Schwarzheide

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Schwarzheide
Coat of arms of Schwarzheide
Coat of arms
Schwarzheide   is located in Germany
Schwarzheide
Schwarzheide
Coordinates: 51°28′59″N 13°52′00″E / 51.48306°N 13.86667°E / 51.48306; 13.86667Coordinates: 51°28′59″N 13°52′00″E / 51.48306°N 13.86667°E / 51.48306; 13.86667
Country Germany
State Brandenburg
District Oberspreewald-Lausitz
Government
 • Mayor Christoph Schmidt (Ind.)
Area
 • Total 33.23 km2 (12.83 sq mi)
Elevation 99 m (325 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 5,855
 • Density 180/km2 (460/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 01987
Dialling codes 035752
Vehicle registration OSL (to 1994 SFB)
Website www.schwarzheide.de

Schwarzheide is a town in the Oberspreewald-Lausitz district, in southern Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated on the river Schwarze Elster, 11 km southwest of Senftenberg, 110 km south of Berlin and 40 km north of Dresden. The little river Pössnitz runs through the eastern part of Schwarzheide.

Neighbouring communities[edit]

Immediate neighbors of the town are the towns Ruhland (south), Lauchhammer (west), Schipkau (north) and Senftenberg with the district Brieske (east).

Districts[edit]

Schwarzheide has the following districts [2]

  • Schwarzheide-West (former Zschornegosda)
  • Wandelhof
  • Schwarzheide-Mitte
  • Schwarzheide-Ost, consisting of Victoria and Naundorf


History[edit]

The town's landmark is the watertower. Today´s industrial town, Schwarzheide, was created on October 1, 1936, from the independent communities, Zschornegosda (today Schwarzheide-West) and Naundorf (now part of Schwarzheide-Ost). The name was translated from the Sorbian name, "Zschornegosda", (corny = black, gozd = heath, wood). The date of foundation of this community is unknown. Zschornegosda and Naundorf were founded in the 12th or the 13th century after the Christianization of the Sorbs.

The first written evidence of Naundorf (as Nuwendorff) came from a pledge deed from 1421. Zschornegosda was first written in 1449 (as Cschörnegast) in feudal deed of Duke Frederick II, Elector of Saxony. Naundorf is a typical street village. Zschornegosda is a rotunde called okolnica. The chapel was on the highest point of a sandy knoll.

The development of both villages was retarded by wars, fires, and epidemics. Until the 18th century, the villages had no more than 100 inhabitants.

In 1780, the discovery of lignite coal west of Zschornegosda in Bockwitz lead to mining and the foundation of briquette factories (Ferdinand, Victoria, Victoria II). The river, Schwarze Elster, was drained and converted to a canal, so it was no longer possible to live from fishing. Highway A13 was built in 1936.

World War II
In 1937, Brabag (German: Braunkohlen Benzin AG) completed the Brabag II facility in Ruhland-Schwarlheide (the 4th Nazi Germany Fischer-Tropsch plant) to produce gasoline and diesel fuel from lignite coal.[3] The plant was a target of the Oil Campaign of World War II, used Sachsenhausen concentration camp forced labor, and became a post-war Soviet Joint Stock Company. The factory became VEB Synthesewerk Schwarzheide on January 1, 1954.

When the village's population reached eight-thousand inhabitants, the village became a town on January 11, 1967.

After 1990, Synthesewerk Schwarzheide became a part of BASF AG, which manufactures polyurethane.

Political affinity[edit]

The river, Schwarze Elster, forms the border between lower and upper Lusatia. From 1635, both Zschornegosda and Naundorf were part of Saxony. In 1815 both villages came to Prussia because of the Congress of Vienna. Between 1818 and 1952, Zschornegosda and Naundorf were part of Kreis Calau. From 1952 to 1990, Schwarzheide was a part of Kreis Senftenberg in Bezirk Cottbus.

In 1990, town was annexed to Brandenburg, and, on December 6, 1993, to Oberspreewald-Lausitz.

Demography[edit]

Schwarzheide:
Population development within the current boundaries
[4]
Year Population
1875 983
1890 1 175
1910 2 145
1925 3 638
1933 4 095
1939 5 898
1946 7 449
1950 8 287
1964 8 169
1971 8 570
Year Population
1981 9 920
1985 9 262
1989 9 198
1990 8 936
1991 8 377
1992 8 286
1993 8 153
1994 7 995
1995 7 881
1996 7 699
Year Population
1997 7 540
1998 7 323
1999 7 298
2000 7 203
2001 7 107
2002 6 941
2003 6 793
2004 6 676
2005 6 555
2006 6 510
Year Population
2007 6 451
2008 6 344
2009 6 211
2010 6 053
2011 5 893
2012 5 855

Detailed data sources are to be found in the Wikimedia Commons.[5]

Parliament[edit]

The town parliament of Schwarzheide comprises the mayor and 18 members.

The turnout stood at 56,9 percent.

Partnerships[edit]

Culture and art[edit]

Die denkmalgeschützte Lutherkirche

Symbol is the 36 m high watertower built in 1943/44 by French prisoners of war.Lutherkirche from 1754 is also located in the center. The oldest nightclub in eastern Germany is Freizeitpark Wandelhof and there is also a cinema with four sals and 650 places.


Museums[edit]

  • Kulturhaus of BASF (Schipkauer Straße)
  • Museum of Schwarzheide (Dorfaue)

Historical monuments[edit]

  • Memorial for the victims of the concentration camp
  • Monument from 1965 on cemetery Schwarzheide-West for more than 23 unfree workers Brabagvictims

Buildings[edit]

  • Evangelical church (1953 first new church in the GDR, Otto-Nuschke-Straße)
  • Luther church (Schwarzheide)
  • Evangelical chapel (Parkstraße)
  • Catholic Holy Cross church (Otto-Nuschke-Straße)

Natur and recreation areas[edit]

Pine forests, lakes, meadows, and pastures surround Schwarzheide. The Lusatian Lake District and Spreewald are also near Schwarzheide.

Sports[edit]

Eurospeedway Lausitz is near.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transport[edit]

federal highway 13 Bundesautobahn 13 from Berlin to Dresden, in south B 169. There is a rail way point in Schwarzheide-Ost.

Street[edit]

A 13 (E 55): Berlin–Dresden (Anschlussstelle (16) Schwarzheide and Anschlussstelle (17) Ruhland)

Railway[edit]

RE 18: Falkenberg (Elster)–Bad Liebenwerda–Lauchhammer–Ruhland–Schwarzheide-Ost–Senftenberg–Drebkau–Cottbus

Companies[edit]

The largest employer is BASF Schwarzheide GmbH. Other companies include Fränkische Rohrwerke and PeinigerRöRo.

Media[edit]

  • Local broadcasting Schwarzheide & Ruhland (LSR)

Education[edit]

In Schwarzheide exist a secondary school (Schwarzheide-Wandelhof), a high school(Emil-Fischer), a division of Oberstufenzentrums Lausitz (OSZ) to train laboratory technicians and chemistss, and a music school.

Important persons[edit]

Honored[edit]

  • 2002: Hans-Herman Dehmel (CEO of BASF Schwarzheide from 1990 to 1995)
  • 2004: Sokratis Giapapas (chief of Fränkisch Rohrwerke in Schwarzheide)

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Bevölkerung im Land Brandenburg nach amtsfreien Gemeinden, Ämtern und Gemeinden 31. Dezember 2012 (XLS-Datei; 83 KB) (Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). 31 December 2012. 
  2. ^ Webseite der Stadt → Stadtentwicklungskonzept, S. 12
  3. ^ Strange, Anthony N (2003). "Germany’s Synthetic Fuel Industry 1927-45" (pdf). Fischer-Tropsch.org. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  4. ^ Boundaries as of 2013
  5. ^ Population Projection Brandenburg at Wikimedia Commons