Schwertmannite is an iron-oxyhydroxysulfate mineral with an ideal chemical formula of Fe8O8(OH)6(SO4)·nH2O or Fe3+16O16(OH,SO4)12-13·10-12H2O. It is an opaque tetragonal mineral typically occurring as brownish yellow encrustations. It has a Mohs hardness of 2.5 - 3.5 and a specific gravity of 3.77 - 3.99.
Schwertmannite (with a distinct "pin cushion" morphology) commonly forms in iron-rich, acid sulfate waters in the pH-range of 2 - 4. The mineral was first recognised officially as a new mineral from a natural acid-sulfate spring occurrence at Pyhäsalmi, Finland. However, it is more commonly reported as an orange precipitate in streams and lakes affected by acid mine drainage. Schwertmannite is also known to be central to iron-sulfur geochemistry in acid sulfate soils associated with coastal lowlands.
- http://www.mindat.org/min-7281.html Mindat
- http://webmineral.com/data/Schwertmannite.shtml Webmineral
- http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/schwertmannite.pdf Mineral Handbook
- Bigham, JM, Carlson, L, Murad, E (1994) Schwertmannite, a new iron oxyhydroxysulfate from Pyhasalmi, Finland, and other localities. Mineral Mag 58, 641-664
- Bigham, JM, Schwertmann, U, Carlson, L, Murad, E (1996) Schwertmannite and the chemical modeling of iron in acid sulfate waters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54, 2743-2758.
- Burton, ED, Bush, RT, Sullivan, LA (2007) Reductive transformation of iron and sulfur in schwertmannite-rich accumulations associated with acidified coastal lowlands. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 4456-4473
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