School uniforms by country

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School uniforms or school clothing is a practice which dates to the 16th century in the United Kingdom. The practice has been adopted by other countries, and is now common in many parts of the world. Uniforms can be regarded as promoting social equality among students and school-pride, but the practice has also been criticized for promoting a form of uniformity characteristic of militarism.[citation needed]

Australia[edit]

Photograph of the front of an Australian Year 12 school uniform top, taken in 2005.

In Australia, each school or school system can set its own uniform policy. Wearing a uniform is compulsory in most Australian private and all Catholic schools, as well as in most public schools, although it is sometimes less enforced in primary schools that have uniforms. Uniforms usually have a colour scheme based on the school colours. Uniform and appearance are generally strictly enforced in private and Catholic schools.

For boys, the uniforms generally include a button-up shirt and together with either short pants (especially for summer wear) or long pants, usually in grey. Some schools allow boys to wear shorts only in younger years, and they must wear long trousers from around the age of puberty (13–14 years). At others, even older boys wear shorts in summer due to the heat.[1] Where short trousers are to be worn, long (near knee-length) socks in school colors are often required.

In public schools, the uniform is usually a dark-colored polo/shirt for juniors and a white one for seniors and dark-colored trousers or a skirt. This may be followed by a school tie for boys, a jumper or a blazer in the case that it is a shirt or blouse. In the summer, boys do not wear ties, pullovers to blazers. Instead, they just wear a short-sleeved version of the shirt and short trousers.

A necktie or tie is also sometimes part of the uniform for boys and for girls in private schools. Blazers and hats are also common in private and Catholic schools. Girls' uniforms generally include a checkered or striped dress for summer and in most secondary schools, girls wear a skirt as well as a button-up in winter with a blazer and tie.

In most high schools a physical education uniform is the norm. It usually consists of shorts and a polo, as well as a light weatherproof rain jacket, usually made of polyester, for winter and wet weather and sometimes a netball skirt for girls. It is common for students in their final year of primary school or secondary school to have their own hoodie/jumper to denote their final-year status.

Brazil[edit]

In Brazil, students in private schools are required to wear uniforms, with the exception of some of the high schools. Students in public schools are required to wear uniforms. In general, the uniform is a white T-shirt with the school badge embroidered or printed on the chest and blue pants. Shoes of a designated color must be worn in some schools, usually white or black. Some high schools allow students to wear jeans. School has restrictions on the clothing of other species should hold back the spending of students.

Burma[edit]

School uniforms are mandatory throughout public schools in Burma, from kindergarten until the 10th standard.[2] From kindergarten to the 4th standard, the compulsory boy uniform is a white shirt and green trousers, which can be short or long. Shoes and Burmese sandals may be worn. The girl uniform is similar, consisting of a white shirt and a skirt or trousers. From 5th standard until matriculation, traditional Burmese attire is considered appropriate school uniform. The boy uniform is a white shirt (with a Mandarin collar or uncollared) and a green sarong called a paso, along with Burmese sandals. For girls, a traditional Burmese blouse (either the yinzi, with a front opening, or the yin-phon, with a side opening) and a green sarong called a htamein are worn, along with Burmese sandals.

Burundi[edit]

School uniforms are compulsory for school children in Burundi.[3]

Cambodia[edit]

In Cambodia students of all ages from pre-school to college wear school uniforms. The uniforms from each school and age level are different. Generally, boys wear a white dress shirt and a pair of shorts. The color and length of the shorts varies per school. Male college students wear the same kind of uniform, but instead of shorts they wear black dress pants. Girls usually wear white blouses and a skirt. Their skirts vary in color and length depending upon the school and their ages. Generally the younger students wear long skirts that almost reach their ankles and the college students wear shorter ones. Skirts are generally blue or black but may be other colors too depending on the school. Some schools also have alternative uniforms which students of both genders wear every other day. These often consist of a colored shirt and slacks.

Canada[edit]

In Canada, school uniforms are not required in most public schools or Separate schools, except in exceptional circumstances such as school performances or international field trips. Catholic High Schools in Ontario (Grade 9-12) do require uniforms though. Uniforms are however used in most private schools, and also in special or alternative programs of Public and Catholic schools, such as the Traditional Learning Centres, a program that takes a liberal arts approach, while focusing on high levels of academic excellence. In Quebec, however, most English language school boards require a uniform.

Chile[edit]

A Chilean high-schooler wearing his uniform

In Chile, most schools have a uniform.

Until 1930, it was uncommon for students to wear a uniform. Under the government of Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, all students became obliged to wear a school uniform. During the administration of Eduardo Frei Montalva, a unified uniform was introduced for all public and private schools and other education centers. Today, these uniforms have disappeared in private schools, who have preferred to use a customized one.

China[edit]

Chinese students in Haikou City, Hainan Province

Uniforms are a common part of the schools in China. Almost all secondary schools as well as some elementary schools require students to wear uniforms. Uniforms in mainland China usually consist of two sets, one for summer and the other for winter. Uniforms for boys in the winter usually consist of a zip up sweater and trousers and a collared shirt (usually white), with short or long trousers in the summer. The uniforms for girls in the winter are basically the same as the boys' uniform.

Colombia[edit]

In Colombia, all students are required to wear uniforms in public and private schools. Uniforms in Colombia consist of two sets, one for everyday use and a sports one for physical education. Everyday use uniforms for girls generally include a knee-length skirt, a white T-shirt and a vest over it along with white mid-calf socks, and for the boys the uniform generally is a dark long trousers and a short or long-sleeved shirt. The shoes for both girls and boys are black lace-up shoes (sometimes it may vary for dark blue or red wine shoes depending on the uniform colors) and the shirts usually have the school's symbol at the left side. The sports uniform is a sweatpant, a collar T-shirt and white sports shoes. The designs and the colors of the uniforms depend on the school's colors and the principal's preference.

France[edit]

Since 1968, uniforms have not been enforced in French schools, with a few exceptions (such as Maison d'éducation de la Légion d'honneur, les Écoles TUNON, and Vatel). Xavier Darcos, a former teacher and Minister of Education of 2007 to 2009, is an advocate of the reintroduction of uniforms: "This is not outrageous. This removes the visible differences in social status or wealth. This is an additional factor of integration".[4] Since March 2012, the students of the Boarding Excellence Sourdun wear a uniform with insignia of their establishment.

Les lycées de la défense, formerly known as military schools, require their students to wear uniforms, as do the students at the boarding school of excellence SOURDUN. At some universities, the academic dress is becoming popular.[citation needed]

In the French Antilles (Martinique and Guadeloupe), as well as French Guiana, a uniform has been required since September 2008.

Germany[edit]

German school children wearing voluntary "Schulkleidung" (2009).

From the 16th century, students (especially of secondary or grammar schools and similar institutions) were often subject to regulations that prescribed, for example, modest and not too stylish attire. In many cases these regulations were part of wider laws concerning the clothing of all citizens of certain social classes.

A blue coat became a widespread, obligatory status symbol of students of secondary schools; it fell out of use during the latter half of the 18th century. In newer times, school uniforms in any real sense did not exist outside of convent schools and private boarding schools. At times, certain fashions became so widespread that they approached uniform status; this is true in particular for so-called student hats (Schülermützen) that became widespread from the 1880s on and remained somewhat popular until they were banned by the Nazis. Their wearing was advocated by teachers and the students themselves and occasionally made mandatory, but never on a national or state-wide level. Another instance are the sailor suits that became fashionable around the turn of the 19th century. These, too, were not usually a prescribed uniform.[5]

The Nazis banned student hats – the last remaining, if voluntary, form of unified student clothing – because they considered them an attribute of class society. They did, however, institute mandatory membership in the uniformed Hitler Youth (HJ) from 1936 on. HJ uniforms were worn in the HJ training academies and in the Napolas; students of other schools sometimes wore them to school at their own discretion.[citation needed]

In recent times, the introduction of school uniforms has been discussed, but usually the expression "uniform" (the word is the same in German) is avoided in favour of terms like "school clothing" ("Schulkleidung"). School clothing has been introduced in a small number of schools, for example in Hamburg-Sinstorf in 2000, and in Friesenheim and Haag (Oberbayern) in 2005. In these cases the clothes are collections of shirts, sweaters, and the like, catering to contemporary fashion senses. Uniforms in a more traditional sense are almost never proposed in earnest.

A number of schools also sell branded clothing that can be worn as a sign of school-pride.[citation needed]

The Bildungsstreik movement fights against School uniforms because they are mentioned being part of some kind of militarism.[citation needed]

Ghana[edit]

Students in Ghana wearing their uniform

All children have to wear school uniforms in Ghana.[6][7][8]

There are public programs to offer poor families financial help to buy uniforms. Over 8,000 school uniforms have been distributed by the government to needy students in the communities from the Tarkwa Nsuaem municipality, one of the mining districts in Ghana, which is severely affected by poverty. This is part of a program instituted in 2010 to supply disadvantaged children with school uniforms.[9]

Hong Kong[edit]

Cheongsam as School Uniform
Note uniform is plain - markings are signatures of owners classmates

The vast majority of schools in the former British colony adopted uniforms similar to that of British schools, while Catholic schools in Hong Kong usually follow the tradition of Catholic school uniforms. A number of older Christian girl's schools established before WWII, however, retain the heritage of using the Chinese cheongsam as their uniform,[10] such as St. Stephen's Girls' College, True Light Middle School and Heep Yunn School. Sailor suits are also used as uniforms in some kindergartens for boys and girls, and secondary schools but for girls only, for example the Bishop Hall Jubilee School and New Method College.

India[edit]

Uniforms are compulsory in India in both public and private schools. The men's uniforms are often made of a light-colored shirt, long pants usually blue, white or black, and those of the girls are often a shirt and a skirt. At the state level for the secondary schools are required to use a Shalwar Kameez for young late teens. This is not compulsory but they do have certain specific dress code.

Some institutions also require the use of a tie, especially the schools run by Christian missionaries, the Indian government does not prohibit the children to have religious symbols, so the Muslim girls can wear the veil (burka) and Sikh boys a turban in addition to the uniform. Most of the schools, whether public or private, prohibits students to have long or dyed hair.

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, school uniforms are mandatory for every student. They can be simply described as below for each stage of education:

An elementary student wearing the typical white and red uniform in Indonesia.
  • Primary schools or Sekolah Dasar (SD) students wear a white short-sleeve shirt with red shorts for male students, and below-knee skirts for females.
  • Lower secondary schools or "Sekolah Menengah Pertama ("SMP") require navy blue shorts with a short-sleeve white shirt for male students. Females wear a below-knee-length navy blue skirt and short-sleeve white shirt.
  • Upper secondary schools "Sekolah Menengah Atas ("SMA") require blue-grey trousers with a short-sleeve white shirt. Females wear a below-knee-length blue skirt, and wear short-sleeve white shirts.[11]

Public schools in Indonesia tolerate religious freedoms. For example, Muslim girls may opt to wear long-sleeve shirts, longer skirts, and jilbab to cover their heads. Most schools in Indonesia also have a batik uniform, usually worn on Thursday or Friday. This kind of uniform consists of a batik short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirt, with long or short trousers for SMA and below-knee skirts or longer for females. The motifs and colours of batik depend on the school. Most schools in richer areas tend to issue neckties for their students. This necktie may vary from school to school in colour and sewing pattern, even among public schools.

The scouts uniform is used in many schools in Indonesia at least once a week. It consists of light-brown short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirts, with dark-brown shorts or trousers, and below-knee skirts or longer for females. The common day to wear the scout uniform usually falls on Friday, but several schools can opt for Saturday; several others mandate to wear it on Friday and Saturday. Furthermore, on certain occasions (usually on ceremonies or competitions), the uniform should be worn as full dress, with red and white scarf/necktie, dark brown beret, rope, dagger and scout's stick.

Nowadays, with the increase of private schools in Indonesia, most private schools have their own signature school uniform. Most consist of shirts with shorts or trousers for males, and skirts for females, only with differences on the colour.

Every school has its own standard grooming. Males are not allowed to have long hair. Accessories are prohibited for males, while females are sometimes allowed to use simple accessories. All students are prohibited from colouring their hair or having tattoos.

Some schools pay attention to the shoes that can be worn. Black or white sneakers are the most common shoes. Higher-level students, such as in SMA or SMK, are normally required to wear black leather shoes.

The school badge is usually put on the right sleeve of a shirt, consist of school's name and location, and some have their own school's logo. Others prefer to wear the school's logo as a lapel or breast plastic or metal pin. The emblem of OSIS (Organisasi Siswa Intra Sekolah), or School's Intern Student Organization, is put on the shirt's left pocket. Students' names are usually on the right side of the shirt and embedded by sewing, ironing or as a detachable badge. Some schools (usually "SMP" and "SMA") distinguish the grade of their students by stripes on the official neckties issued or an emblem below the school emblem (it can be stripes, chevrons or numbers).[citation needed]

The scout uniform has two breast pockets. Above right pocket is the student's name. The Indonesian Scout Movement logo is sewn on the left pocket (for male students). On the right sleeve there are scouting organization's location, number and logo, while on the left sleeve usually are the student's scouting team logo and chevrons denoting his/her grade. Male students wear International Scout Organization logo above their name and female students on their lapel.

Israel[edit]

According to former Education Minister Limor Livnat, about 1,400 Israeli public schools require pupils to wear uniforms.[12]

School uniforms used to be the norm in the state's early days, but have since fallen out of favour. However, in recent years, the number of schools using school uniforms has been increasing once more. Many teachers, parents and students are in favour of returning the school uniform to common use to prevent the deepening of the gap between affluent children and those less well-off. Nowadays school uniforms are mainly associated with "national religious" schools within the Israeli system of education.[13] Schools for Arab citizens of Israel also frequently require uniforms: for girls, it is often a pinafore to be worn over trousers and shirt.

Today, school uniforms in Israel consist only of a shirt with the school logo. In the summer, the uniform shirt is a simple T-shirt, while in the winter, the shirts worn are warm or hooded sweaters. Although the shirts are uniform, they usually come in various colours, and allow students to customize and express themselves even while wearing a uniform. The shirts sell for a very small amount of money, so that even the less well-off can acquire them.

Italy[edit]

In Italy, school uniforms are uncommon, partially because child uniforms are associated with the era of Benito Mussolini before World War II when children were placed according to their age into Italian Fascist youth movements and had to wear uniforms inside and outside school.

However, until the early 1970s many high schools required girls to wear black grembiule (resembling a doctor smock) on top of their clothes: no uniform was required for boys. Perhaps this was because at one time high schools were the only public schools to admit both sexes (as opposed to junior schools and elementary), and girls may be required to "cover up" not to distract their male counterparts. Indeed this policy was highly disputed during the sexual revolution of the 1960s and later abolished.

Nowadays, many pre-schools advise parents to dress their children with a grembiulino, i.e., a small grembiule, usually shorter and more colourful, that can be purchased cheaply.

Some elementary schools advise some kind of grembiule for the younger pupils. Sometimes girls are required to wear a pink or white grembiulino, while boys may be required to wear a short cotton jacket, usually blue or black. In other cases both boys and girls may be required to wear a more neutral blue grembiule.

Some parents send their children to school in a grembiule even if the school does not require it.

Poet and children's writer Gianni Rodari has described adult life as "a school without grembiule and school desk".[14]

In 2004 the Italian chapter of WWF warned that synthetic grembiules were harmful to pupils.[15]

In July 2008 Education Minister Mariastella Gelmini proposed the re-introduction of the compulsory smock in public schools, provoking a debate in the Italian press.[16]

Japan[edit]

Japan introduced school uniforms in the late 19th century. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. They are also used in some women's colleges. The Japanese word for uniform is seifuku (制服?).

In the majority of elementary schools, students are not required to wear a uniform to school. Where they are required, many boys wear white shirts, short trousers, and caps. Young boys often dress more formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school year. Girls' uniforms might include a gray pleated skirt and white blouse. Occasionally the sailor outfit is used for girls. The uniform codes may vary by season to work with the environment and occasion. It is common for boys and girls to wear brightly coloured caps to prevent traffic accidents. It is normal for uniforms to be worn outside of school areas. This is going out of fashion and many students are wearing casual dress.[citation needed]

The Japanese junior- and senior-high-school uniform traditionally consists of a military style for boys and a sailor outfit for girls. These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress, themselves modeled on European-style naval uniforms. The sailor outfit replace the undivided hakama (andon bakama 行灯袴) designed by Utako Shimoda between 1920 and 1930.[17] While this style is still in use, many schools have moved to more Western-pattern parochial school uniform styles. They consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer or sweater vest with school crest, and tailored trousers (often not of the same colour as the blazer or sweater vest) for boys and a white blouse, tie, blazer with school crest, and tartan skirt for girls.

Japanese high school students wearing the sailor fuku.

Much like the male uniform, the gakuran, the sailor outfit bears a similarity to military-styled naval uniforms. The uniform generally consists of a blouse attached with a sailor-style collar and a pleated skirt. There are seasonal variations for summer and winter: sleeve length and fabric are adjusted accordingly. A ribbon is tied in the front and laced through a loop attached to the blouse. Several variations on the ribbon include neckties, bolo ties, neckerchiefs, and bows. Common colours are navy blue, white, grey, light green and black.

Shoes, socks, and other accessories are sometimes included as part of the uniform. The socks are typically navy or white. The shoes are typically brown or black penny loafers. Although not part of the prescribed uniform, alternate forms of legwear (such as loose socks, knee-length stockings, or similar) are commonly matched by more fashionable girls with their sailor outfits.

Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its students, all schools have a summer version (usually consisting of a white dress shirt and dark slacks for boys and a reduced-weight traditional uniform or blouse and tartan skirt with tie for girls) and a sports-activity uniform (a polyester track suit for year-round use and a t-shirt and shorts for summer activities). Depending on the discipline level of their school, students may wear seasonal and activity uniforms in the same classroom during the day. Students may attempt to subvert the system of uniforms by wearing them incorrectly or by adding prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges. Girls may shorten their skirts; boys may wear trousers about the hips, omit ties, or keep their shirts unbuttoned.[citation needed]

Lebanon[edit]

In Lebanon, most schools do not require uniforms whether they are public or private schools. There can be exceptions but mostly, students are free to wear whatever they please if it's appropriate in school.

Lesotho[edit]

In Lesotho school uniforms are still compulsory.[18] Many poor families can not afford them, which is one of the reasons for the high dropout rate in primary schools.[19]

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia, school uniforms (Malay: Pakaian Seragam Sekolah) are compulsory for all students who attend public schools. Western-style school uniforms were introduced to present-day Malaysia in the late 19th century during the British colonial era. The present design was standardised beginning in January 1970. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems.

The uniforms at Malaysian public schools are as follows:[20]

Malaysian primary school girls wearing the pinafore
  • Primary school
    • Boys
      • White shirt and
        • Navy blue short trousers; or
        • Navy blue long trousers
    • Girls
      • Navy blue pinafore over white shirt; or
      • White baju kurung (a long tunic that covers the arms) over long navy blue skirt
  • Secondary school
    • Boys
      • White shirt and
        • Olive green long trousers; or
        • Olive green short trousers; or
        • White trousers (generally only for prefects)
    • Girls
      • Turquoise pinafore over white shirt (Form 1 to Form 5); or
      • Turquoise skirt with white blouse (generally only for Form 6 students or perfects); or
      • White baju kurung (a long tunic that covers the arms) over long turquoise skirt (Form 1 to Form 6)

Students are required to wear white socks and white shoes with the above uniform. For modesty reasons, most schools require female students who wear the baju kurung to wear a plain-coloured camisole underneath.[21][22][23][24]

In addition to these, schools usually have badges which must be sewn or ironed on to the uniform — generally at the left chest. Some schools require students to sew their name tags in addition to the badge. For upper forms, students generally have to wear a school-specific tie, except those who are wearing the baju kurung.

In Malaysia, Muslim girls tend to wear the baju kurung. Most of them start wearing a white tudung (Malaysian version of the Muslim headscarf or hijab) upon entering secondary school, for religious reasons. Non-Muslim girls tend to wear the pinafore. Some non-Muslim girls wear the baju kurung. Muslim boys may wear baju melayu at school on Fridays, often with a songkok hat, to be dressed for going to the mosque for prayers at lunchtime.

Girls who choose to wear the pinafore, especially those attending co-ed schools, usually wear shorts under their pinafore to allow for carefree movement as the skirt only covers up to the knee. Those who wear the baju kurung tend not to wear shorts under their long skirt as their skirt covers their legs.[citation needed]

Neckties are often worn by prefects, class monitors, librarians, and other students of rank. Some schools have neckties as standard issue; even then, the neckties are generally reserved for school events and public appearances, and are not part of the everyday school uniform. The tropical climate makes them uncomfortable.

The hairstyle of students is given attention by schools and the Ministry of Education.[25] Schools do not allow students to colour their hair. For boys, there is usually a maximum length allowed, for example, the hair must be a few centimetres above the collar, and no sideburns are allowed. Violation of boys' hair regulations is often punished with a caning; some offer the alternative of an enforced haircut at the school.[26] The use of hair gel is prohibited in some of the stricter schools, to prevent excessive hairdressing. Girls' long hair must be properly tied up, often into a ponytail. Some schools dictate the colour and type of hair accessories that can be used. Some prohibit even girls from having long hair. Wearing make up in school is prohibited.

Schools usually enforce their uniform code thoroughly, with regular checks by teachers and prefects. Students who fail to comply may be warned, given demerit points, publicly punished, sent home from school, or caned.[27]

Mauritius[edit]

School uniforms in Mauritius are generally compulsory. Mauritius being a former British colony, has been using the system from back then. The students have to wear uniforms from primary school until higher secondary level. However, there are a few private schools that are based on the French system and do not require the student to wear school uniform.

Mexico[edit]

Mexico City children in green uniforms, 2010

In Mexico, students from all public colleges are required to wear uniform as well as many private school children. They are not all the same color and they all have a school crest that that have on their sweaters or shirts.

New Zealand[edit]

Traditionally, many New Zealand intermediate and high schools, and state-integrated and private primary schools, have followed the British system of school uniforms,[28] although it is common in state schools for the boy's uniform to have a jersey and grey short trousers rather than a blazer with tie and long trousers. This usually consists of a variety of the following apparel: for boys, a business-style shirt with an official school tie, and long or short trousers; and for girls, a blouse, and a plain and/or plaid (usually tartan) skirt, and in some schools, especially in the South Island, kilts. Both sexes wear an 'official' school jersey. Blazers and jackets are of varied colours according to the school - dark or light blue, grey, crimson, scarlet, green or black. Some follow the British practice of having contrasting colours edging the lapels and jacket fronts. Caps have generally been discarded since the 1970s but in many primary schools there is a compulsory broad-brimmed floppy hat, in the school colours, to help prevent sunburn. Where short trousers are worn, boys are usually required to wear long dark socks, which may require garters to hold them up.[29] Since 1990 an increasing number of school include sandals as the standard summer footwear.

During the 1980s and 1990s there was a tendency for the traditional uniform to be replaced by cheaper and more 'modern' options: polo shirts,[30] polar fleece tops, or a complete doing away with uniforms in favour of mufti. Intermediate schools usually provide the option of skirts or culottes for girls and sometimes shorts while boys will wear shorts. Bike shorts or tights are sometimes worn under girls' skirts and dresses.[citation needed] Some high schools have introduced trousers as an option for girls instead of skirts, however demand is low with several Christchurch high schools estimating only 1% of girls at their respective schools wear trousers.[31] Some girls' schools also have navy blue skirts, long in winter and short in summer, as the skirts are not allowed higher than below the knee; the skirts also have splits up the centre at the back.[citation needed]

Nigeria[edit]

Children in Nigeria in school uniforms

School uniforms are used in Nigeria.[32] There are also programs to help financially the most disadvantaged families: for instance, the Chairman of Ejigbo Local Council Development Area, LCDA, Kehinde Bamigbetan has distributed 7,200 school uniforms to pupils in the nine primary schools within the council area, with the aim of improving the standard of education in Lagos state.[33]

Philippines[edit]

School uniforms (Filipino: uniporme or kasuotang pang-paaralan; Literally: school attire) are officially required in public schools and private schools. In some international schools, however, there are specified days when students can wear civilian clothing and in some private schools, mostly progressive schools, there is no uniform, except for a uniform required in physical education classes. Public school uniforms for primary levels are typically white, short-sleeved, buttoned-up shirts, with deep green skirts for girls and light brown knee-length trousers for boys. Uniforms for public high schools and private schools vary widely in pattern and color mostly the official colors of the school, but usually consist of cotton material for the warm weather. In tertiary levels (Colleges and Universities), uniforms are usually not required, although certain universities, such as University of Santo Tomas require uniforms to be worn.

  • Primary school
    • Boys
      • White Polo and
        • Navy blue short trousers and Navy blue Slacks (pants); or
        • Navy blue long trousers
    • Girls
      • cream-colored blouse and checkered skirt; or
      • sailor uniform with knee-length checkered blue skirt
  • Secondary school
    • Boys
      • White Polo and
        • Brown Slacks; or
        • White Polo with black Slacks (pants); or
        • White trousers (generally only for prefects)
        • (May include a blazer for certain international schools)
    • Girls
      • white or yellow blouse (with necktie) and checkered deep green skirt; or
      • sailor uniform with knee-length checkered blue skirt
      • (May include a blazer for certain international schools)

Notably, in 2008, the Department of Education no longer required students to wear uniforms, in order to allow poorer families to save money. [34] [35]

Poland[edit]

School uniforms are not compulsory in Poland and absent from the vast majority of Polish schools. The idea of school uniforms in Poland did not exist before the early 20th century. In the People's Republic of Poland, uniform ceased to be compulsory in most schools during the 1980s due to economic issues. Since then, there has been made only one effort to reintroduce uniform into Polish schools - by the former minister of education Roman Giertych, in 2006. It was then decided that school uniform would not be enforced by the state onto the whole country, but would be a matter decided upon by the principal of each school respectively. Initially this was meant to permit only a dress code, but this was later modified in 2007 to address school uniform. From 2007, all primary schools and middle schools were to enforce compulsory uniform, whilst high schools and other forms of further education were given the choice to decide on their own. The appearance of school uniform was decided upon locally, which meant that "uniform" in most schools consisted of a jacket or shirt only - selected by the school management purely to avoid breaking regulations (the rest of clothing was still up to the students to decide). By mid-2008, compulsory school uniforms were repealed and it remains so to this day.

Republic of Ireland[edit]

In the Republic of Ireland, almost all primary and secondary schools require the wearing of a compulsory uniform. These can vary from school to school but for the most part include a trousers for males and a skirt or pinafore for female students a shirt a jumper and a necktie. In recent years many schools offer the option of trousers also for female students. Some schools require blazers rather than jumpers. Some primary schools now let their pupils wear a school tracksuit rather than a formal uniform.

In recent years there has been criticism, including by the Department of Education of the requirement a school uniform jumper must have the school crest or name imprinted onto it and of the practice, where a schools uniform can only be bought from a certain supplier, which can markedly increase the price of a uniform. As well as rules regarding the wearing of a uniform many schools have regulations regarding hair, footwear, the growth of facial hair for males, the wearing of makeup and the length of school skirts. Since the late 90s students are no longer required to wear uniform during state examinations.[citation needed]

Russia[edit]

Unlike the Soviet Union, from 1994 to 2013 school uniforms were not obligatory in Russia. However, uniforms were reintroduced in September 2013.

Singapore[edit]

Over one thousand students in uniform during an assembly at a secondary school in Singapore.

Uniform is compulsory for all students, not only at primary and secondary school but also at the pre-university (Junior College) level.[36] Though the colours vary from school to school, the normal uniform for boys is short or long trousers in the specified colour and material, with a short-sleeved shirt (often white) while girls' uniforms include pinafores or skirts, with blouses and shorts underneath.

Uniform requirements are laid down in great detail by each school and these are rigorously enforced.[37] Colours and styles for shirts or blouses, and for trousers or skirts, are tightly specified, and in some cases the shirt or blouse must have military-style epaulettes, and/or a metal badge on each collar, and so on. Because of the tropical climate, blazers and ties are worn only for special occasions. In some schools, ties are also worn on Mondays. It is therefore the boy's shirt or girl's blouse, rather than a blazer as in the UK, on to which the school badge must be sewn. Nearly all schools require white socks and white shoes. Some schools forbid girls to wear coloured bras.[38][39]

At almost all secondary schools, boys are not permitted to wear long trousers until they start secondary 3 (normally the year in which a student turns 15, but in certain cases he might be a year or even two years older). In a few schools, the year of changing from shorts to longs is secondary 4; and in one or two, such as Catholic High School, male students must wear short trousers throughout their time at the school.[40]

South Africa[edit]

Typical example of an assembly in a South African school. All students are in uniform, with a sharp difference between the sexes.
A close up shot of students in uniform at Sinenjongo High School in Cape Town, South Africa.

As in many other former British colonies, all South African private and public schools have a uniform, and it is compulsory in all public schools and in the vast majority of private schools for children above pre-school level.[41] Uniform types vary less between public and private schools than they do across regions, where schools in more rural areas tend to forgo the daily wearing of ties and/or blazers for boys and girls regardless of their public or private nature. However, many of these same schools will have a "number ones" uniform for special occasions which include such items. In cities such as Cape Town, on the other hand, it is more common to see formal apparel required in public and private schools on a daily basis.

Many schools across South Africa also provide the choice between a summer and winter uniform, with khaki uniforms and brown shoes being very common in the summer. South African law has not required gender neutrality in school dress codes and a distinction between girls' and boys' uniforms remains. Boys of all ages are normally required to wear grey or khaki long or short trousers with socks, and the socks are usually long when worn with shorts, as in the illustration (right). Until recently, the straw boater was a common accessory in affluent public and private high schools, although these have now become optional in some cases.[42]

South Korea[edit]

Main article: Korean school uniform

Almost all South Korean secondary students wear a uniform called gyobok (Korean: 교복). The majority of elementary schools, except some private ones, do not have uniforms; however, the uniform is strictly monitored from the start of middle school and up. Based on Western-style ones, the South Korean uniform usually consists of a shirt, blazer and tie, with skirts (which has recently sparked controversy for its shortening trend over the years) for girls and long grey trousers for boys.

More recently, the uniform is often worn by celebrities who target the younger, teen audience to sell entertainment products. The school uniform and school setting is frequently used as a venue for romance. As a result, the uniform has become something akin to an expression of fashion among students.

Spain[edit]

In Spain the use of school uniforms is not compulsory in the public school at any stage. Their use depends on school councils involving parents. However, it is customary to wear uniforms in private schools, where typically girls wear uniform shirt and jersey skirt and boys wear trousers, white shirt and tie and sometimes jacket.

Sri Lanka[edit]

All public and private schools in Sri Lanka require their students to wear uniforms. In public schools, it is standard for boys with a white short sleeve shirt (long sleeve shirt for ceremonial occasions) and some allow long sleeve shirts with rolled-up sleeves for normal schooling. Blue or white (white for ceremonial occasions in some schools) shorts for boys under grade 10 (15 years of age) and white for boys of and above grade 10.

Leadership Program.jpg

Girls' uniforms may differ from school to school. However, all uniforms are a white single-piece frock. The differences may include the dress having short sleeves or no sleeves, difference in the types of pleats, different buckles and having a collar or not. Most girls' schools require their students to wear a tie.

Some religious owned schools (mainly Christian schools) abide by the government rules to incorporate white uniforms in their school with a second pair of different type of uniform, which is usually pinafore for girls, long sleeved white dress for senior girl prefects and black pants for senior boy prefects. Also, school with Muslim population allow female students to white burka or white head covering on their heads and sometimes long white pants.

For ceremonial occasions boys and girls may wear their school blazer (depending on the school, with its badge and the blazer may be of a school colour, e.g., maroon) with the school's tie.

The materials required for uniform is distributed free by the government in public schools regardless of student's financial status, but it is not uncommon to use own funding instead of the distributed material.

International schools have their own uniforms of different colours and styles.

Taiwan[edit]

Due to the legacy of Japanese colonial era, Taiwanese students had to wear stand-up collar uniform or a sailor suit.

Today, School uniforms are worn around the elementary and junior high schools in Taiwan, but in case of the junior high schools, the sailor suit is few, usually the trend is plaid pattern like as the Japanese high school girls wearing, but the school has adopted the uniform of navy blue old-fashioned in many cases.

Thailand[edit]

Works related to Student Uniform Act, BE 2551 (2008) at Wikisource

Uniforms are compulsory for all students with very few variations from the standard model throughout the public and private school systems, including colleges and universities.

The dress code in primary and secondary grades for boys comprises dark blue, khaki, or black shorts with a white open-collar short-sleeved shirt, white ankle socks or long dark socks, and brown or black trainers. Female students, wear a knee-length dark blue or black skirt, and a pale white blouse with a loosely hanging bow tie. The bow tie is dropped in favour of an open-necked pale blue shirt from Matthayom 4.

The girls' uniform is complemented by white ankle socks and black school shoes. The student's name, number, and name of the school are often embroidered on the blouse or shirt. Some independent or international schools have uniforms more closely resembling British school uniform standards, and boys in senior high school grades may be allowed to wear long trousers. The standard dress for children in kindergarten is a red skirt and white blouse for girls, and red short trousers and a white shirt for boys. In all Thai schools, one day per week, usually Thursday, is dedicated to scouting, when beige scout uniforms for boys and dark green guide uniforms are the rule, both wearing yellow neckerchiefs.

The hairstyle of students is also given attention by schools and the Ministry of Education. Males are not allowed to have long hair. Some prohibit even girls from having long hair.[43][44] The use of accessories is prohibited for males, while females are sometimes allowed to use simple accessories. Some schools dictate the colour and type of hair accessories that females can be used. All students are prohibited from colouring their hair or having tattoos on any part of the body.

Thailand however has a few international schools which do not require uniforms.

Tonga[edit]

Royal New Zealand Navy Petty Officer Richard Boyd dances with Tongan school children during a Pacific Partnership 2009 community service project at Faleloa Primary School.

In Tonga all schools require a uniform. Uniforms are usually in the colours of their respective churches and Red for Government Schools. Catholic schools are usually light blue, Wesleyan (Royal Blue), Anglican (Navy Blue) and LDS Schools (Green). A Ta'ovala bordered with school colours and a tupenu are usually worn by boys with a white button-up shirt. Primary school students usually wear shorts and a white button up shirt. Nearly all Tongan secondary schools require girls to wear a pinafore dress with a white shirt except for Catholic schools which allow a striped blouse and skirt. Students are usually required to wear roman sandals in English-medium schools and thongs in most other schools.

Turkey[edit]

Turkish school uniforms.

School uniforms were used in all public and private institutions. There were several exceptions and most kindergartens did not require school uniforms. The uniforms varied in their appearance; primary schools used one-piece blue uniforms, while in secondary and high schools boys wore dark grey trousers with white shirts, jackets and a tie. Girls had skirts and shirts coloured like the boys' uniform, plus a tie. Most private institutions have their own uniforms. School uniforms for primary schools were black until the 1990s.

In summer months, teachers usually allowed their students not to wear uniform if they so wished. During trips, students usually did not wear uniforms. None of the universities or higher-education institutes have uniforms.

School uniforms have a long history in Turkey. They were first introduced because normal clothing would give hints about the child's family's economic situation. In order to prevent groupings amongst children from different social classes, uniforms were accepted.

However, school uniforms were officially abolished on 27 November 2012, when the Turkish Ministry of Education suddenly abolished the nationwide uniform requirement in schools (international/foreign schools are excluded) and lifted the headscarf ban for religious imam-hatip schools, prompting fierce criticism from opposition parties, unions and educators. Opponents claim that economic differences cause pedagogical traumas for children and that permitting headscarves harms secular education. Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan defended the move, saying education in uniform has drawn complaints for many years. But students attending minority schools (Greeks, Jews and Armenians), which are also part of the Turkish Ministry of Education, have been excluded from this change, and are still required to wear school uniforms.[45]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Uniforms are compulsory in many schools across the United Arab Emirates.

In June 2013, the Abu Dhabi Education Council standardized the uniforms for pupils in public school across Abu Dhabi. [1] Earlier, each school had its own uniform. Uniforms include options for varying weather conditions. [2] Boys in Kindergarten and Cycle 1 (Grades 1 to 5) can wear either a long-sleeved shirt and trousers, or a short-sleeved shirt and shorts. Tie, winter blazer and cardigan are optional. Boys in Cycle 2 and Cycle 3 (Grades 6 to 12) wear a kandoora (traditional white robe) and ghetra (head scarf). Pullover sweater or blazer are optional Girls in Kindergarten or Cycle 1 (Grades 1 to 5) wear a long sleeved shirt with either a school dress or skirt. Cardigan, blazer and scarf are optional. Girls in Cycle 2 or 3 (Grades 6 to 12) wear a long sleeved shirt with a choice of a skirt or two different styles of dress plus a scarf. Cardigan or blazer are optional.

As a general rule of thumb, private schools in the UAE require a school uniform. It can range from a t-shirt or a simple white/black polo bearing the school logo, to a more complete uniform with a button up shirt worn with skirt, shorts or trousers. Certain schools have certain codes on the use of makeup (some don't condone it at all), the sporting of bracelets/jewellery, but most if not all schools allow students to wear obligatory religious clothing such as such as the Islamic hijab, "sheila", and "abaya", as well as Sikh turban (for some Indian schools), etc.

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

English pupils in modern school uniform.

School uniforms were first introduced on a large scale during the reign of King Henry VIII.[46] The uniforms of the time were referred as "bluecoats", as they consisted of long trench-coat-style jackets dyed blue. Blue was the cheapest available dye and showed humility amongst all children. The first school to introduce this uniform was Christ's Hospital in London (now in Sussex).[47]

The Elementary Education Act 1870 introduced free primary education for all children. The popularity of uniforms increased and eventually most schools had a uniform.[46] During this period most uniforms reflected the trends of the age, with boys wearing short trousers and blazers until roughly the age of puberty and then long trousers from about 14 or 15. Girls mainly wore blouse, tunic dress and pinafore, progressing to gymslips towards the beginning of the 20th century.[46][48]

These uniforms continued until the 1950s when after the Butler reforms secondary education was made free and the school leaving age was raised to 15. These reforms encouraged schools to implement uniform codes which were similar to other schools. Distinct "summer" and "winter" uniforms were sometimes required, particularly for girls, for whom dresses were mandated for summer and gymslips for winter.[46]

School uniforms are required to be fair for both genders[clarification needed], to be reasonably low cost and to tolerate religious freedoms, e.g. allowing male Sikhs to wear turbans and female Muslims to wear headscarfs.[49]

The uniform in primary school is often a polo shirt or a shirt and a jumper, with trousers or shorts for boys and skirts or trousers for girls. In some primary schools, in the summer girls are allowed to wear dresses. The uniform in secondary school varies. Normally it is a blazer in the school colours or a white shirt or blouse; a tie, trousers or skirt in a black, grey, or blue and black shoes. It could also be a shirt, sweater, and tie or a polo shirt and a sweatshirt.

Scotland[edit]

Scottish law is not specific on the question of school uniform. Generally, the school must provide information on its policy on clothing and uniform and the Education Authority must provide written information on its general policy on wearing school uniform. Some Education Authorities do not insist on students wearing a uniform as a precondition to attending and taking part in curricular activities.[50]

Children cannot be disciplined for not wearing a uniform if their parents do not want their child to wear it. However, a child that simply refuses to wear the school uniform can be disciplined by the school if it thinks that academic or disciplinary problems might be caused by the refusal. Many schools do have a policy covering the wearing of school clothing. The policy may state that certain items must be worn and that other items cannot be worn, for example, jeans. Schools must take religious and cultural requirements into account when drawing up a school uniform policy.[51]

Although the way that the uniforms are worn is usually not an issue, some state schools may have regulation on the subject (e.g. height of ties, whether the shirt is tucked in or not), the selection of clothes worn, whether they follow the policy, can be very strict. For example, in black and white uniform schools, wearing colours such as grey or wearing white shoes is forbidden. However, in schools that only use a basic uniform (e.g. jumper and trousers) the policy is often less strict.

Wales[edit]

The Welsh Assembly Government issued detailed guidance to governing bodies on uniform and appearance policies that begins by making explicit, "There is no education legislation specifically covering the wearing of school uniform or other aspects of appearance such as hair colour and style, and the wearing of jewellery and makeup. However, as part of its responsibility for the conduct of the school, a governing body can specify a uniform which pupils are required to wear and other rules relating to appearance."[52]

The most common uniform for children in Wales in primary school is a polo shirt and sweatshirt, both with the school badge and in the school colours. The uniform is the same for secondary school but with different colours and a badge, and some may opt for a shirt and tie. The sweatshirt is optional.

Northern Ireland[edit]

The Northern Ireland Executive supports poor families with the cost of paying for school uniforms with a £35 primary school uniform allowance. This is claimed via local Education and Library Boards for parents in receipt of income support. At the end of August 2009, there were 24,135 successful applications for the grant.[53]

The most common secondary school uniform in Northern Ireland is a shirt, blazer and sweater with a tie and a skirt or trousers. The uniform ( most likely the sweater and tie) may change after Year 12. The uniform in primary school is like the one used for Ireland.

United States[edit]

A study conducted in 2000 found that only 23% of public, private, and sectarian schools had any sort of uniform policy in the United States at or before 2000.[54] Over the past decade, more public schools, specifically those in urban areas, have instituted stricter dress codes; roughly half the public schools in the United States have these more limiting dress codes.[55]

The schools that do require uniforms, or a more common standard dress code in towns and suburbs, tend to be more casual than those in Britain or other commonwealth nations. School uniforms and dress codes are almost universally standard, rather than representing the school or the student body. Typically, students will wear collared, buttoned shirts, with a tie for boys and a tie for girls, worn with khaki pants (trousers), and a belt, depending on the age of the school's student body. Skirts are occasionally an option for girls.

For instance, red, white or blue polo shirts, with a logo, with navy or khaki bottoms and a belt, was the successful uniform policy imposed at Palmer Elementary School in Houston, Texas.[56] Typically, inner-city schools have polo shirts and trousers for the primary- and junior-high-school years, and then move up to buttoned shirts, usually some form of tie, and dress trousers with a belt or a skirt. Schools in areas with less populations such as suburbs tend to keep polo shirts through the student's secondary school years, or have a standardized dress code. Dress codes vary widely among private schools, although a Catholic school uniform tends to keep the shirt and tie.[57]

As of August of 2013, almost one fifth of all American schools require their students to wear uniforms (Flam). This twenty percent of schools requiring uniforms is six percent higher than it was in the year 2003, the U.S. Department of Education reports. The uniform requirement also is more common in lower socio-economic schools, where more than three-fourths of the school's student population receives free or reduced lunch ("Fast"). Forty-seven percent of these low income schools require uniforms, while only about six percent of high socio-economic schools require uniforms ("Fast"). There are many factors that come into play when a school is deciding whether or not to require uniforms for their students, yet more and more schools turn to uniforms each year.


Examples of uniforms[edit]

The most common type of uniform in the United States is as follows:[57]

  • Button-front dress shirt with a necktie or a polo/golf shirt
  • Dress pants (trousers), usually in colours like khaki, grey, or navy blue
  • A belt, typically black, brown, navy blue, or gray
  • Dress shoes (types vary)

Many schools have much stricter requirements. North Accelerated High School[where?] requires a dress shirt and tie, along with a V-neck sweater and belt.[57]

Uniform studies and legislation[edit]

The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) conducted a phone survey of 755 principals in 2000, which revealed that 21% of public schools had a uniform policy; 23% had firm plans to create one.[58] However, this only accounts for those with school uniform policies and not for standardized dress codes, which provide for allowable student dress but are slightly more lax: For instance, instead of requiring everyone to wear the same shirt, or set of shirts, they may specify "any solid collared three-button polo/oxford shirt" and leave more specific details up to the parents. In 2007-2008, 55% of public school principals said their schools enforce a strict dress code, requiring students at least wear a collared shirt and pants (trousers) with an acceptable belt to school.[59]

Adolfo Santos, a political science professor at the University of Houston–Downtown, stated that many Hispanic communities in the United States choose uniforms because many immigrants originate from countries with schools requiring uniforms.[60]

Sylvan I. Alleyne, Velma LaPoint, Jennifer Lee and Harold W. Mitchell of The Journal of Negro Education stated that little empirical research exists regarding how effective school uniforms are in enhancing academic performance and social environments, and that little research exists regarding teachers' beliefs regarding issues related to dress codes, especially so regarding racial and ethnic minorities.[61] In the United States, literature regarding public school student clothing and behavior cites anecdotal viewpoints from teachers. The literature discussed opinions on faculty, staff, and other employees on how to deal with student dress issues.[62] A 2003 article of The Journal of Negro Education said that research and reports regarding the beneficial impact of school uniforms was not conclusive. Despite the federal government of the United States issuing a set of guidelines encouraging school uniforms in public schools, as of 2003 political support varied.[63]

In 1994, the Long Beach Unified School District, in Southern California, required school uniforms in all elementary and middle schools. This began a trend for uniforms in American elementary public schools, especially in urban school districts. President Clinton praised the idea in his 1996 State of the Union Address, saying that "if it means that teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms."[3] The adoption of school- or district-wide uniform policies (or "standardized dress codes," less rigid than uniform requirements and allowing some leeway in parameters) has been motivated by a need to counter "gang clothing" or the pressure for families to purchase upscale-label clothing (to avoid their children being ignored by "fashion cliques"), as well as to improve morale and school discipline.[citation needed]

By 2010, the proportion of US public schools requiring uniforms had increased from 3% in 1996 to 25%.

In Puerto Rico, the Department of Education requires all students to wear school uniforms, with only medical exemptions.[64]

Vietnam[edit]

School uniforms of Lawrence S. Ting School in 7th District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

School uniforms are used in Vietnam. It is noted that not all schools follow a uniform policy. It has been noted on occasions where schoolchildren wear white shirts, both with and without colored pioneer scarves.

Venezuela[edit]

School uniforms are used in Venezuela.[65] By Venezuelan decree, uniforms are required at all schools in all grades.[66] Boys wear navy trousers and girls wear navy skirts or trousers, depending on the school. The shirts have short sleeves and the colour varies by the level in which the student is. Students in nursery wear yellow shirts, while students in kindergarten wear red shirts. From first to sixth grade, students wear white polo shirts. From seventh to ninth grade they wear light blue polo shirts, and from tenth to eleventh grade they wear beige polo shirts. These shirts are to be stuffed inside the pants with a black belt. Black dress shoes are the norm in public school, however some private schools can be more flexible with the shoes to be worn.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See e.g. School uniform price list making distinction between summer uniform and winter uniform.
  2. ^ Myanmar Times & Business Reviews
  3. ^ http://www.betterplace.org/projects/2112-educational-for-street-children-in-burundi
  4. ^ La Dépêche : Darcos ressort l'uniforme du placard
  5. ^ M. Freyer. "Geschichte der Schulkleidung". In H. Liedtke. Handbuch der Geschichte des Bayerischen Bildungswesens 4. pp. 273 ff. 
  6. ^ "Worksheets: My school is linked with Africa". CBBC Newsround (BBC). 19 July 2005. 
  7. ^ Agebewode, Samuel (18 December 2010). "North Tongu District Distributes Free School Uniforms, Exercise Books to 40 Schools". The Ghanaian Chronicle (Accra). 
  8. ^ "Nicholas's Story". NewsHour. PBS. 2001. 
  9. ^ "Over 8,000 school uniforms distributed to pupils of Tarkwa Nsuaem". The Ghanaian Chronicle (Accra). 10 February 2011. 
  10. ^ Evolution and revolution: Chinese dress 1700s-1990s - Cheungsam
  11. ^ Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Education: School Uniforms
  12. ^ Israel QA File news, Israel diplomatic map
  13. ^ Dr. Zvi Zameret, Fifty Years of Education in the State of Israel, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 14 July 1998.
  14. ^ "la scuola dei grandi".
  15. ^ "WWF: attenti ai tessuti di grembiuli e abitini per bambini", VITA magazine, 13 September 2004.
  16. ^ "Students Protest as Italian Senate Passes Reforms". ABC News (New York). Associated Press. 29 October 2008. 
  17. ^ 制服でたどる百年
  18. ^ The Global Fund, PROPOSAL FORM – ROUND 9
  19. ^ Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education
  20. ^ Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 1997. Surat Pekeliling lkhtisas Bil. 3/1983 - Pakaian Seragam Murid-murid Sekolah. Retrieved 4 June 2007. Available online at http://www.pibg.net.my/pekeliling.e.php
  21. ^ SMK Perempuan Sandakan. Peraturan Sekolah''. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  22. ^ Aliran Pemikiran Pendidik Malaysia. Peraturan Sekolah''. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  23. ^ Tan Ee Loo, "Teachers and students scoff at 'baseless' statement", The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 23 May 2008.
  24. ^ Tan Ee Loo, "Student with 'too transparent' uniform can be told to wear undergarment", The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 24 May 2008
  25. ^ Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 1997. Surat Pekeliling lkhtisas Bil. 2/1976 - Potongan Rambut Murid-murid''. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  26. ^ "Students get a trimming from their peers", The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 12 August 1998.
  27. ^ Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 2003. Surat Pekeliling Iktisas Bil:7/2003 - Kuasa Guru Merotan Murid. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  28. ^ Elaine Webster, "New Zealand School Uniforms in the Era of Democracy: 1965 to 1975" in Costume, Volume 42, Number 1, 2008 , pp. 169-183 (15).
  29. ^ Pictured at The History of School Uniforms.
  30. ^ See e.g. Uniform rules at Logan Park High School.
  31. ^ Dunbar, Jane (24 November 2011). "Are school uniforms too short?". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  32. ^ http://www.motherlandnigeria.com/education.html
  33. ^ http://www.vanguardngr.com/2011/03/ejigbo-lcda-distributes-7-200-school-uniforms-to-pupils/
  34. ^ http://www.deped.gov.ph/index.php/issuances/deped-orders/2008/document/dos200846pdf?limit=20&format=raw&start=20
  35. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/view/20080603-140499/DepEd-No-more-uniforms-for-public-school-students
  36. ^ Summary record of the 909th meeting, UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, September 2003, para 24.
  37. ^ See e.g. School rules, Canberra Secondary School.
  38. ^ "School Rules and Regulations". St. Margaret's Secondary School. 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2010. Students are not allowed to wear colored top undergarments. Only white and nude colors are allowed. 
  39. ^ "Discipline matters". Fairfield Methodist Secondary School. 21 June 2006. 
  40. ^ "My Shorts Will Go On", Stomp (Straits Times Interactive). Retrieved 22 August 2006.
  41. ^ "A parent's guide to schooling", SouthAfrica.info.
  42. ^ Picture of senior high school boys in blazers, short trousers and straw boaters.
  43. ^ Saksith Saiyasombut & Siam Voices (13 January 2013). "Thailand: What has hair got to do with children’s rights?". Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  44. ^ "หนึ่งลมหายใจ" (November 2007). เผด็จการเนียน ๆ ในโรงเรียน (in Thai). Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  45. ^ "Obligatory School Uniforms Abolished amid Criticisms". Hürriyet Daily News. 28 November 2012.
  46. ^ a b c d "The History of School Uniforms". Historical Boys Clothing. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  47. ^ "Bluecoat Schools". Boys School Uniform. Archived from the original on 8 July 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  48. ^ I"Victorian Girl's School Uniform". Object lessons. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  49. ^ "School uniform", CBBC Newsround, retrieved on 28 August 2008.
  50. ^ "Authority Strategic Statement of Inverclyde Education Service". Gourock High School. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  51. ^ "Problems at School". Adviceguide. Citizen Advice. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  52. ^ Guidance to Governing Bodies on Uniform and Appearance Policies. Welsh Government. 25 February 2008.
  53. ^ "Ruane welcomes new uniforms for the new school term" (Press release). Northern Ireland Executive. 15 September 2009. 
  54. ^ http://www.educationbug.org/a/public-school-uniform-statistics.html
  55. ^ http://nces.ed.gov/programs/crimeindicators/crimeindicators2011/tables/table_20_1.asp
  56. ^ "Dress for Success: Public School Uniforms". The New York Times. 25 September 1997. 
  57. ^ a b c http://www.naesp.com/articles/American_school_uniforms.asp
  58. ^ Public School Uniform Statistics. Retrieved on 21 December 2011.
  59. ^ NCST Fast Facts - School Uniforms. Retrieved on 21 December 2011.
  60. ^ Viren, Sarah. "Demographics may dictate uniformity." Houston Chronicle. 3 September 2007. A1. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  61. ^ Alleyne et al 418
  62. ^ Alleyne et al 418-419
  63. ^ Alleyne et al 419
  64. ^ "VOLANTE SUPLETORIO REGLAMENTO GENERAL DE ESTUDIANTES DEL SISTEMA DE EDUCACIÓN PÚBLICA DE PUERTO RICO QUE DEROGA EL REGLAMENTO NÚMERO 5364 DE 17 DE ENERO DE 1996," Puerto Rico Department of Education
  65. ^ http://www.virtualcampuses.eu/index.php/Venezuela
  66. ^ http://www.ediplomat.com/np/post_reports/pr_ve.htm

Bibliography[edit]

  • Alleyne, Sylvan I., Velma LaPoint, Jennifer Lee and Harold W. Mitchell. "Black Educators' Views on Middle School Students' Dress and Uniforms: Addressing Challenges from Commercialism." The Journal of Negro Education. Vol. 72, No. 4, Commercialism in the Lives of Children and Youth of Color: Education and Other Socialization Contexts (Autumn, 2003), pp. 418–426. Available at JSTOR, Available at Questia, Available at EBSCOHost.

"Fast Facts." U.S. Department of Education. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. < http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=50> Flam, Lisa. Today.com. 19 Aug. 2013. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. < http://www.today.com/parents/are-school-uniforms-helping-or-hindering- 6C10945768>