counselor leaders. Professional School Counseling, 13, 98-106.
  • Johnson, J., Rochkind, J., Ott, A., & DuPont, S. (2010). Can I get a little advice here? How an overstretched high school guidance system is undermining students' college aspirations. San Francisco: Public Agenda.
  • Kaplan, L. S. (1999). Hiring the best school counseling candidates to promote student achievement. NASSP Bulletin, 83, 34-39.
  • Keys, S. G., & Lockhart, E. (2000). The school counselor's role in facilitating multisystemic change. Professional School Counseling, 3, 101-107.
  • Kirchner, G., & Setchfield, M. (2005). School counselors' and school principals' perceptions of the school counselor's role. Education 126, 10-16.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Leuwerke, W. C., Walker, J., & Shi, Q. (2009). Informing principals: The impact of different types of information on principals' perceptions of professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 12, 263-271.
  • Mason, E. C. M., & McMahon, H. G. (2009). Leadership practices of school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 13, 107-115.
  • Mason, E. C. M., Ockerman, M. S., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) model: A framework for school counselor identity. Journal of School Counseling, 11(4). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n4.pdf
  • McMahon, H. G., Mason, E. C. M., & Paisley, P. O. (2009). School counselor educators as educational leaders promoting systemic change. Professional School Counseling, 13, 116-124.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. D., Donegan, J., & Jones, C. (2004). Perceptions of school counselors and school principals about the National Standards for School Counseling programs and the Transforming School Counseling Initiative. Professional School Counseling, 7, 152-161.
  • Reynolds, S. E., & Hines, P. L. (2001). Guiding all kids: Systemic guidance for achievement in schools. (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: American Student Achievement Institute.
  • Reynolds, S. E., & Hines, P. L. (2001). Vision-to-action: A step-by-step activity guide for systemic educational reform. (6th ed.). Bloomington, IN: American Student Achievement Institute.
  • Ross, D., & Herrington, D. (2006). A comparative study of pre-professional counselor/principal perceptions of the role of the school counselor in public schools. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 23, 1-18.
  • Ryan, T., Kaffenberger, C. J., & Carroll, A. G. (2011). Response to intervention: An opportunity for school counselor leadership. Professional School Counseling, 14, 211-221.
  • Saginak, K. A., & Dollarhide, C. T. (2006). Leadership with administration: Securing administrative support for transforming your program. Journal of School Counseling, 4, 1-19.
  • Shillingford, M. A., & Lambie, G. W. (2010). Contribution of professional school counselors' values and leadership practices to their programmatic service delivery. Professional School Counseling, 13, 208-217.
  • Zalaquett, C. P. (2005). Principals' perceptions of elementary school counselors' role and function. Professional School Counseling 8, 451-457.

Outcome Research in School Counseling[edit]

  • Brooks-McNamara, V., & Torres, D. (2008). The reflective school counselor's guide to practitioner research: Skills and strategies for successful inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  • Bryan, J. A., Day-Vines, N. L., Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Moore-Thomas, C. (2010). Using national education longitudinal data sets in school counseling research. Counselor Education and Supervision, 49, 266-279.
  • Carey, J., & Dimmitt, C. (2012). School counseling and student outcomes: Summary of six statewide studies. Professional School Counseling 16, 146-153.
  • Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Hoffman, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA National Model school counseling programs in rural and suburban Nebraska high schools, Professional School Counseling 16, 100-107.
  • Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Stevenson, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA National Model school counseling programs in Utah high schools, Professional School Counseling 16, 89-99.
  • Clark, M. A., Thompson, P., & Vialle, W. (2008). Examining the gender gap in educational outcomes in public education: Involving pre-service school counsellors and teachers in cross-cultural and interdisciplinary research. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 52-66.
  • Dimmitt, C., Carey, J. C., McGannon, W., & Henningson, I. (2005). Identifying a school counseling research agenda: A Delphi study. Counselor Education & Supervision, 44, 215-228.
  • Dimmit, C., & Wilkerson, B. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling in Rhode Island: Access to services and student outcomes. "Professional School Counseling 16," 125-135.
  • Falco, L. D., Bauman, S., Sumnicht, Z., & Engelstad A. (2011). Content analysis of the Professional School Counseling journal: The first ten years. Professional School Counseling, 14, 271-277.
  • Foster, L. H., Watson, T. S., Meeks, C., & Young, J. S. (2002). Single-subject research design for school counselors: Becoming an applied researcher. Professional School Counseling, 6, 146-159.
  • Kaffenberger, C., & Davis, T. (2009). Introduction to special issue: A call for practitioner research. Professional School Counseling, 12, 392-394.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Lapan, R. T., Whitcomb, S. A., & Aleman, N. M. (2012). Connecticut professional school counselors: College and career counseling services and smaller ratios benefit students. "Professional School Counseling 16," 117-124.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., Bragg, S., & Pierce, M. E. (2012). Missouri professional school counselors: Ratios matter, especially in high-poverty schools. Professional School Counseling 16, 117-124.
  • Rowell, L. L. (2006). Action research and school counseling: Closing the gap between research and practice. Professional School Counseling, 9, 376-384.
  • Whiston, S. C., Tai, W. L., Rahardja, D., & Eder, K. (2011). School counseling outcome: A meta-analytic examination of interventions. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 37-55.
  • Whiston, S. C., & Sexton, T. L. (1998). A review of school counseling outcome research: Implications for practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 76, 412-426.

Personal/Social Interventions: Abuse, Addictions, Anxiety, Bullying, Conflict, Obesity, Peer Mediation, Self-Mutilation, Violence)[edit]

  • Barrett, K. M., Lester, S. V., & Durham, J. C. (2011). Child maltreatment and the advocacy role of professional school counselors. Journal of Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 3, 86-103.
  • Burrow-Sanchez, J. J., Call, M. E., Zheng, R., & Drew, C. J. (2011). How school counselors can help prevent online victimization. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 3-10.
  • Carney, J. V. (2008). Perceptions of bullying and associate trauma during adolescence. Professional School Counseling, 11, 179-188.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Chibbaro, J. S. (2007). School counselors and the cyberbully: Interventions and implications. Professional School Counseling, 11, 65-68.
  • Cook, A. L., & Hayden, L. A. (2012). Obesity prevention among Latino youth: School counselors' role in promoting healthy lifestyles. Professional School Counseling, 16, 7-17.
  • Curtis, R., Van Horne, J. W., Robertson, P., & Karvonen, M. (2010). Outcomes of a school-wide positive behavioral support program. "Professional School Counseling, 13, 159-164.
  • Hagedorn, W. B., & Young, T. (2011). Identifying and intervening with students exhibiting signs of gaming addiction and other addictive behaviors: Implications for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 14, 261-270.
  • Lambie, G. (2005). Child abuse and neglect: A practical guide for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8, 249-258.
  • McAdams, C. R., & Schmidt, C. D. (2007). How to help a bully: Recommendations for counseling the proactive aggressor. Professional School Counseling, 11, 120-128.
  • Moyer, M. S., & Nelson, K. W. (2007). Investigating and understanding self-mutilation: The student voice. Professional School Counseling, 11, 42-48.
  • Phillips, V. I., & Cornell, D. G. (2012). Identifying victims of bullying: Use of counselor interviews to confirm peer nominations. Professional School Counseling, 15, 123-131.
  • Rose, H., Miller, L, & Martinez, Y. (2009). "FRIENDS for Life": The results of a resilience-building, anxiety-prevention program in a Canadian elementary school. Professional School Counseling, 12, 400-407.
  • Schellenberg, R., Parks-Savage, A., & Rehfuss, M. (2007). Reducing levels of elementary school violence with peer mediation. Professional School Counseling, 10, 475-481.
  • Vera, E. M., Shin, R. Q., Montgomery, G., Mildner, C., & Speight, S. L (2004). Conflict resolution, self-efficacy, self-control, and future orientation of urban adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 8, 73-80.
  • Walley, C. T., & Grothaus, T. (2013). A qualitative examination of school counselors’ training to recognize and respond to adolescent mental health issues. Journal of School Counseling, 11(11). Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n11.pdf
  • Young, A., Hardy, V., Hamilton, C., Biernesser, K., Sun, L-L, & Niebergall, S. (2009). Empowering students: Using data to transform a bullying prevention and intervention program. Professional School Counseling, 12, 413-420.

Poverty, Homelessness, Classism[edit]

  • Amatea, E. S., & West-Olatunji, C. A. (2007). Joining the conversation about educating our poorest children: Emerging leadership roles for school counselors in high-poverty schools Professional School Counseling, 11, 81-89.
  • Gizir, C. A., & Aydin, G. (2009). Protective factors contributing to the academic resilience of students living in poverty in Turkey. Professional School Counseling, 13, 38-49.
  • Grothaus, T., Lorelle, S., Anderson, K., & Knight, J. (2011). Answering the call: Facilitating responsive services for students experiencing homelessness. Professional School Counseling, 14, 191-201.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Lapan, R. T., Gysbers, N. C., Bragg, S., & Pierce, M. E. (2012). Missouri professional school counselors: Ratios matter, especially in high-poverty schools. Professional School Counseling 16, 117-124.
  • Van Velsor, P., & Orozco, G. L. (2007). Involving low-income parents in the schools: Communitycentric strategies for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11, 17-24.

Rural School Counseling[edit]

  • Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Hoffman, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA National Model school counseling programs in rural and suburban Nebraska high schools, Professional School Counseling 16, 100-107.
  • Griffen, D., Hutchins, B. C., & Meece, J. L. (2011). Where do rural high school students go to find information about their futures? Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 172-181.
  • Montero-Leitner, J., Asner-Self, K. K., Milde, C., Leitner, D. W., & Skelton, D. (2006). The role of the rural school counselor: Counselor, counselor-in-training, and principal perceptions. Professional School Counseling, 9, 248-251.
  • Sutton, J. M., & Pearson, R. (2002). The practice of school counseling in rural and small town high schools. Professional School Counseling, 5, 266-276.

School-Family-Community Partnerships; Parenting Interventions for Academic Success[edit]

  • Aydin, G., Bryan, J., & Duys, D. K. (2012). School counselors' partnerships working with linguistically diverse families: An exploratory study. The School Community Journal, 22, 145-166.
  • Bailey, D. F., & Bradbury-Bailey, M. E. (2010). Empowered youth programs: Partnerships for enhancing postsecondary outcomes of African American adolescents. Professional School Counseling, 14, 64-74.
  • Bryan, J. (2005). Fostering educational resilience and academic achievement in urban schools through school-family-community partnerships. Professional School Counseling, 8, 219-227.
  • Bryan, J. A., & Griffin, D. (2010). A multidimensional study of school-family-community partnership involvement: School, school counselor, and training factors. Professional School Counseling, 14, 75-86.
  • Bryan, J., & Henry, L. (2008). Strengths-based partnerships: A school-family-community partnership approach to empowering students. Professional School Counseling, 12, 149-156.
  • Bryan, J., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2010). Collaboration and partnerships with families and communities. Professional School Counseling, 14, ii-v.
  • Bryan, J., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2004). School counselors' perceptions of their involvement in school family community partnerships. Professional School Counseling, 7, 162-171.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Dotson-Blake, K. P. (2010). Learning from each other: A portrait of family-school-community partnerships in the United States and Mexico. Professional School Counseling, 14, 101-114.
  • Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2010). School counselors' roles in developing partnerships with families and communities for student success. Professional School Counseling, 14, 1-14.
  • Griffen, D., & Farris, A. (2010). School counselors and school-family-community collaboration: Finding resources through community asset mapping, 13, 248-256.
  • Griffen, D., & Galassi, J. P. (2010). Parent perceptions of barriers to academic success in a rural middle school. Professional School Counseling, 14, 87-100.
  • Griffen, D., & Steen, S. (2010). School-family-community partnerships: Applying Epstein's theory of the six types of involvement to school counselor practice. Professional School Counseling, 14, 218-226.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2010). Involving low-income parents and parents of color in college readiness activities: An exploratory study. Professional School Counseling, 14, 115-124.
  • Luke, M. (2008). School-family-community partnerships: Implications for school counselors to bridge the gap in urban schools. New York State School Counseling Journal, 5(2), 13-22.
  • Moore-Thomas, C., & Day-Vines, N. L. (2010). Culturally competent collaboration: School counselor collaboration with African American families and communities. Professional School Counseling, 14, 53-63.
  • Sheely-Moore, A. I., & Bratton, S. C. (2010). A strengths-based parenting intervention with low-income African American families. Professional School Counseling, 13, 175-183.
  • Steen, S., & Noguera, P. A. (2010). A broader and bolder approach to school reform: Expanded partnership roles for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 14, 42-52.
  • Suarez-Orozco, C., Onaga, M., & de Lardemelle, C. (2010). Promoting academic engagement among immigrant adolescents through school-family-community collaboration. "Professional School Counseling, 14, 15-26.
  • Walker, J. M. T., Shenker, S., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2010). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Implications for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 14, 27-41.

Supervision, Site Supervisors, and School Counselor Education[edit]

  • Brott, P. E. (2006). Counselor education accountability: Training the effective professional school counselor. Professional School Counseling, 10, 179-187.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Curry, J. R., & Bickmore, D. (2012). School counselor induction and the importance of mattering. Professional School Counseling, 15, 110-122.
  • DeKruyf, L., & Pehrsson, D. E. (2011). School counseling site supervisor training: An exploratory study. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 314-327.
  • Dixon, A. L., Tucker, C., & Clark, M. A. (2010). Integrating social justice advocacy with national standards of practice: Implications for school counselor education. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 103-115.
  • Gibbons, M. M., & Studer, J. R. (2008). Suicide awareness training for faculty and staff: A training model for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11, 272-276.
  • Glosoff, H. L., & Durham, J. C. (2010). Using supervision to prepare social justice counseling advocates. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 116-129.
  • Hayes, R., & Paisley, P. (2002). Transforming school counselor preparation programs. Theory into Practice, 41, 170-176.
  • Herlihy, B., Gray, N., & McCollum, V. (2002). Ethical and legal issues in school counselor supervision. Professional School Counseling, 6, 55-60.
  • House, R. M., & Sears, S. J. (2002). Preparing school counselors to be leaders and advocates: A critical need in the new millennium. Theory into Practice, 41, 154-162.
  • Luke, M., & Bernard, J. M. (2006). The school counseling supervision model: An extension of the discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45, 282-295.
  • Luke, M., Ellis, M. V., & Bernard, J. M. (2011). School counselor supervisors' perceptions of the discrimination model of supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 328-343.
  • Luke, M., & Gordon, C. (2011). A discourse analysis of school counseling supervisory email. Counselor Education and Supervision, 50, 274-291.
  • Magnuson, S., Black, L. L., & Norem, K. (2004). Supervising school counselors and interns: Resources for site supervisors. Journal of Professional Counseling, Practice, Theory, & Research, 32, 4-15.
  • McDonald, K. E. (2011). Teaching the 6th edition of APA style of writing in Counselor Education. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 3, 123-141.
  • Miller, G. M., & Dollarhide, C. T. (2006). Supervision in schools: Building pathways to excellence. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45, 296-303.
  • Mullen, J A., Luke, M., & Drewes, A. (2007). Supervision can be playful too: Play therapy techniques that enhance supervision. International Journal of Play Therapy, 16, 69-85.
  • Murphy, S., & Kaffenberger, C. (2007). ASCA National Model: The foundation for supervision of practicum and internship students. Professional School Counseling, 10, 289-296.
  • Ockerman, M. S., Mason, E. C. M., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). School counseling supervision in challenging times: The CAFE supervisor model. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 5(2), Article 4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7729/51.0024 http://repository.wcsu.edu/jcps/vol5/iss2/4/
  • Paisley, P., & Hayes, R. (2003). School counseling in the academic domain: Transformation in preparation and practice. Professional School Counseling, 6, 198-204.
  • Perusse, R., Goodnough, G. E., & Noel, C. J. (2001). Counselor preparation: A national survey of school counselor programs: Screening methods, faculty experiences, curricular content, and fieldwork experiences. Counselor Education & Supervision, 40, 252-262.
  • Roberts, W. B., Morotti, A. A., Hendrick, C., & Tilbury, A. (2001). Site supervisors of professional school counseling interns: Suggested guidelines. Professional School Counseling, 4, 208-215.
  • Savickas, M. L. (2011). The centennial of Counselor Education: Origin and early development of a discipline. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 500-503.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2012). The school counselor's guide to credentialing exams. New York: Routledge.
  • Stoltenberg, C. D., & McNeil, B. W. (2009). IDM supervision: An integrated developmental model for supervising counselors and therapists (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
  • Studer, J. R. (2006). Supervising the school counselor trainee: Guidelines for practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Studer, J. R. (2005). Supervising counselors-in-training: A guide for field supervisors. Professional School Counseling, 8, 353-359.
  • Studer, J. R., & Diambra, J. F. (2010). A guide to practicum and internship for school counselor trainees. New York: Routledge.
  • Studer, J. R., & Oberman, A. (2006). The use of the ASCA National Model in supervision. Professional School Counseling, 10, 82-87.
  • Swank, J. M., & Tyson, L. (2012). School counseling site supervisor training: A web-based approach. Professional School Counseling, 16, 40-48.
  • Wood, C., & Rayle, A. D. (2006). A model of school counseling supervision: The goals, functions, roles, and systems model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 45, 253-266.

Technology and School Counseling[edit]

  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Milsom, A., & Bryant, J. (2006). School counseling departmental web sites: What message do we send? Professional School Counseling, 10, 210-216.
  • Sabella, R. (2008). GuardingKids.com: A practical guide to keeping kids out of high-tech trouble. Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media.
  • Sabella, R. (2004). Counseling in the 21st Century: Using technology to improve practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
  • Sabella, R. (2003). SchoolCounselor.com: A friendly and practical guide to the world wide web (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Educational Media.
  • Schellenberg, R. C. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Rowman Littlefield Education.

Transforming School Counseling Roles and Professional Identity[edit]

  • Bodenhorn, N., & Skaggs, G. (2005). Development of the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 38, 14-28.
  • Burnham, J. J., & Jackson, M. (2000). School counselor roles: Discrepancies between actual practice and existing models. Professional school counseling, 4, 41-49.
  • Chen-Hayes, S. F., Ockerman, M. S., & Mason, E. C. M. (2014). 101 solutions for school counselors and leaders in challenging times. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
  • Clark, M. A., & Amatea, E. (2004). Teacher perceptions and expectations of school counselor contributions: Implications for program planning and training. Professional School Counseling, 8, 132-140.
  • Gordon, C. & Luke, M. (2011). Discursive negotiation of face via email: Professional identity development in school counseling supervision. Linguistics & Education. doi:10.1016/j.linged.2011.05.002.
  • Hart, P. J., & Jacobi, M. (1992). From gatekeeper to advocate: Transforming the role of the school counselor. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
  • Hatch, T. (2008). Professional challenges in school counseling: Organizational, institutional and political. Journal of School Counseling, 6(22). Retrieved from http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v6n22.pdf.
  • Holcomb-McCoy, C., Bryan, J., & Rahill, S. (2002). Importance of the school counseling CACREP standards: School counselors' perceptions. Professional School Counseling, 6, 112-119.
  • House, R. M., & Hayes, R. L. (2002). School counselors: Becoming key players in school reform. Professional School Counseling, 5, 249-256.
  • House, R. M., & Martin, P. J. (1998). Advocating for better futures for all students: A new vision for school counselors. Education, 119, 284-291.
  • Jackson, C. M., Snow, B. M., Boes, S. R., Phillips, P. L., Powell-Standard, R., & Painter, L. C. (2002). Inducting the transformed school counselor into the profession. Theory into Practice, 41, 177-185.
  • Kurosawa, S. (2000). Sukuru kaunseringu katsudo no gohonbasira/Five important roles in school counselling. In M. Murayama (Ed.), Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru kaunsera: Jissai to tenbo (pp. 89–99). Tokyo, Shibundo.
  • Lambie, G. W., & Williamson, L. L. (2004). The challenge to change from guidance counseling to professional school counseling: A historical proposition. Professional School Counseling, 8, 124-131.
  • Lapan, R. T. (2012). Comprehensive school counseling programs: In some schools for some students but not in all schools for all students. Professional School Counseling 16, 84-88.
  • Martin, P. J. (2002). Transforming school counseling: A national perspective. "Theory into Practice 41, 148-153.
  • Martin, P. J., Robinson, S. G., & Erford, B. T. (2011). Transforming the school counseling profession. In B. T. Erford, Ed., Transforming the school counseling profession (3rd ed). (pp. 1–18). Boston: Pearson.
  • Mason, E. C. M., Ockerman, M. S., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). Change-Agent-for-Equity (CAFE) model: A framework for school counselor identity. Journal of School Counseling, 11(4). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v11n4.pdf
  • Murayama, S. (2002). Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru maunsera no tenkai/The development of school counsellors by clinical psychologists. In M. Murayama (Ed.), Rinsyoshinrisi niyoru sukuru kaunsera: Jissai to tenbo (pp. 9–22). Tokyo: Shibundo.
  • Ockerman, M. S., Mason, E. C. M., & Chen-Hayes, S. F. (2013). School counseling supervision in challenging times: The CAFE supervisor model. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 5(2), Article 4. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7729/51.0024 http://repository.wcsu.edu/jcps/vol5/iss2/4/
  • Okamoto, J. (2002). Sukuru kaunsera tono renkei/Collaboration with school counsellors. In T. Matsuhara (Ed.), Sukuru kausera to renkei shita shido (pp. 4–13). Tokyo: Kyoikukaihatsukenkyusyo.
  • Paisley, P. O., & McMahon. G. (2001). School counseling for the 21st Century: Challenges and opportunities Professional School Counseling, 5, 106-115.
  • Rale, A. D., & Adams, J. R. (2007). An exploration of 21st Century school counselors' daily work activities. Journal of School Counseling, 5, 1-45.
  • Reiner, S. M., Colbert, R. D., & Perusse, R. (2009). Teacher perceptions of the professional school counselor role: A national study. Professional School Counseling, 12, 324-332.
  • Scarborough, J. L. (2005). The school counselor activity rating scale: An instrument for gathering process data. Professional School Counseling, 8, 274-283.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2012). The school counselor's study guide for credentialing exams. New York: Routledge.
  • Schellenberg, R. (2008). The new school counselor: Strategies for universal academic achievement. Rowman Littlefield.
  • Sink, C. (2011). School-wide responsive services and the value of collaboration. Professional School Counseling, 14, ii-iv.
  • Steen, S., & Noguera, P. A. (2010). A broader and bolder approach to school reform: Expanded partnership roles for school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 14, 42-52.
  • Stone, C. B., & Dahir, C. A. (2006). The transformed school counselor. Boston, MA: Lahaska Press/Houghton Mifflin.
  • Studer, J. R. (2008). The school counselor as an emerging professional in the Japanese educational system. International Education, 37, 30-42.
  • Thomas, S. R. (2005). The school counselor alumni peer consultation group. Counselor Education & Supervision, 45, 16-29.
  • Thomas, S. R., DeKruyf, L., Hetherington, P., & Lesicko, D. (2009). Developing a global culture of collaboration for school counselors. Journal for International Counselor Education, 1, 15-31.
  • Wilkerson, K., & Eschbach, L. (2009). Transformed school counseling: The impact of a graduate course on trainees' perceived readiness to develop comprehensive, data-driven programs. Professional School Counseling, 13, 30-37.

External links[edit]