Schutzmannschaft

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Schutzmannschaft
Bundesarchiv Bild 121-1500, Ukraine, Ordnungspolizei, Rayonposten Sarig.jpg
Ordnungspolizei officer visiting the Schutzmannschaft unit in Zarig (ukr, per sign) near Kiev, December 1942
Active Founded in July 1941 by Heinrich Himmler
Country German-occupied Europe
Allegiance Nazi Germany, the SS
Type Paramilitary volunteer police brigades

Schutzmannschaft (plural Schutzmannschaften, abbr. Schuma)[1] initially called Hilfspolizei (abbr. Hipo) under the German military administration,[1] were the collaborationist auxiliary police battalions of native policemen in countries occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II. Created to augment the Nazi occupational forces in combating local resistance, many of them participated in massacres conducted by the German Ordnungspolizei battalions in Eastern Europe. The original term Hilfspolizei (objected to by some Nazi authorities due to similarity with the native German police) refers also to auxiliary police units such as HIPO Corps in occupied Denmark, Waffen-SS divisions, Selbstschutz, etc.[2][3]

The term Hilfspolizei is mostly historical; it has been also applied to native German units created in 1933 by the early Nazi government (mostly from members of SA and SS) and disbanded the same year due to international protests.[2][4][5][6][7]

Within the territories seized from the Soviet Union, the Germans utilised local police auxiliaries much more freely. These volunteers were called Hilfswilligen ("those willing to help"),[8] often abbreviated to "Hiwis". As the so-called Protective Detachments (Schutzmannschaft); they usually augmented the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei, Orpo) and Einsatzgruppen in their operations, with organizational pragmatics. Eventually, their members were numbered in the tens of thousands.[7]

The Schutzmannschaft battalions were organized by nationality at each location: Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Tatars,[8] and Poles (failed attempt), with two volunteers and forcible draft of 360 professional policemen in Kraków,[9] most of whom deserted to join the AK against the massacres of Poles in Volhynia; every single one in another instance.[10] Each battalion had an authorized strength of about 500. Everywhere, local police far outnumbered the equivalent German personnel. For example, in the Brześć Litewski area, there were 26 German gendarmerie as opposed to 308 Belorussians. In the district of Baranowicze, there were 73 German gendarmerie and 816 native auxiliaries. By 1 July 1942, eighteen-and-a-half Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft battalions had been formed, with a further three battalions set up in Belarus mainly staffed by Ukrainians. Local police units were deployed in occupied territories for anti-partisan operations and during the Holocaust.[8]

Subsequently, as German casualties on the Eastern front mounted, many Schutzmannschaft battalions in Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine and elsewhere were joined in SS raised military divisions wearing national insignia.

Participation in the Holocaust[edit]

Following Operation Barbarossa, between September 1941 and July 1944,[11] the SS began the process of recruiting collaborationist auxiliary police from among Soviet nationals in regions conquered by the Wehrmacht.[12] The relevant orders concerning Ukrainians, Balts, and Belarusians were issued on July 25, 1941 by Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler.[1] Some of the new volunteer battalions were trained as "Trawniki men" (German: Trawnikimänner) for deployment in all major killing sites of Operation Reinhard on Polish territories (most deadly phase of "the Final Solution") – it was their primary purpose of training. Trawnikis took an active role in the executions of Jews at Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka II, Warsaw (three times, see Stroop Report), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lwów, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek as well as at Auschwitz, not to mention Trawniki itself,[11] and the remaining subcamps of KL Lublin/Majdanek including Poniatowa, Budzyn, Kraśnik, Puławy, Lipowa, but also during massacres in Łomazy, Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations, augmented by the SS and the Ordnungspolizei Reserve Police Battalion 101 (alone, responsible for the annihilation of at least 83,000 Jews).[8][13]

Schutzmannschaften became an indispensable component of the mass execution of Jews in Nazi occupied Soviet Union. In places such as Zhitomir, Korosten, Kherson, Kakhovka, Uman and many others throughout Ukraine, local militia formed part of the killing squads. The militia were paid by the German authorities, often with funds confiscated from the Jews. Ukrainians were frequently used in the shooting of the families of Jewish men,[3] so that in Radomyshl (Radomyśl) for example, Einsatzkommando IVa could restrict itself to the killing of adult men and women. The Einsatzgruppen Operational Report USSR No.88 of September 6, 1941 records that, 1,107 Jewish adults were shot in Radomyshl while the Ukrainian militia unit assisted by liquidating 561 Jewish children and youths.[14] By December 29, 1942, a year-and-a-half after the outbreak of war with the USSR the number of Jews executed on Soviet territories with the help of Schutzmannschaften amounted to 363,211 dead (Meldung # 51 to Hitler), with 285 Schutzmänner registered as “killed in action”.[15]

SS-Gruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski established a special department in charge of foreign Schutzmannschaften that dealt with recruitment and deployment of units for security tasks, guard duties, and labour commando management. Although numerically fewer, Belarusian Auxiliary Police were used just as intensively as were the Ukrainians, even if, as Einsatzgruppe B noted, the general Belarusian population was "incapable" of acting on its own against the Jews.[15]

Organization in Occupied Europe[edit]

Each battalion had a German command, and a projected number of four companies of 124 men each, one with a group of machine gun and three groups of infantry. In reality, the numbers varied greatly between occupied territories.

  1. Belarusian Schutzmannschaft [16]
  2. Danish Hilfspolizei [17]
  3. Estonian Schutzmannschaft [18]
  4. Latvian Schutzmannschaft (including Arajs Kommando)[19]
  5. Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft [20]
  6. Polish Schutzmannschaft [21]
  7. Russian Schutzmannschaft (later 30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Russian))[22]
  8. Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft [23]

Schuma uniforms had a Escutcheon of nationality on the right sleeve.[24][25][26] Some Schutzmannschaften were armed with Soviet rifle Mosin-Nagant 91/30, but also with Mauser Mk 98k rifles and MP38 and MP41 submachine guns.

Ranks[edit]

Schutzmannschaft
der Ordnungspolizei
Schutzmannschaft
der Sicherheitspolizei
Equivalent rank
Schutzmann Waffen-Bewerber Schütze
Unterkorporal Waffen-Sturmmann Gefreiter
Vizekorporal Waffen-Unterscharführer Unteroffizier
Korporal Waffen-Scharführer Unterfeldwebel
Vizefeldwebel Waffen-Oberscharführer Feldwebel
Kompaniefeldwebel Waffen-Hauptscharführer Oberfeldwebel
Zugführer Waffen-Untersturmführer Leutnant
Oberzugführer Waffen-Obersturmführer Oberleutnant
Kompanieführer Waffen-Hauptsturmführer Hauptmann
Bataillonsführer Waffen-Sturmbannführer Major

Source: Deuster, 2009.[27]

Reichskommissariat Ostland (Baltic Land)[edit]

The OKW's Guidelines for Special Fields (Directive No 21, Case Barbarossa) issued on March 13, 1941 in Berlin, divided the new territories following the commencement of war with the USSR, into North (Baltic), Centre (Belarus), and South (Ukraine).[28]

Generalbezirk Estland[edit]

Source: Wendel, 2013.[29]

Original German name Local name In operation
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 29 29. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 29 29. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 29 29. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 30 30. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 30 30. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 31 31. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 31 31. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 32 32. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 32 32. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 33 33. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 33 33. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 33 33. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 34 34. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon nr. 34 34. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Estnische Polizei Front Bataillon 34 34. Eesti Politsei Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 35 35. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Erzats Bataillon nr. 35 35. Kaitse Tagavarapataljon
Polizei Erzats Bataillon 35 35. Politsei Tagavarapataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon nr. 36 36. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 37 37. Kaitse Vahipataljon Dorpat
Estnische Polizei Bataillon 37 37. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 38 38. Kaitse Vahipataljon Fellin
Estnische Polizei Bataillon 38 38. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 39 39. Kaitse Vahipataljon Oberpahlen
Estnische Schutzmannschaft Bataillon nr. 40 40. Kaitse Vahipataljon Pleskau
Estnische Polizei Bataillon 40 40. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Bataillon nr. 41 41. Kaitse Tagavarapataljon
Schutzmannschaft Pionier Bataillon 42 42. Kaitse Pioneeripataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 286 286. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 286 286. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 287 287. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Wacht Bataillon 287 287. Politsei Vahipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 288 288. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 288 288. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 289 289. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 289 289. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 290 290. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Blau Pionier Bataillon 290 290. Politsei Pioneeripataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 291 291. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 291 291. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 292 292. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 292 292. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 293 293. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 293 293. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 521 521. Eesti Politseipataljon
Polizei Front-Bataillon Ostland Politsei SS-pataljon Ostland

Generalbezirk Lettland[edit]

Source: Wendel, 2013.[29]

Original German name In operation
Polizei z. b. V. Bataillon 1 Meiers ? – October 1944
Polizei z. b. V. Bataillon 2 ? – October 1944
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 16 Zemgale October 22, 1942 – February 8, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 16 March 21, 1942 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 17 Vidzeme December 21, 1941 – May 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 17 Rezekne March 18, 1942 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 18 Kurzeme January 13, 1942 – May 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 18 Ergli March 18, 1942 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 19 Latgale December 16, 1941 – January 30, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 19 March 18 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Wacht Bataillon 20 Riga April 1942 – January 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 20 Abrene May 9/18, 1942 –
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 21 Liepaja February 25, 1942 – January 30, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 22 Daugava February 25, 1942 – February 7, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 23 Gauja February 25, 1942 – May 8, 1945
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 24 Talsi March 1, 1942 – April 18, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 24 Venta June 1942 – 1942
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 25 Abava March 6, 1942 – February 7, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 25 June 1942 – July 1942
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 26 Tukums March 6, 1942 – April 23, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 27 Burtnieki March 14, 1942 – April 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 28 Barta March 9, 1942 – July 13, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 266 May 18, 1942 – November 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 267 Rezekne May 18, 1942 – June 1, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 268 Ergli May 18, 1942 – February 3, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Wacht Bataillon 269 May 18, 1942 – June 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 270 May 18, 1942 – February 18, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 271 Valmiera January 15, 1943 – October 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 272 Daugavgriva July 1, 1942 – April 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 273 Ludza July 1, 1942 – July 15, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 274 October 1, 1942 – September 30, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 275 October 16, 1942 – June 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 276 Kuldiga December 17, 1942 – August 11, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 277 Sigulda December 17, 1942 – August 11, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 278 Dobele December 17, 1942 – August 11, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 279 Cesu January 4, 1943 – July 15, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 280 Bolderaja January 23 – April 9, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 281 Abrene January 23, – April 9, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 282 Venta 1942 – July 15, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Bataillon 283 July 1942 – December 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 311 Valmiera May 12, 1943 – July 2, 1943
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 312 May 15, 1943 – August 11, 1943
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 313 August 2, 1943 – February 7, 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 314 May 1944 – July 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 315 January 1944 – April 1945
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 316 August 2, 1943 – February 7, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 317 October 18, 1943 – February 14, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 318 October 25, 1943 – February 14, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 319 October 25, 1943 – May 8, 1945
Lettische Polizei Wacht Bataillon 320 December 21, 1943 – September 20, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 321 December 22, 1943 – February 14, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 322 July 23, 1944 – May 8, 1945
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 325 March 1944 – December 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 326 March 1944 – May 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 327 March 1944 – April 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 328 March 1944 – July 1944
Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 1 Riga August 1, 1943 – November 19, 1944
Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 2 Liepaja February 1944 – October 26, 1944
Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 3 Cesis February 1944 – August 1944

Generalbezirk Litauen[edit]

Source: Wendel, 2013,[29] and Chuev, 2004.[30]

  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 1
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 15
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 22
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 114
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 116
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 117
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 122
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 123
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 130
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 250
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 251
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 257
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 263
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 265
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 268
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 301
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 310

Generalbezirk Weißruthenien[edit]

General Government (occupied Poland)[edit]

Main article: General Government

Reichskommissariat Ukraine[edit]

Source: Wendel, 2013.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Christoph Schiessl, Wayne State University (2009). The Search for Nazi Collaborators.... ProQuest. ISBN 1109090072. "Selected sources: Breitman 2007, Hilberg, Westermann 2005 (Notes 52, 53)." 
  2. ^ a b Christopher J. Ailsby (1998). Ss: Hell on the Eastern Front : The Waffen-Ss War in Russia 1941-1945 (Google Books). Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0760305382. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  3. ^ a b Ray Brandon, Wendy Lower (May 28, 2008). "Ukrainian Society, Soviet Officialdom, and the West". The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0253001595. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  4. ^ Gordon Williamson (September 2006). "World War II German Police Units". Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781846030680. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  5. ^ David Littlejohn (1990-03-22). The SA 1921-45: Hitler's Stormtroopers (Google Books). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0850459443. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  6. ^ Richard Wires. Terminology of the Third Reich (Google Books). Ball State University. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  7. ^ a b Spector, Robert Melvin (2005). World without civilization: mass murder and the Holocaust. University Press of America. p. 678. 
  8. ^ a b c d Browning, Christopher R. (1992; 1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 52, 77, 79, 80. Retrieved May 1, 2013. "Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite." 
  9. ^ Andrzej Solak (17-24.05.2005). "Zbrodnia w Malinie – prawda i mity (1)" (Internet Archive). Nr 29-30. Myśl Polska: Kresy. Retrieved 2013-06-23. "Reprint: Zbrodnia w Malinie (cz.1) Głos Kresowian, nr 20." 
  10. ^ Jan Niewiński (2005). Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie: "Głos Kresowian" (Google Books search). Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego. p. 491. ISBN 8360093105. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  11. ^ a b Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Trawniki" (permission granted to be reused, in whole or in part, on Wikipedia; OTRS ticket no. 2007071910012533). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved July 21, 2011. "Text from USHMM has been released under the GFDL." 
  12. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (2006). "Ukrainian Collaboration". Poland's Holocaust. McFarland. p. 217. ISBN 0786429135. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  13. ^ ARC (2004). "Erntefest". Occupation of the East. ARC. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  14. ^ ARC (6 May 2005). "Volunteer Auxiliaries". Aktion Reinhard Overview. Aktion Reinhard Camps ARC. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  15. ^ a b c Anders Rudling (2013). "Schooling in Murder: Schutzmannschaft Battalion 201". Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Greifswald (Germany). Retrieved 2013-06-24. "Where the partisan is, there also is the Jew, and where the Jew is, is the partisan. — von dem Bach-Zelewski" 
  16. ^ Belarusian Research Centre of Electronic Records at the Wayback Machine (archived July 6, 2011). [not in citation given]
  17. ^ Emmy E. Werner (2002). A Conspiracy of Decency: The Rescue of the Danish Jews During World War II (Google Books). Westview Press. ISBN 0813339065. Retrieved 2012-11-07.  [not in citation given]
  18. ^ "Estonian Auxiliary Police" (Google books). Germany's Eastern Front Allies (2): Baltic Forces. Osprey Publishing. May 22, 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  19. ^ Operational Situation Report USSR No. 24. at the Wayback Machine (archived November 22, 2010)
  20. ^ Lithuanian Hilfspolizei - My library (Google Books). Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  21. ^ Grzegorz Motyka (1998), "Polski policjant na Wołyniu", Vol. 24 (Karta: kwartalnik historyczny): 126–128 (3 pages).   [verification needed]
  22. ^ Hans Siegling at the Wayback Machine (archived July 17, 2011). Career highlights including his Schutzmannschaft Bataillon in Riga. The German police.com
  23. ^ Ukrainian Hilfspolizei - My library (Google Books). Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  24. ^ Schuma uniform
  25. ^ Krim-Tatarische Legion
  26. ^ Pilte Hando Ruus'ist ja pataljon "Narwa" võitlejat...
  27. ^ Dieter Deuster (2009), Deutsche Polizei-Uniformen 1936-1945 (Motorbuch Verlag), p. 419-420.
  28. ^ Alex J. Kay (2006). "Guidelines for Special Fields (13 March 1941)". Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political And Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941. Berghahn Books. pp. 70–71. ISBN 1845451864. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  29. ^ a b c d Marcus Wendel (7 July 2013). "Schutzmannschaft Bataillone" (Internet Archive). Axis History. Retrieved 6 July 2014. "Complete list including extensive collection of sources used." 
  30. ^ Сергей Чуев, От "партизанских отрядов" к шуцманшафту. Холокост по-литовски (From "guerrilla groups" to Shutsmanshaft. Holocaust in Lithuania).

External links[edit]