Sciatic nerve

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Sciatic Nerve
Gray1244.png
Left gluteal region, showing surface markings for arteries and sciatic nerve
Details
Latin Nervus ischiadicus
Innervates Lateral rotator group (except piriformis and quadratus femoris) and the posterior compartment of thigh
From
Lumbar and sacral plexus (L4-S3)
To
Tibial and common fibular nerve
Identifiers
Gray's p.960
Dorlands
/Elsevier
n_05/12566006
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The sciatic nerve (/sˈætɪk/; also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb. It is the longest and widest single nerve in the human body, going from the top of the leg to the foot on the posterior aspect.[1] The sciatic nerve supplies nearly the whole of the skin of the leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh, and those of the leg and foot. It is derived from spinal nerves L4 through S3. It contains fibres from both the anterior and posterior divisions of the lumbosacral plexus.

Structure[edit]

The sciatic nerve is formed from the L4 to S3 segments of the sacral plexus, a collection of nerve fibres that emerge from the sacral part of the spinal cord. The fibres unite to form a single nerve in front of the piriformis muscle. The nerve passes beneath the piriformis and through the greater sciatic foramen, exiting the pelvis.[2]:422-4 From here, it travels down the posterior thigh to the popliteal fossa. The nerve travels in the posterior compartment of the thigh behind the adductor magnus muscle, and is itself in front of the one head of the biceps femoris muscle. At some point between the pelvis and popliteal fossa, the nerve divides into its two branches:[2]:532

The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the human body.[2] :422-4

Tibial and common peroneal nerve

Development[edit]

Function[edit]

The sciatic nerve innervates the skin of the foot, as well as the entire lower leg (except for its medial side). The skin to the sole of the foot is provided by the tibial nerve, and the lower leg and upper surface of the foot via the common fibular nerve.[2]:422-4

The sciatic nerve also innervates muscles. In particular:[2] :422-4

Clinical significance[edit]

Sciatica[edit]

Main article: Sciatica

Pain caused by a compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve by a problem in the lower back is called sciatica. Common causes of sciatica include the following lower back and hip conditions: spinal disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, lumbar spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and piriformis syndrome.[3] Other acute causes of sciatica include coughing, muscular hypertension, and sneezing.[4]

Injury[edit]

Sciatic nerve injury occurs between 0.5% and 2.0% of the time during total hip arthroplasty.[5] Sciatic nerve palsy is a complication of total hip arthroplasty with an incidence of 0.2% to 2.8% of the time, or with an incidence of 1.7% to 7.6% following revision.[6] Following the procedure, in rare cases, a screw, broken piece of trochanteric wire, fragment of methyl methacrylate bone cement, or Burch-Schneider metal cage can impinge on the nerve; this can cause sciatic nerve palsy which may resolve after the fragment is removed and the nerve freed. The nerve can be surrounded in oxidized regenerated cellulose to prevent further scarring. Sciatic nerve palsy can also result from severe spinal stenosis following the procedure, which can be addressed by spinal decompression surgery.[5][7]

Other disease[edit]

Bernese periacetabular osteotomy resulted in major nerve deficits in the sciatic or femoral nerves in 2.1% of 1760 patients, of whom approximately half experienced complete recovery within a mean of 5.5 months.[8]

Sciatic nerve exploration can be done by endoscopy in a minimally invasive procedure to assess lesions of the nerve.[9] Endoscopic treatment for sciatic nerve entrapment has been investigated in deep gluteal syndrome; "Patients were treated with sciatic nerve decompression by resection of fibrovascular scar bands, piriformis tendon release, obturator internus, or quadratus femoris or by hamstring tendon scarring."[10]

Society and culture[edit]

According to Jewish law, the sciatic nerve (Hebrew: Gid hanasheh) cannot be eaten, to commemorate Jacob's victory over an Angel.[11]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Namely the flexor hallicus longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior and popliteus of the deep part of the compartment, and the gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris of the superficial part of the compartment.
  2. ^ Namely the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus, and fibularis tertius (peroneus tertius) of the anterior compartment, and the Fibularis longus and brevis of the lateral compartment.

References[edit]

This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy.

  1. ^ "sciatic nerve (anatomy)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. 
  3. ^ "Sciatica - Topic Overview". WebMD. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "What is sciatica: What causes sciatica?". MedicalBug. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  5. ^ a b James B. Stiehl MD and William A. Stewart MD (1998). "Late Sciatic Nerve Entrapment Following Pelvic Plate Reconstruction in Total Hip Arthroplasty". The Journal of Arthroplasty 13 (5): 587–589. 
  6. ^ Alessandro Bistolfi et al. (2011). "Operative Management of Sciatic Nerve Palsy due to Impingement on the Metal Cage after Total Hip Revision: Case Report". Case Report Med. p. 830296. 
  7. ^ PMID 2290087 is cited by Stiehl and Stewart for the 0.5-2.0% figure.
  8. ^ PMID 22684336
  9. ^ PMID 15343436
  10. ^ PMID 21071168
  11. ^ Goldberger, Moshe. "1: Not to Eat the Gid HaNasheh". The First Prohibitions. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 

External links[edit]